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MSU / ISS / ISS 310 / What is an environment?

What is an environment?

What is an environment?

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What is an environment?



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ISS 310 Lecture #

1-8-19 - Buy 6.0.0.2. Clicker.. - Read syllabu.. .

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - What is an environment? What is meant by the environment"


Why are we using soil?



Daggregate of surrounding conditions 2) air, water, land, etc. where all

organisms live

3) Global scale? vocal control? * Not all cultural groups think of environment in If you want to learn more check out What is the chemistry of life?

the same way... We Are the environment! We also discuss several other topics like What is ethnography?

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What is a social construction?



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Nideo! The front fell off... is the environment stable or changing? "Nature" "the environment"... Don't forget about the age old question of Why do businesses exist?

1 h Stabilizes an unstable meaning.. > constant flux from Planetan bobodily scale

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Environmental problems - result from interactions between mi social world the physical world.

problems. Stem from people!

. И.А.Каlу аngаtivе iҮҮросто питам Drivers surface drivers + deel drivers...

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(cont.) (Hurricane ex.). Don't forget about the age old question of What is molecular weight?

Gurface - emission of O... Deep-why are we using .0.1l? (How things Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of future value?

came to be.............. Techn... - Social momentum. SO CONTEXT MATERS!.....

> How others live v. how we live Behaviors. VS. Attitudes

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- what we do how we react to...... ... that affects environment. Ichanges.

the environment - the fight on globay

• pollution cair . warming...... water, recycling......going vegetarian/vegan Don't forget about the age old question of What is planetary motion?

etc.) - Global warming - harming /kriling

animals of Do behaviors drive Prohibitions were attitudes or do attitudes

created to change I drive behaviors? people's behavior a thus, meir attitude

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Neutrality favors oppression 4 Status quo

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I(cont.)

Geologic. Time $ Earthis. N4.5 billion Wears old. 2 W. ...are in the Holocene Epoch of the...

quarternary...penied.......

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Anthropocene a more humanuted world Los characterized by affects of human influence

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Dominion over nature reading..... Francis Bacon-father of modem science.

Lo ultimately benefits the madle. cass.mall...

entreprenuer Reduces the female nature to a resource for econ. production......

controversy over women"-witches witch trials.

by influenced bacons.philosophy e literary ....Style... Nature denoted.bw the female gender 3.States.. at liberty in error or in bondage.com

> nature.as.imminent self development els Meeded to solve malfunctions. mat.louldn't...

be caused by God/higher power.... bbs case of art man wanting.fo.create.

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-The Baconian Program - Fany capitalism

Rise of western Suence

attitudes about nature Mechanism. divided nature into atomic partides ondtam, the ultimate Source was. Goal.......

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E+S readings.1/10 * 1/15 -.. . introduction 1-9. the view from a humana made wilderness

- Freshwater levels are decreasing

worldwide. - Global temperatures are on murise

- We may have reached the end of... . nature Rewilding - a practice of conservation.

where ecological functions...& evolutionary processes, which are thought to have existed in nast ecosystems of before human influence, are deliberately restored er. per created often requires the reinm duchon by restoration of mecanica large predators to Le systems. nvironment-mewhele of the aquatic turestrian...atmospheric honhuman world

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3) St

s Society.includes the humans of the Earth

and the larger system of culture...politics, s & economic exchange that govern their

interrelationships N Environment + Society are interaced &

impossible to separate .. Human population is a growing threat to the non human world... markets -a cateqon in which we include

S. Stems of economic exchange

menos institutions - the rules and & norms. 1 governing our interactions withnature....

plesources Sugal.construction-the tendency for people. to understand and interpret ennronmental issues and processes througn language, stories and images that are often inherited. orimposed through s.v.stoms of media.gov't, education, or industry. Political ecólogy - an.inderstanding mat. nature.cand society are... produced together

na politeal.economy that induded humans. & nonhumans. com Reconciliation.cology - Imagining creating.... sustaming habitats,& biodiversity in places. used by human beings

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ISS 310

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1) Sty

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1/15/19 Class : climate Pt. 2; soils, biodiversity

- Precipitation types Convectional oro.graphic Frontal... - Result of Result of -Result of...

moisture rising moisture-laiden collision ben ..in warm ar aur being pushed tween warm

... subsequent up mountains & cool acc... 1.cooling at high by prevailing... masses

atitudes. Winds........... Cooled) om at..... .. C...Londenses....

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Cool

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Warna a Ot.....

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moist

12 moist ar Hot surface minh....air.....!

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Monsoons - Term refers to WIND not rainfall.

