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AU / OTHER / hist / what is the rebellion in the andes of native american, mixed race and

what is the rebellion in the andes of native american, mixed race and

what is the rebellion in the andes of native american, mixed race and


School: Auburn University
Department: OTHER
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: exam and 1
Cost: 50
Name: HIST 1020 - Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Exam 1 Study guide
Uploaded: 02/02/2019
28 Pages 7 Views 27 Unlocks

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History 1020 – Exam 1 Study Guide

what is the rebellion in the andes of native american, mixed race and peasant?


***answers included, concepts further elaborated in course  notes!*** 

∙ Primary and Secondary Sources

o Primary

 Documents, artifacts produced at or near the  event or era under investigation

 Japanese Porcelain Tea set fond in great Britain  International trading was apparent

o Secondary

 Sources produced after the event or era

∙ The Biological Old Regime

o Implies that at some point it will be overturned o Limited diets (nutrition deficiencies

o Equilibrium between population and food resources o Frequent famines and epidemics

o Rise in birth rates/maternal and infant mortality ∙ The Household/Family Economy

o Family is economic unit

o All members of family contribute to manufacturing o If one member died production slowed  

what did The Great Chain of Being represent?

∙ The Domestication of Foreign Commodities o Normal to have foreign things

o Trade allows exotic object and foods to cease to be  exoticWe also discuss several other topics like ∙ An open­ended question is when the respondent is asked to provide her own answer o Ex: What do you think of your CJ 300 class?

o Trade allows foreign objects and foods to become part  of everyday life

∙ Intrinsic vs Imaginary Value

o paper money

∙ The McCartney Embassy

o European group of ambassadors

o Meets with emperor of china

o Goal

 To convince them to trade to Europe more

o Chinese Emperor says that there is nothing they lack  in china and they don’t need anything from Europe

∙ The Great Chain of Being

o Represents orderly hierarchy

∙ European Military Revolution

o Divergence between Asian and European Militaries o 17th and 18th century witness divergence

o Asia

 Characterized by periods of peace

o Perpetual war in EM Europe

what is The Three Estates and The Estates General?

 GB and France in war for 18 years

 Enormous amount of fighting

o Results

 Military innovation and improvement

 Increasing expenses (higher taxes) If you want to learn more check out • does this study reflect what typically happens in the world?

 Increasing importance of political economies ∙ The European Enlightenment


o International intellectual movement

 made up of people throughout European  


 British colonist in N America are participating o Reason/Rationalism/Natural Law

 Argue that the world is a rational place

 Humans are endowed with reason

 Humans use senses to understand the world  They can discern he natural law of the world o Critical of absolute rule and religion

 People will emerge critical of how to make laws  that don’t have to do with religion and absolute  rule

 Critical of key institutions that govern modern  day life Don't forget about the age old question of What proportion of the F1 generation would you expect to be round?

∙ The Dual Revolution

o Industrial Revolution (economic)

 A seismic change in the global economy

∙ Europe becomes ground zero on global trade

∙ Changes the way people relate to the natural world

 A revolution in energy

∙ New sources to unleash productive  

capacities for society  

 A foundation for the modern era in world history o Atlantic Revolution (political) If you want to learn more check out what is Induced Mutations

 American, French, Haitian, Latin/American


 Radical new thoughts

 Rise of the public sphere

∙ The Atlantic Revolutions

o Shared origins

 Rise of public sphere

∙ Creation of ideas outside realm of control

∙ Public opinion

 Mercantilism

∙ Frame policies of states

 European Enlightenment

∙ Expression of public sphere

∙ Deeply invested in rationalism

∙ Reform and progress

∙ More just and productive by reorganizing  themselves systematically

 Seven Years War

∙ WW Zero  

∙ War between European empires

∙ Final foundational event

∙ Facilitate outbreak of revolution

∙ The Atlantic World

o World tied together by trade

o Ideas

o Competing imperial systems

o Worlds spread very quickly because of trade 4

∙ The Tradition of English Liberty

o Developed British empires

o Ideas of enlightenment

o Foundations of revolution

 No taxation without representation  

∙ Thomas Paine

o Immigrates to 13 colonies

o Publishes series of inflammatory pamphlets o Colonies have right to revolt If you want to learn more check out What is Sales Orientation?

o Common Sense

 Same year of independence

 Enlightenment rationalism

 Common person can see that it makes no sense  that British should govern the 13 colonies

 Printed 50,000 copies

 250,000 inhabit these colonies

∙ The Declaration of Independence

 Rhetorical and ideological “blue print” for  


∙ Vague

∙ Doesn’t talk about relationship between  

America and Britain

∙ More than 45 contracts inspired by  

Declaration to be independent

∙ Enlightenment faith in human reason,  

progress, and natural law


∙ Idea of the “social contract” between gov’t  

and the governed

∙ The “right” to revolution

∙ The idea of universal human equality

∙ Idea of sovereign nation-state

∙ Radical writing for this century

∙ Goes against everything up to this point

∙ The Tupac Amaru Rebellion

o Native American, Mixed Race, and Peasant Rebellion in the Andes

o Response to the Bourbon Reforms and the American  Revolution

o Rebellion of Peoples and Poverty

 Economic leveling

 Poor rebelling against the state/taxation We also discuss several other topics like What are Export Processing Zones (EPZs) and what is their relationship to TNCs? Where are they generally located?

