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UCSC / Science / OCEA 90 / What is the source of energy for the climate system is heat from the s

What is the source of energy for the climate system is heat from the s

What is the source of energy for the climate system is heat from the s

Description

School: University of California - Santa Cruz
Department: Science
Course: Fundamentals of Climate
Professor: Andy moore
Term: Winter 2019
Tags: coriolis effect, hadleyCell, pressure gradient force, geostrophicBalance, heattransfer, and atmospheric pressure
Cost: 25
Name: OCEA-90-01 LECTURE NOTES WEEK 2
Description: These notes are on module 1 which cover heat transfer, atmospheric pressure, Coriolis force, Hadley cell, convection and conduction, pressure gradient force and geostrophic balance.
Uploaded: 01/31/2019
48 Pages 33 Views 1 Unlocks
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MODULE #1 If you want to learn more check out Name the different organs use for sense.

THE BASICS OF:

PROBABILITY, STATISTICS, CIRCULATION

CONCEPTS COVERED:

  • Heat transfer
  • Atmospheric Pressure
  • Coriolis force
  • 3 cell model of atmosphere
  • geostrophic balance

Heat transfer

  • The source of energy for the Climate system is heat from the sun

• The atmosphere and ocean are heated in 3 important ways:

  1. Electromagnetic radiation
  2. Convection
  3. Conduction

ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION: We also discuss several other topics like What are life’s most abundant atoms?

• Travels in the form of perpendicular oscillating electric and magnetic fields

- Electromagnetic Spectrum - We also discuss several other topics like Who has tall, weird hair, and very smart?

We also discuss several other topics like What determines the national income (ni)?

RADIATION AND TEMPERATURE:

• Temperature = measure of the mean kinetic energy of air molecules Don't forget about the age old question of What were the two meanings of empires?

• ALL moving objects emit and absorb radiation.

• The intensity and wavelength of the radiation emitted is a strong function of temperature Don't forget about the age old question of What is considered as the most important market?

BLACK BODY RADIATION :

• A "black body" emits and absorbs radiation equally well at all wavelengths

• The sun is a good example & the intensity of radiation emitted by a black body , E, is a strong function of temperature, T

STEPHAN-BOLTZMANN LAW

FOR A "BLACK BODY":

6 = 5.67× 10^-8 Wm^-2 K^-4.

Stefan-Boltzmann constant

HEATING OF THE ATMOSPHERE:

CONVECTION B CONDUCTION :

Convection = is the transfer of heat by mass movement of fluid.

Conduction = is the transfer of heat from molecule to molecule as a result of molecular collisions.

RADIATIVE EQUILIBRIUM:

Radiative equilibrium = net radiation absorbed =net radiation emitted.

RADIATIVE DISEQUILIBRIUM :

Radiative disequilibrium =

THE HADLEY CIRCULATION :

SOME BASIC PRINCIPLES:

Newtons and how F =ma (Force = mass x acceleration )

• Two important forces in the atmosphere and ocean are :

  • Pressure Gradient Force (PGF)
  • Coriolis Force (CF)

PRESSURE :

Pressure force = per unit area

  • Surface pressure is due to the force per unit exerted by the weight of air above.
  • Warm, light air exerts LESS pressure at Earth surface than cold heavy air.

PRESSURE GRADIENT FORCE (PGF):

CORIOLIS EFFECT :

  • We sans observe the atmosphere and ocean from the surface of a rotating earth
  • As a result objects and fluids moving relative to the earth's surface do not appear to move straight
  • Deviations from a straight path imply an acceleration and hence the action of a force. the Coriolis force.
  • The magnitude & direction of Coriolis depends on:
  1. Latitude of the object
  2. The speed of the object
  3. The hemisphere the object is in
  • in the Northern Hemisphere the CF deflects objects to the right of their initial motion
  • In the southern Hemisphere, the CF deflects Objects to the left of their initial motion

GEOSTROPHIC BALANCE:

Geostrophic balance in the Northern Hemisphere

Geostrophic balance in the Southern Hemisphere

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