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UNT / Hospitality / HMGT 1470 / Nobilities were what kind of people?

Nobilities were what kind of people?

Nobilities were what kind of people?


School: University of North Texas
Department: Hospitality
Course: Prof Food Prep
Professor: Jodi duryea
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: 1470HMGT and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: 1470 Food Prep Study Guide
Description: This is a study guide I came up with for the course 1470 Food Prep
Uploaded: 01/31/2019
9 Pages 69 Views 2 Unlocks

Reanna Boydstun (Rating: )

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

Nobilities were what kind of people?

What you should know:  

Chapter One  

In the Beginnings:  

• Nobilities were what kind of people and how were they treated?  - Nobility had wealth, land, and material possessions, and many had large kitchens  with chefs and cooks who ran them  

- the vast majority didn’t have money and very little food  

- kitchens were different from today  

- large, open fireplaces that burned coal and wood, they were very dangerous  • What is a Commis?  

- apprentices under the Chefs who did most of the chopping and preparing  • Define Code of Hospitality.  

- travelers could stop at a nobleman’s abode to rest and be fed  

How were the novelties treated?

- Kings would sometime use this to punish a noble family  


• What was the significance of the City Hotel and Delmonico?  

- City Hotel, the first specifically designed hotel in the U.S. opened in New York  City in 1794  

- Delmonico was a bakery that became the first restaurant chain to open in the U.S.  with patrons like Abraham Lincoln and Mark Twain  

• Who was Catherine de Medici?  

- King Henry II of France’s Florentine wife  

- she introduced Italian customs to the French table  

- her court brought forks to France  

- her entourage of servants included Italian Chefs  

What is a commis?

• What is a Guild?  

- organizations that created goods and supported craftsmen and merchants  - families would arrange for their children to become apprentices under the masters  of a guild to give them a better life  If you want to learn more check out How do scientists interpret the word “crazy”?

- had complete control over their product  

• The French Revolution in 1789 changed the restaurant business forever, how?  - the bourgeoise had disposable income and were willing to spend it  - chefs, cooks, butlers started their own restaurants and hotels to accommodate the  new middle class

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

Historic Figures:

• Chef Marie-Antoine Careme:  

- Careme taught himself to read, wrote the first cook book with actual instructions  - his dishes were beautiful creations that resembled the Neoclassical and Georgian  styles of the time, his cuisine was called Grand Cuisine  

- Careme wanted Chefs to be recognized as professionals  

- he created a chefs uniform to raise chefs from servants to skilled craftsmen and to  ensure safety  

- the Chef Toque keeps the head cool and prevents sweat from getting in the food  - the double breasted jacket protects the torso from burns and spills  • George-August Escoffier:  

- Escoffier is considered the father of twentieth century cuisine  - he simplified sauces and preparations, and created Classic Cuisine  - he wrote Le Guide Culinaire, which categorized all known dishes at the time and  gave their basic components  Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of burden of proof?

- Escoffier changed dining to course that followed each other in a distinct way  • Eugenie Brazier:  

- known as La Mere Brazier  

- she was the first woman to earn 3 Michelin stars, and the first chef ever to have two  restaurants at the same time both with 3 Michelin stars and her restaurant in Lyon  helped turned the city into a gastronomical capital  

- Fernand Point, Paul Bocuse and many other chefs apprenticed with her  • Fernand Point:  

- Point opened La Pyramide, near Lyon, France in 1921  

- desired to make food lighter to highlight the flavor of the nest ingredients available  - brought the dishes back into the kitchen and plated them beautifully  - created what is now known as Nouvelle cuisine  If you want to learn more check out What is urbanization in asia?

- he fostered a number of famous chefs  

- Paul Bise, Jeana and Pierre Troisgros, Alain Chapel  

• Paul Bocuse:  

- closely associated with Nouvelle Cuisine 

- Nouvelle Cuisine had much smaller plates than Escoffier’s twelve course meals, and  had light garnishes and reductions, food was plated intricately in the kitchen rather  than table side  

• Alice Water:  

- created Chez Panisse in Berkley, CA in 1971  

- worked with local farmers and began the farm to table concept  - has been instrumental in changing the food served in public schools by bringing  farmers and school cafeterias together

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

Chapter One Other Important Information:  

• The Kitchen Brigade is a system with 12 different stations, what are those twelve  stations?  

