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FSU - ANT - Class Notes - Week 4

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FSU - ANT - Class Notes - Week 4

School: Florida State University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Anthropology
Professor: Elizabeth Peters
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: FSU, floridastateuniversity, Anthropology, WEEK4, Genetics, evolution, DNA, genes, and traits
Name: FSU Anthropology Notes Week 4
Description: Going into the genetics side of the theory of evolution
Uploaded: 01/31/2019
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background image Anthropology Week 4 Post-Darwin o Evolution: ancestors and descendants in a long lineage
o Genetics: studies how traits are passed from parents to offspring 
over a single generation (or a few generations) o Mendel came up with the idea of discrete inheritance Focused on each trait and began to mix in order to 
understand
Concepts derived from his work Gene: discrete, stable unit of inheritance Allele: there can be more than one form of a gene Pairing: organisms carry two alleles “for each trait” o Gametes: (egg, sperm) carry just one allele Dominant Allele vs. Recessive Allele: an allele is not 
always expressed yet continues to exist
Phenotype vs. Genotype: visible in the organism vs. 
present but not observable
Homozygous vs. Heterozygous: alleles of the same 
gene are identical vs. alleles of the same gene are 
different
Mendel’s “Laws” Law of Segregation: paired hereditary units 
segregate during production of gametes
       Law of Independent Assortment: how different genes  independently separate from one another when 
reproductive cells develop
 Presume that the unit of inheritance is discrete and 
stable
o  Walter Sutton    Studied spermatogenesis in a Kansas grasshopper    Discovered a process called meiosis  Produces sex cells by reducing their chromosome 
number by half
o  Creates genetic variation  o  Cell theory    Chromosomes are threadlike structures    Every organism has a species-typical number of 
chromosomes 
   Karyotype A visual image of all the chromosomes in a cell of 
that organism
Chromosomes arranged as homogenous pairs 
background image Homologous chromosomes carry alleles each 
corresponding to a different trait
By the time you see DNA each are double-stranded  As the chromosome pairs separate, so does anything 
“riding on” these chromosomes
o Molecule 1953 model by Watson and Crick 1962, won a Noble Prize (Watson, Crick, and Wilkins) Discovered chromosomes are made up of a protein and a 
DNA molecule
Double helix model o Twisted around “ladder” of bases and sugars DNA is an unusual molecule… It can replicate and continuously produce new 
molecules
The code for producing all of the proteins of an 
organism can be found in the DNA of that organism
o Proteins Proteins can be structural or functional  DNA affects proteins, but proteins cannot
affect DNA
Central Dogma o Genes Organism: (Mendel) Invisible particles “hereditary factors” control the 
expression of traits
Each is discrete and stable as it is passed from 
parent to offspring
Cell: (Sutton) Portion of a chromosome that codes for a protein Molecule: (Watson and Crick) Sequence of nucleotides that code for a protein Evolution by means of natural selection o Sources of variation explained by genetics New combinations genes in offspring Independent assortment Crossing over during meiosis…exchanges genetic 
material as homologous chromosomes line up during 
meiosis
Took into consideration dominant and recessive gene
traits
o Mutation (changes in DNA) introduced new genetic material Increases variation in a population

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School: Florida State University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Anthropology
Professor: Elizabeth Peters
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: FSU, floridastateuniversity, Anthropology, WEEK4, Genetics, evolution, DNA, genes, and traits
Name: FSU Anthropology Notes Week 4
Description: Going into the genetics side of the theory of evolution
Uploaded: 01/31/2019
4 Pages 38 Views 30 Unlocks
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