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Virginia Tech - GEOS 2104 - Study Guide - Midterm

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Virginia Tech - GEOS 2104 - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geology
Professor: John Hole
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Geology and rocks
Name: Geology
Description: Exam 1 Study Guide
Uploaded: 02/01/2019
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background image GEOS 2104 Study Guide for Test 1 Geology Radioactive dating: break the rock into atoms and use a mass spectrometer to 
measure…  
Number of parent isotopes   Number of daughter isotopes in the rock     Rock must contain a radioactive parent isotope   Rock must contain sufficient parent and daughter atoms to measure (age is neither 
too few or nor too many half-lives) 
*** many rocks cannot be dated      Relative time   "the present is the key to the past"   Geologic processes remain the same through time   By understanding processes, we can understand old rocks      Uniformitarianism   Process: rock particles (sediment) are deposited in layers by water, wind, ice  if buried, these layers can become rock  Relative dating principles:   o Original horizontally: sedimentary rock layers were originally  horizontally   So, if the rock isn't horizontal, then they were moved or  something might've happened   o Superposition: younger layers were originally on top of older layers  
background image GEOS 2104 Study Guide for Test 1 Process: rocks can be broken (faulted), bent (folded), erosion can cut off  rocks, liquid rock (magma) can push into (intrude) older rock  Cross-cutting relationships: the rock is older than the deformation structure  Process: life can make fossils, evolution (fossils provide evidence)   o new species evolve and can go extinct  Fossils: the rock was created after the species evolved and before it went  extinct      million years ago  Earth formed (4600 million years ago) (4.58)  Oldest rock (4100)  Oldest fossil cells (3800)  Blue ridge rock (1100) (oldest rocks in Virginia)  First shells (570)   First land plants (400)  Appalachian Mountains (400-300)  Dinosaurs (250-65)   Homo sapiens (0.2-now) aka 200  End last ice age (0.01)  Seafloor spreading: new oceanic lithosphere   Asthenosphere rises up to fill the gap, close enough to the melting point to  form volcanoes at the c floor. Creates new oceanic crust  New lithosphere is created by cooling   It occurs at the mid-ocean ridges  
background image GEOS 2104 Study Guide for Test 1 Subduction: ocean-ocean  Oceanic plates go down which causes changes in volume that leads to  earthquakes   Island arc - line of volcano (volcano island) siting on a subduction zone  caused by a subduction zone (Indonesia, Philippines, east Caribbean)   CONTINENTS DON’T SUBDUCT - continents are made of slightly less stone:  ocean-continent   Squeezing usually causes some mountain buildings near the volcanoes (lines on 
volcanoes on continents - biggest one: western south America) 
Continental arcs (Alaska, Washington, Oregon)  Collision: continent-continent   When two continents meet and none of the want to subduct - causing lots of  earthquakes (Himalaya, Appalachians (ancient), western north America (old, 
micro-continental collisions))  
   Transform Fault  Offsets on mid-ocean ridges  San Andreas fault   Dead sea   Formation of Appalachians  470 (or 290?) m years ago when another continent slammed into north  America   Pangea   Plate tectonics through time 290 million years ago  A super continent on Earth   Africa and South America started to break apart from north America creating  oceans in between them   Green land breaks apart for Europe and NA 
background image GEOS 2104 Study Guide for Test 1   Tectonic Plates   Earths radius: 6371….  Earth’s interior   o Evidence: seismic waves, meteorites, high P and T lab experiments   o Core:   1/2 of earths radius,   1/6 of earths volume,  Fe (iron), plus Ni (Nickle) (these combination is also found in  meteorites; chondrite meteorites)  Dense, sunk to bottom early in Earth’s history  Inner core: solid (because of all the inner pressure)  Outer core: liquid   o Mantle:   5/6 of earths volume   1/2 of earths radius   Mg, Fe, silicate minerals   Solid   o The crust  Si, Al-rich silicate minerals lighter minerals floating on top   Solid   Continental crust (20-70 km thick) 

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School: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Department: Geoscience
Course: Geology
Professor: John Hole
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Geology and rocks
Name: Geology
Description: Exam 1 Study Guide
Uploaded: 02/01/2019
14 Pages 117 Views 93 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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