- executive chef  

- chef de cuisine  

- sous chef  We also discuss several other topics like Why are spontaneous reactions rare?

- saucier  

- poissonnier  

- rotisserie  

- grillardin  

- fritterer  

- entremetier  

- tournant  

- garde manger  Don't forget about the age old question of In what ways did unfree and free immigration alter north america between 1730 and the 1760s?

- aboyer  

- patissier  

- confiseur  

- boulanger  

- glacier  

• Who started the Slow Food movement and what is its significance?  - the Slow Food movement was started by Carlo Petrini in Italy in response to the rise  of fast food and mass agriculture  We also discuss several other topics like What is a charophyte?

- processed food is the root of many health concerns  

- purchasing local and organic supports local farmers, and can be healthier and tastier  

Chapter Two  

Sanitation & Safety:  

• What is clean and sanitary?  

- clean is removing visible dirt  

- sanitary is killing possible pathogens  

• There are five forms of possible hazards, what are they?  

- bacteria  

- viruses  

- fungi  

- parasites  

- physical contaminates

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

• Define Pathogens:  

- bacteria that can cause illness and death  

- they leave no detectable signs 

- pathogens cause illness in three ways  

- intoxication: clostridium botulinum  

- food borne infections: salmonella  

- toxin mediated infections: e.coli  

• What is the Temperature Danger Zone?  

- bacteria can exist between 40 degrees and 135 degrees (F)  

- limit the amount of time food spends in this range  

- keep cold food cold and hot food hot  

• What is beneficial from fungi and mold?  

- can be beneficial: cheese and yeast  

- can cause food spoilage and waste  

- can cause allergic reactions that can result in illness or death  

- aflatoxins are a cancer causing mold that can infect certain crops  

• How does one ensure their personal hygiene?  

- to ensure hygiene in the kitchen:  

- bathe every day, wash and restrain hair  

- wash your hands before, during, and after work  

- keep fingernails short  

- keep jewelry to a minimum, wear clean uniforms  

- clean as you go  

- wash and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment, and work tables  - etc.  

• What does HACCP stand for?  

- hazardous analysis of critical control points  

Chapter Three  

Kitchen Management:  

• What is the primary marketing tool for any food establishment?  

- the menu is the primary marketing tool for any food establishment  - the menu dictates how the kitchen is set up, what equipment and storage is needed,  and the look of the restaurant  

- menus can be static or rotational, but can also be a mix

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

• Menus are priced three different ways:  

- a la carte: different prices  

- table d’hôte: set menu, set price  

- prix fix: set price, choices for each course  

• What is the most accurate form of measurement?  

- Measurement is key for consistency  

- the most accurate form of measurement is weight  

- there are four items that are equal weight and volume: water, milk, eggs, &  butter  

• What are the three scales used in the kitchen?  

- portion scale: sensitive and should not be picked up by the top platforms  - electronic scale: need batteries and are sensitive to moisture and grease, but are  easy to tare and use  

- balance scale or traditional kitchen scale: have been used forever and are sturdy  enough to hold up in most busy kitchens  

• Memorize these Measurements:  

- 4 quarts = 1 gallon  

- 4 cups = 1 quart = 32 ounces  

- 1 pound = 16 ounces  

- 1/2 fluid ounce = 1 tablespoon  

- 3 teaspoons = 1 tablespoon  

- 1 ounce = 28.35 grams  

- 1 kilo = 2.2 pounds  

- 1 pound = 454 grams  

- 1 fluid ounce = 28.35 milliliters  

- 1 liter = 33.8 ounces  

- 1 quart = .95 liters  

- 32 degree F = 0 degree C is the freezing point of water  

- 212 degree F = 100 degree C which is the boiling point of water  

• Know these terms and abbreviations:  

- Lbs. = pounds  

- Tbsp. = Tablespoon = T  

- tsp. = teaspoon = t  

- TT = To Taste  

- @ = each  

- a dash or pinch is exactly that: just a dash or a pinch in something

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

• Recipe Conversion:  

- the formula for converting recipes is:  

- new yield / old yield = the conversion factor  

- multiply each ingredient by the conversion factor to get your new yield  - keep in mind the new and old yield have to be in the same unit  - round to the second decimal  

• Recipe Costing:  

- the first thing to know when pricing a menu item is how much it costs to put the food  on the plate  

- if we know cost and selling price, we can find the food cost % using:  - cost / selling price x price = food cost percentage  

- if we have the cost of the item and our desired food cost %, we can find the menu  price using:  

- cost / food cost % = menu / selling price 

- if we have our menu price and know the cost %, we can find the cost of the item  using:  

- menu price x food cost % = cost of item 

• What is the difference between Edible Portion and As Purchased?  - EP = edible portion  

- refers to the cost of an item after the waste and usable trim is removed  - AP = as purchased  

- refers to how much an item costs exactly how it was purchased, including all  unusable parts of an item  

Chapter Four  

Cooking Methods & Techniques:  

• List Dry Heat Methods and define them.  

