EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
What is the definition of Psychology:
- “Science that studies the behavior and mind”
What are the goals of Psychology?
- To Explain, Predict, and Manage
When was Psychology established?
- In 1879, the first lab study for psychology was executed.
Who established Psychology?
- Wilhelm Wundt, Professor at the University of Leipzig, Germany
What is Structuralism?
- “Study of the structure of the mind by breaking it down into elementary parts”
What is Functionalism?
- “Interested in the purpose of consciousness, not its components”, “Individual differences and applied uses”
What are the fundamental beliefs of behaviorism?
- “A learner is essentially passive, responding to environmental stimuli” - “Theory of learning based on the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning.”
What is Skinner’s belief and approach to Behaviorism?
- Environment determines behavior, responses that leaf to positive outcomes re repeated, Responses that lead to negative outcomes are not repeated, claimed free will was an illusion
Explain Cognitive Science
- Mental processes involved in acquiring knowledge… so the return of cognition
Explain Biological Psychology.
- Behavior explained in terms of physiological processes
- “Viewing one’s own group as superior and as the standard for judging - The dictionary def = “evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one’s own culture”
We also discuss several other topics like How can i compute for the area of a parallelogram?
What are the major research areas?
- Social - interpersonal behavior and the role of social forces in governing behavior - Developmental - human development across the lifespan
- Educational - Studies how people learn and the best ways to teach them… examines curriculum design, teacher straining, testing, and other aspects of the educational process
- Health - Focuses on how psychological factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of physical health and the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness - Biological - Examines the influence of genetic factors on behavior and the role of the brain, nervous systems, endocrine system in the regulation of behavior
- Cognitive - mental processes such as memory, reasoning, language, problem solving, and decision making Don't forget about the age old question of What are the most common monosaccharides?
- Personality - describe and understand individuals consistency in behavior and factors that shape personality and personality assessment
What are the degree requirements and practice focus of a Clinical psychologist? - Doctoral Degree
- “Diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric disorders and treatment of less severe behavioral and emotional problems
What are the degree requirements and practice focus of a counseling psychologist? - Doctoral degree
- Help people manage ongoing life crises or situations. Often specialize in marital, family, or career counseling
What are the degree requirements and practice focus of a industrial-organizational psychologist?
- Master’s or Doctoral Degree
- Work in business and industry, including running human resource departments, working to improve staff morale and attitudes, striving to increase job satisfaction and productivity
What are the degree requirements and practice focus of a school psychologist? - Master’s + Specialist Degree
- Promote the cognitive, emotional, and social development of children in schools. Test and counsel children having difficulties in school and ais parents and teachers in solving school-related problems.
What are the 3 goals of research?
What is the assumption underlying scientific approach?
What is the definition of theory?
- It organizes and explains a phenomenon We also discuss several other topics like What is the geometry of organic molecules?
What is the definition of Hypothesis?
- Specific, testable prediction used to support or reject a theory Don't forget about the age old question of What is the kingdom plantae?
Explain Independent variable
- Does not depend on that of another
Explain dependent variable We also discuss several other topics like Are heteresoxuals attracted to female breasts?
- You expect it to change
Explain extraneous variable and confounding variables
- A confounding variable is a variable that in an experiment could influence a study’s research
Define experimental and control group
- Experimental = given the independent variable
- Control = not given the independent variable
- Scientific study or procedure done to make a discovery, test a hypothesis, or demonstrate a known fact.
When are descriptive/correlational methods used?
- Descriptive = survey, and correlational = case study
Describe naturalistic observation
- Recording behavior in natural setting
- Used in experimental observation and manipulates variables to find cause and effect If you want to learn more check out What are the challenging issues of sanitation?
Describe case studies
- Observe individuals or groups in depth. Pros = rich data, cons = not generalizable
- Wording effects, know your population, representative random sample
What does a positive and negative correlation mean?
- Positive = A increases, B increases, and Negative = A increases and B decreases
What is the third variable problem?
- Leads to mistaken causal relationship between two others
What is the directionality problem?
- Two variables, X and Y, can be statistically related because X causes Y or because Y causes X.
Define sampling bias
- When ur sample that you are studying does not reflect the population you’re interested in
Define the concept of a representative sample
- “ a small quantity of something that accurately reflects the larger entity
Define placebo effects
- Fake treatment; the effect of a treatment that occurs because of the patients expectations and not the treatment
Define social desirability bias
- The tendency to respond to a survey in a way that will be favorable in other’s eyes
Define response set
- When you’re saying no no no then one where it should be yes you put no just because that is what you have been responding with
Define double-blind designs
- Both experimenter and participant don’t know what group they are in
- No one study is ever enough,
What does nature and nurture refer to?
- Nature refers to genetic makeup, and nurture refers to environment
Explain Family Studies.
- Figuring out if the trait runs in the family
Explain twin studies
- fraternal/dizygotic = derived from 2 different ova
- identical/monozygotic = derived from a single ovum
Explain afferent neurons
- Pathways that carry sensory information from the body to the central nervous system.
Explain efferent neurons
- Conducting cells that carry info from the central nervous system to muscles and organs throughout the brain.
Explain sensory neurons
- Send information from sense organs to brain. Senses come from outside and need to go to brain.
Explain Motor Neurons
- Take instructions from brain to muscles and glands. Brain tells muscles to move
Explain Glial cells
- Surround neurons and provide support for and insulation between them. BE ABLE TO LABEL THE STRUCTURES OF A NEURON
List the steps in an Action Potential review:
- 1. Dendrites (postsynaptic neuron) receive signal from synapse. Signal is a postsynaptic potential. These can be positive (makes neuron more likely to have an AP) or negative (inhibits an AP)
- 2. If signal reaches THRESHOLD, depolarization occurs, sodium gates open and Na+ rushes into cell, making the neuron more positive inside. This change in potential is the AP. Signal sent down the axon.
- 3. Arrival of AP at terminal buttons causes synaptic vesicles in terminal buttons (presynaptic cell) to fuse with membrane and release neurotransmitter (NT) into synapse.
- 4. NT binds with membrane of dendrites of postsynaptic cell, causing a postsynaptic potential (positive or negative as in step 1). NT is then broken down in the synapse by enzymes or reuptake occurs (taken back up into the neuron and reused)