Wind that changes direction! result of differential heating of

continental landmasses/areas of

...oceans Winter monsoon - Sunisover southern hemisphere

"Teleconnections... process through which weather in different

distant places is related... Limited understanding by. Climate scientists:

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ISS. (Cont.) ENSO - EL Nino Southern Oscellation . "The first child" - complex system of interactions based on atmospheric...pressure

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3 phases ... a typical Walker urculation

- Netral phases timid ... - La Nada

Indonescal warm

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b) positive phaseelel niño.). ..

- Less upwelling of cold water... - Rainfall moves Lastward - Abone normal sea levels in East/

below normal in Western

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c) La Niña: Negative phase

La Nada's EXTREME VERSION

Cool, wet, dry

Warm

arcas

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iss(Cont)

- SOLL.. wiki collection of minerals, gases, liquids, ... organic matter and the munad of...

organisms that support life . Elements of the Earths crust Mat have

been subject to weathering *SAND... SILT... CLAY... Soils affected by climate - wet soils are readilarlo neno acidic...

Dry Soils are alkaline.com

- BIODIVERSITY - Genesispecies...cosystems.in.a. le.guan' ... ther interactions.

- Climate...soils together. Shape PLANILIFE = -presents range of possibilities for ANIMAL

UFE.Ivannet represents biodiversity Lunates a biomes - greater resilience

- Biodiversity n as latitudeva E. Biodiversity & as elevation to

The tropics on the whole contain concentrations of

both global biedáv. I the world's pour - people...

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ISS ( cont.)

Fortress.conservation in which large areas I are to be set aside for preservation, is an ineffective ideas

-Matrix-wrdor concept men humans permanently Inhabit particular biomes...

they define the emmene

Men Qiko.S.-root...

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ISS 310 class 4 - 1/17/19...

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Global Population issues: ... - Numbers

- Rates of change coup ..... - Fertility & Population structure

-Scale / Location uneven spacial impacts OUP - consumption

Absolute numbers > check the population clock = Population venyalan unevenly distributed.

Lauick way to approximate doubling time

of a compounding quantity: 70/ growth I "Rule of 70 to 1n (2)/Inlitr ...

Global population would therefore

double at current growth rate (1:12% ... in nes years ...

2050 C 1.0 billion Malthusian link-population grows exponentially

food supplies grow linearity. - Malthus- 1746-1834...

published" Essay on the principle ... of population in 1799

only an LDEA not supported by evidence - Human actions would address overpopulation

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- Food Supplies have decreased, increased... ... depending on the time period & spacial

Scau of analysis........... - Blind spot in Malthus theory it applies

to plants.bugs, animals...& poor humans, but not WEALTHY humans

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- Debunking myths about hunger - There is more than enough food to feed.... ... evengons in the world fully healthy...

duets ....

- 2300/call day person - currently 2900 i cal/day, person...

Aftea.ccounting for waste

livestock conversión

• Reasonably address.in.y changing. No.

diett food waste will allow for Olembang . fuding 9-10 billion

- Approx .lqual #'s .consume unhealthily.

large amounts of certain foods. 2). people o ... Who are unable to access food..

- Sometimes the SAME people...

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Cuont) JEPAT Paul Ehrlich 19.6.05 - The population Bomb

Populationgrowth is happening at such is a great rate - it lauld expladě

-DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSILON - 5* industrialization & urbanizaron W

associated lifestyle change...expansion.Of.. womens opportunities.

- carrying capacity". In a given reason, the... ...maximum number of individuals of a... given s.p.euls that can be indefinitely.......... maintained by the available resource of that regron...

- Migration & Environment - Globa...pattern of rural.w.ban migration ...espluatin pourer...countries

Environmental Migration - 3 classifications...from JOM,

-Enric emergency migrant.

olemporary sudden events - Envir forced migrants...

Duteriorating conditions - Enxx Motivated Migrants.

o Avoiding future problems

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ISS. 310 1/22/19 chasss "Markets it commodities. Writing Assn.

"The Economy.'& Economics thes: 3131 Izam

-Timothy Mitchell: buying.semine

exchange trade, etc. are all ancient activities but conceiving...f them as. ... making up the distinct ealm..........

activity called the economy only dates

from the mid 20th centuny.... I calculability.

Fundamental Principle of Economics -Scarcity -

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wants.

Limited resources... ...unlimited wants

Often not applied to the cological planetary

limit.s.of.a closed x finite.system o principle of Scarcity addressed by operations

of "the market. Lit's responses to it .

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Market: the area of economic activity in which buyers & sellers come together & the forces of supply e demand affect prices. Places,.people.Exchange...

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JS.S. 310 1.122/19 class.5. "Markets & Commodities. Writing Aisan

• 'The Economy! & Economics. Thrs 3131 Izam

-Timothy Mitchell: buying, semine.....

... exchange trade, etc. are an ancient

activities but concerning of them as making up the distinct realm. o.fi

activity called the economy only dates

from the mid 20th centun... (calculability.

