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ASU / Biology / BIO 340 / What type of effects can mutations have?

What type of effects can mutations have?

What type of effects can mutations have?

Description

School: Arizona State University
Department: Biology
Course: General Genetics
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: bio340, Genetics, arizona, ASU, ArizonaStateUniversity, studyguide340, studyguiewithanswers, Transmission genetics and inheritance Mendel’s experiments that demonstrate: Inheritance is through particulate units (genes), not through blending Controlled experiments can be used to identify the behavior of these units, and thus of genotypes and phenotypes Mendel’s law of segregation Monohybrid crosses, Punnett squares The test-cross Mendel’s law of independent assortment, demonstrated by dihybrid crosses Calculating phenotype and genotype ratios resulting from crosses with multiple traits The cell cycle The process of mitosis The process of meiosis as a specialized form of cell division to produce gametes How to test how w, Biology, collegebiology, and study
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Name: Study Guide (with answers) for Exam 1
Description: Transmission genetics and inheritance Mendel’s experiments that demonstrate: Inheritance is through particulate units (genes), not through blending Controlled experiments can be used to identify the b
Uploaded: 02/01/2019
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Objectives you should know before taking Exam 1:


What type of effects can mutations have?



● Transmission genetics and inheritance

● Mendel’s experiments that demonstrate:

○ Inheritance is through particulate units (genes), not through blending ○ Controlled experiments can be used to identify the behavior of these units, and thus of genotypes and phenotypes

○ Mendel’s law of segregation

○ Monohybrid crosses, Punnett squares

● The test-cross

● Mendel’s law of independent assortment, demonstrated by dihybrid crosses ● Calculating phenotype and genotype ratios resulting from crosses with multiple traits ● The cell cycle

● The process of mitosis

● The process of meiosis as a specialized form of cell division to produce gametes ● How to test how well our hypotheses about inheritance match experimental observations ○ The χ2 (Chi-square) test


What are gene interactions?



● Analysis of human inheritance

○ Pedigrees

● Autosomal vs. sex-linked inheritance Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important to consider when assessing psychopathology?

● What leads to a dominant or recessive effect of an allele?

● What type of effects can mutations have?

● What is incomplete dominance and codominance?

● What is a complementation test?

● What are gene interactions? We also discuss several other topics like What are the three domains of development?

● Which effects change the expected phenotype of a genotype?

● How were sex chromosomes discovered?

● How is sex in different organisms determined?

● How do different sexes cope with gene dosage issues due to their different sex chromosomes?

1. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). A cat who has short whiskers and a white coat is crossed with a cat who has long whiskers with a brown coat. What is the probability of the offspring in F3 having short whiskers and a brown coast if the F2 generation is crossed with?


How do different sexes cope with gene dosage issues due to their different sex chromosomes?



2. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). A cat with long whiskers and a brown coat crosses with a

cat with long whiskers and a white coat. The offspring have short whiskers and white coats, what is the genotype of the parents?

3. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). Two cats with the genotype of SsWw and Ssww are crossed, what are the possible outcomes of their offspring? Don't forget about the age old question of What are the two methods of energy storage?

4. List Mendel’s 5 innovations

5. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). A cat with the genotype of SSWW is crossed with a cat with the genotype of ssww. What is the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation?

6. At what point does the crossing over during cell division happen?

7. During which phase of cell division are the homologous chromosomes aligned in pairs on a plane? Don't forget about the age old question of What is the cultural relativism?

8. During mitosis, the DNA replication process creates 2 identical Molecules called?

9. After the chromosomes condense, what is the region where the DNA molecules are attached to each other?

10. What structure does the microtubules attach to the chromosome at? 11. During which, phase(s) are the sister chromatids present during the entire phase. 12. During the Anaphase of meiosis I & II the DNA content is ______ of the original amount 13. Draw and label Mitosis and MeiosisDon't forget about the age old question of How did zeus get rid of mankind?

14. What type of pedigree is shown below? a.

15. What type of pedigree is shown below? a.

16. What type of pedigree is shown below?

a.

17. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the genotype for individual II-4? a. If you want to learn more check out What is caused by the deficiency of essential nutrients?

18. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the genotype for individual II-3? a.

19. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the probability for individual III-2 will be affected? a.

20. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the probability that either individual III-1 or III-3 will be affected?

a.

21. What are the main two types of mutations

22. A researcher wanted to see which plant color is recessive or dominant in tulips. Therefore he gathered a blue tulip and a red tulip and crossed both of them. The Offspring’s color presented as purple. As he was confused by the outcome he crossed two purple F1tulips together to see what he would get. The results showed 1 blue, 2 purples, and 1 red. How would you explain what is happening to the researcher?

23. What is one reason why lethal alleles are so detrimental to an organism? 24. How can a researcher tell if mutations are occurring in a different gene of a single gene? 25. How would the researcher be able to tell if the mutation is occurring on different genes? 26. ___________ is gene interaction that results in a altered phenotypic ratio

27. Let’s say that the gene kaur codes for the color of chicken eggs. If an individual is homozygous recessive for the trait then the egg will be blue; otherwise, the egg will be wild-type white. A farm in flagstaff specializes in blue eggs and one of the chickens just laid a batch of eggs as shown below. What is the reason the eggs display this color range?

a.

28. Let’s say that the gene kaur codes for the color of chicken eggs. If an individual is homozygous recessive for the trait then the egg will be blue; otherwise, the egg will be wild-type white. A farm in flagstaff specializes in blue eggs and one of the chickens just laid a batch of eggs as shown below. What is the reason the eggs display this color range?

a. 29. What dosage compensation mechanism occurs in female mammals?