- Sauté: high heat, low fat  

- Stir Fry: similar to sauté, but smaller pieces in a work  

- Sweating: low heat, low fat  

- Pan Frying: moderate heat, moderate fat  

- Deep Frying: high heat, submerged in oil  

- Roast or Bake: enclosed space, uncovered  

- Grilling: open fire on a grid  

- Broiling: high heat, radiant heat from above

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

• Define Moist Heat Methods and define them.  

- Boiling: 212 F, rapid bubbles  

- Simmering: 185-205 F, small bubbles breaking the surface  

- Scald: small bubbles around the edges  

- Poach: 160-180 F, small bubbles in bottom of pot  

- Braising: starts with sear, liquid added partway up object, covered pot  - Stewing: small pieces, longer cooking, liquid covers and no cover on pot  - Par Cooking: cooked partially  

• Define Carbohydrates.  

- can be simple or complex  

- simple carbohydrates are usually sugars, complex are starches  

• Define Protein.  

- made up of amino acids  

- coiled together in their natural state, applying heat, salt, or acid causes them to  denature  

• Define Fats.  

- are fatty acids and glycerol bound together by molecules of hydrogen and oxygen  - they cannot mix with water  

- saturated fats have no space for more hydrogen/oxygen molecules, unsaturated  fats have space for another  

- fats that are liquid at room temperature are called oils  

- the Smoke Point is the point at which fats begin to break down and burn - fats can become rancid when they pick up extra oxygen molecules  

• What is the Maillard Reaction?  

- occurs when amino acids react with carbohydrates found in meat to cause browning  - happens at 310 F on a dry surface  

Chapter Five  

Knife Skills & Mise en Place:  

• What is a knife?  

- knives should be sharpened regularly to keep their edge  

- steels are used while working to straighten n edge  

- dull knives are more dangerous than sharp knives  

- use a building hand to guide the knife

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

• Knife Cuts to Know:  

- Julienne: 1/8 x 1/8 dice  

- Fine Julienne: 1/16 x 1/16 dice  

- Brunoise: 1/8 dice  

- Fine Brunoise: 1/16 dice  

- Tourne: 7 sided football shape  

- Batonnet: 1/4 x 1/4 dice  

- Small Dice: 1/4 dice  

- Medium Dice: 1/2 dice  

- Large Dice: 3/4 dice  

- Chiffonade: 1/16 x 1/16 dice  

• What does Mine en Place mean?  

- means everything in its place  

- all prep and planning should be done prior to service  

- prepare everything that can be made ahead of time without loss of quality  

• What is the difference between seasoning and flavoring?  

- Seasoning is added to enhance the natural flavor of an item, flavoring adds other,  new flavors  

- Flavorings can be herbs, spices, condiments, fruits, and vegetables  

• What is Mire Poix?  

- mire poix is a mix of onions, carrots, and celery  

• Define spices and herbs.  

- Spices:  

- usually dried and can be whole or ground  

- can be the flower, seed, bark, root, or berry or a tropical plant  - most spices are oil soluble  

- Herbs:  

- tend to be from temperate climates  

- the leaves and flowers of more tender plants  

- can be fresh or dried

1470 Food Prep Study Guide

• Define oils.  

- have different flavors and smoke points  

- they can go rancid  

- neutral flavored oils are good all purpose oils  

- corn oil  

- canola oil  

- safflower oil  

- peanut oil has a high smoke point  

- extra virgin olive, sesame, and walnut oils have a distinct taste and low smoke point  - good for salad dressings  

• Define vinegar and spirits.  

- vinegars have multiple cooking uses:  

- can be added at the end to add contrast  

- can be used in marinaded to help break down connective tissue  - can be added at the beginning and reduced to be syrupy and less tart  - spirits are reduced down  

- desserts sometimes have spirits added to the end

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