Fundamental Principle of Economics - Scarcity -

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twants.

Limited resources. fwa ...unlimited wants - Often not applied to 'The ecological planetary

limits.of a closed x finite.system.

• principle of scarcity addressed by operations

of "the market its responses.to.IL Marketithe area of economic activity in which buyers. & sellers come together & the forces of Supply I demand affect prices.. placesplople.Exchange...

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.... Exam: Fl. 6.5.th

• neod.assical economics

percuved value

- marginal value-value over time. Externalities": ter-effect...outside source

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Transaction.cost: losing timur money because

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pdcupied with another trans.... action...opportunity...opportunity.cust. Commodity: an economic good

- fundgable-a.price, can be put

on it, therefore..can be bought

... sold

Elements of the.commons" sometimes.

become benimodified though Indesme...

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185 310 Class.le

1/24/19 1. Institutions & "the commons" as approaches to

People & the environment -

- - - - - - - I No evidence supports the idea of the

Tragedy of the commons. I Solution to the tragedy...of the commons:

Privitauzation... I · Enviromental problems nud collective action...

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People will act in their own self interest I Prisoner's dilemma..

· Gov't regulation is NOT a market response..

commons" are subject to the free rider" . problem

o what is meant by The Commons ? O - Refers to things that are alussed by the

Public...the.peopl" without monetary exchange

Available to all for use and exploitation) Feudalism/ manoralism Term derived from Romanian Ches.communes')...

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-Usage was available to those wl in a group of users who operated within a set of

mutually established rules / practices.

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1SS (cont.). "Institutions.

- "A significant practices relationship.400. ... Organization ina. Joulty...or.culture.......

"Stáble,.valuede recurring patterns of

behavior. NARODA.. .wbl. - Structures of cooperation that prevented the ..

tragedy...... ...The more extensive.ldiverse the institution..

theless it.s.cooperation imperative ....Seall matters!...

Amalah - Scale & the reification of the community

Work in development Studies often focused on community based (natural). resources Management (CBRM.....

• Potential Pitfalls?

- Communities are not wlout unequal und power relationships

... Outside observers can fall in the

local trap... .......

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. Common v -Stewardship - long-term - intergenerational - Sustainability

- - - -- -- -

Two types of commons. Cultural commons Environmental commons. non-monetized exchanges, Elements of the natural Helationships, & activities, worldThatare. I not owned,

that allow people to & therefore 2) adle to be... survive & care for each faccessed w/out money (for other....produce. Socia....some party's profit). aesthetic recreational.... & economic outcomes... - - -- - -

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- The Commons & Enclosure - Enclosure the process by which commons are

restricted limited or removed through processer

by..powerful actors - Typically money. Cfor the purposes of profit

not upkeep./maintainance.) is required to access what was formerly freely available

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ISS. 310-class 7 1129/19...

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'Ethics. meaning.....

A system of principles that govern guide behavior Cissues of right & wrong)

The branch of philosophy that analyzes the origins, operations, & efficacy of such systems.

- "How should we act?

- "What is the goud life?" Not the same as morals - ethics is a theory... about right actions.

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"Environmental Ethics" ...

... What is right & wrong in regards to our

actions withit to the enviroment?

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• Anthropocentric. ...b-Environmental responsibility derives from

human interests

b- only humans are morally significant

Assumes nature is an instrument for

...human use & manipulation

• biocentric

by All life forms have an inherent right to exist

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Count) Ecocentric

.howThe...environment deserves moral consideration ...but based on it.own intrinsic value, not derived

from human or animal interests.com

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Dominion to stewardship ..... ...Gen 1:28. "Stewardshiplasa.concept

Kefers to caring for... Possess.com.control. - Antropocentric Biblical referinastoammad

• Androcentric Steward" as "master of the

L household." - - - - - - -

John Locke: Humans have.natura!freedom'.

-the riant.& ability to acquire, maintain,

and posses.p.x.operty.

· Appropriating...poxtain of nature through. labor ... makes it property..... "Wild nature has nuvalue, value only.comes...

from usefullness to humans. .... Shouldn't wasted allow to spoil lover acquire

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= (cont.) ** vtilitarianism.

- Philosophy associated with Jeremy Benthem. Attempt to draw a line between the nants.of. the individual...thevights of others.

.......................... E - Ethical Foundation : " it is the greatest happiness

of me greatest number that is the measure of night wrong

-Maximize pleasure & enjoyment/minimize

Suffering & pain - Instrumentalism v. intrinsic value – Leopold-ecocentric 2 economies - The Great Economy > inclusive. ... The Little Economy...

y industrial-"bukeconomy".

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Moral extensionism Singers & beyond ... Leopold & Berry both argue for a type of

moral extensionism (mordi concerns should go beyond the human-only sphere......

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