30. A study was conducted to see what the ratio of a plant color would be if a mutant and wild-type was crossed. Observe the data below and determine which equation displays the correct chi-square:

Wild-type color

Mutant color

Observed numbers

68

78

Expected

80

66

(68−80)2+ 66 

a. x2 = 80 

(78−66)2 

(68−80) + 66 

b. x2 = 80 

(78−66)

(80−68)2+ 66 

c. x2 = 80 

(66−78)2 

(68−80) + 78 

(78−66)

ANSWER:

d. x2 = 68 

31. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). A cat who has short whiskers and a white coat is crossed with a cat who has long whiskers with a brown coat. What is the probability of the offspring in F3 having short whiskers and a brown coast if the F2 generation is crossed with?

a. 3/16 

32. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). A cat with long whiskers and a brown coat crosses with a cat with long whiskers and a white coat. The offspring have short whiskers and white coats, what is the genotype of the parents?

a. SsWw x Ssww 

33. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). Two cats with the genotype of SsWw and Ssww are crossed, what are the possible outcomes of their offspring?

a. SSWw, Ssww, ssWw, ssww 

34. List Mendel’s 5 innovations

a. Controlled crosse 

b. Selection of discontinuous traits 

c. Used pure-breeding strains 

d. Quantification of results 

e. Used reciprocal and test crosses

35. A cat's whisker length and coat color is determined by a single gene. Long whiskers (S) are dominant to that of short whiskers (s) while a brown coat color (W) is dominant to that of a white coat color (w). A cat with the genotype of SSWW is crossed with a cat with the genotype of ssww. What is the phenotypic ratio of the F2 generation? a. 9:3:3:1 

36. At what point does the crossing over during cell division happen? a. After the formation of the synaptonemal complex 

37. During which phase of cell division are the homologous chromosomes aligned in pairs on a plane?

a. During metaphase I of meiosis 

38. During mitosis, the DNA replication process creates 2 identical Molecules called? a. Sister chromatids 

39. After the chromosomes condense, what is the region where the DNA molecules are attached to each other?

a. Centromere 

40. What structure does the microtubules attach to the chromosome at? a. Kinetochore 

41. During which, phase(s) are the sister chromatids present during the entire phase. a. S-Phase, G2-Phase 

42. During the Anaphase of meiosis I & II the DNA content is ______ of the original amount a. ½ 

43. Draw and label Mitosis and Meiosis

a. Check the book for accuracy 

44. What type of pedigree is shown below?

a.

b. Autosomal recessive (skips a generation; occurs in both females and males) 

45. What type of pedigree is shown below?

a.

b. Autosomal dominant trait (appears in every generation; occur in both females and males) 

46. What type of pedigree is shown below?

a.

b. X-linked recessive (occurs in only males) 

47. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the genotype for individual II-4? a. b. X X-- 

48. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the genotype for individual II-3? a.

b. XY 

49. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the probability for individual III-2 will be affected?

a.

b. ½ x 1 = ½ 

50. The pedigree shown below demonstrates the occurrence of hemophilia (X-linked recessive gene) in a family. What is the probability that either indiividual III-1 or III-3 will be affected?

a.

b. ½ x ½ = ¼

51. What are the teo main types of mutations

a. Loss of function mutation and gain of function mutation 

52. A researcher wanted to see which plant color is recessive or dominant in tulips. Therefore he gathered a blue tulip and a red tulip and crossed both of them. The Offspring’s color presented as purple. As he was confused by the outcome he crossed two purple F1tulips together to see what he would get. The results showed 1 blue, 2 purples, and 1 red. How would you explain what is happening to the researcher? a. Incomplete dominance is occurring 

53. What is one reason why lethal alleles are so detrimental to an organism? a. They can cause a mutation that results in a deletion of a trait that is necessary for life such as a developmental gene (there are other reasons) 

54. How can a researcher tell if mutations are occurring in a different gene of a single gene? a. Complete a complementary analysis 

55. How would the researcher be able to tell if the mutation is occurring on different genes? a. If they cross two of the mutants and the offspring display the wild-type then the mutation is occurring on different genes 

56. ___________ is gene interaction that results in a altered phenotypic ratio a. Epistasis

57. Let’s say that the gene kaur codes for the color of chicken eggs. If an individual is homozygous recessive for the trait then the egg will be blue; otherwise, the egg will be wild-type white. A farm in flagstaff specializes in blue eggs and one of the chicken just laid a batch of eggs as shown below. What is the reason the eggs display this color range?

a. b. Variable expressivity 

58. Let’s say that the gene kaur codes for the color of chicken eggs. If an individual is homozygous recessive for the trait then the egg will be blue; otherwise, the egg will be wild-type white. A farm in flagstaff specializes in blue eggs and one of the chicken just laid a batch of eggs as shown below. What is the reason the eggs display this color range?

a. b. Variable penetrance 

59. What dosage compensation mechanism occurs in female mammals? a. The paternally derived X chromosome is inactivated in all female somatic cells or one of the X chromosomes is randomly inactivated in each female somatic cell 

60. A study was conducted to what the ratio of a plants color would be is a mutant and wild type was crossed. Observe the data below and determine which equation displays the correct chi-square:

Wild-type color

Mutant color

Observed numbers

68

78

Expected

80

66

(68−80)2+ 66 

a. x2 = 80 

(78−66)2 

(68−80) + 66 

b. x2 = 80 

(78−66)

(80−68)2+ 66 

c. x2 = 80 

(66−78)2

(68−80) + 78 

d. x2 = 68 

(78−66)

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