 People who are non-white people

 More threatening

o Failure, Fear and the Foundations for “Conservative  Revolution”

 Temporarily put aside dispute to end this

 Drawn and quartered  

 Culture of fear that produces conservative  


 Almost as many die in this as in the entirety of  the war of the American Revolution

∙ The Bourbon Reforms

o Bourbon Reforms


 Rules and reforms enforced by Bourbon Family   Dramatically reorganizes Spanish colonies

 Brings whole new cast of Spanish-born  


∙ The Three Estates and The Estates General

o Louis XVI announces the meeting of the Estates  General

 Representative assembly

∙ First Estate: Nobility

∙ Second Estate: Clergy

∙ Third Estate: Everyone else

o Palace of Versailles

o Nothing happens

o Louis skips meetings, falls asleep

o Focuses all time on meeting with 1st and 2nd estate ∙ The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen o National Assembly

o All inequality disappears

o Draws up new constitution

o Constitution of 1791

 Jeton

 Celebrates passage of constitution

 Union of people and monarchy

∙ The Storming of the Bastille

o National Guard attacks all cites of state authority

o This happens because Louis declares force from  French Militia on him  


o Puts head on stake

o Public statements of violence\

o Enormous symbolic power

o Involves ordinary people taking down monarchy o Coin: Siege of the Bastille

 Many depict violence at bastille  

∙ Klemens von Metternich

o “When France sneezes, Europe catches cold” o Austrian Nobleman

∙ The Sovereign Nation-State

o Having a permanent population, defined territory, one  gov’t and the capacity to enter into relation with other sovereign states

o Not dependent to any other power or state

∙ The Flight to Varennes

o Radicalization and the rejection of the constitution of  1791

o Causes people to think they could get rid of monarchy  entirely  

∙ “The Old Regime”

o Implies that at some point will be overturned o Life is short

o People work very hard

∙ Organic Economy

o Burning wood

o Peet

o Human and animal muscle to produce goods 8

∙ Cottage Industries

o In the winter

 Weaving

 Sewing  

 Making shoes

o Summer

 Agriculture outside

∙ Cultural Hybridity

o Trade produces this

o Mixtures of different groups

o Strength instead of compartmentalizing

o Creolization

o People at ports from dif cultures get married and have  children

∙ Mercantilism

o World of unlimited trade

o Belief in finite wealth

 Any wealth is at everyone else’s expense

o Economic competition between empires

 Continual struggle to compete

∙ The Public Sphere

o Spaces of association/conversation

 Mental and physical

 Allow people to debate the state of society  

outside of the control of the gov’t  

 Public opinion


o Expansion of print culture

 Reformation broadsheet

∙ Document trying to express ideas

∙ Convert people to a certain sense of ideas

∙ Catholics are dangerous and you should  

convert to Protestantism

o Expansion of Print Culture

 Reformation Broadsheet (1617)

∙ Document trying to express ideas

∙ Convert people to a certain sense of ideas

∙ “Catholics are dangerous and you should  

convert to protestant”

 London Coffeehouse

∙ The iconic physical representation

∙ Everyone sits on same level and talk

∙ One is evaluated on strength of ideas  

whether who your parents are

∙ Conversation

∙ Democratic ideas

∙ Coffeehouses will purchase print media and  let people view it for free if you purchase  

their goods

o Helps people who can’t afford print  


 A Printer’s Shop

 German Newspaper Readers (1800)

o EX: the European Enlightenment


∙ The Marathas

o Peripheral rebellion moves of the center of Mughal  Empire

o Marathas and European company alliances

o Maratha Princes notices that the European company  armies are good fighters so they hire them to fight  their wars

o British East India company makes significant gains in  the market

∙ Creolization

o Increasingly linking central culture with local  populations

o Cultural hybridity

o Creol Cultures

 Developing different modes of warfare

 Mixes of local and traditional strategies

∙ Salutary Neglect

o Having colonies is expensive and it is much easier to  just let them run themselves

∙ The Social Contract

o Between gov’t and the governed

o Agreement signifying their consent to be governed ∙ Consumer Boycotts

o Britain passes tax on all paper products

 People don’t buy them or form any legal  


 Buy them on black market


 British state cannot collect taxes if no one is  paying them

o Butter

 Bought from smugglers

o Parliament will repeal the tax and start a new one o Riots and repression

∙ The Quebec Act

o All catholic inhabitants will have same rights as  protestants

∙ Common Sense

o By Thomas Paine

o Same year of claiming independence

o Enlightenment Rationalism

o Common person can see that it makes no sense that  British should govern the 13 colonies

o All of this is irrational

o Printed 50,000 copies

o 250,000 inhabit these colonies

∙ Popular Sovereignty

o Idea that people will govern state

∙ Peninsulares

o Spanish empire

 Bourbon Reforms

∙ Rules and reforms enforced by Bourbon  


∙ Dramatically reorganizes Spanish colonies


∙ Brings whole new cast of Spanish-born  


o Increased taxation and colonial sales taxes

 Imposed taxes

 When people sell goods, they have to pay a  fraction of their profits to the Spanish crown for  defense expenses

 New tensions appear

o Heightened oppression of Native American and mixed  race populations

 Produces greater oppression of native American  community

 Unwilling to tolerate mixed race

∙ Olympe de Gouges

o Decides to pin own document

o Declaration of Rights to Women

 Argues that there should be female citizens

 Equal rights in marriage and land

∙ Napoleon Bonaparte

o Rising star of French army

o Napoleon Bonaparte

 Appointed to crush the counterrevolution

 Abolishes the Directory

∙ The Consulate

o 3 person gov’t -> 1 person gov’t

 Military dictator

o Centralization of the Napoleonic Code


 Civil code of 1804

 Not only is the old order swept away

∙ Also swept away of most of Europe

 Serfdom ends

 Distinctions between classes end

 All people made similar in eyes of state

o Wars of Conquest

 Master of using media  

 Stages rigged elections

 Armies win enormous victories

 Makes him very popular  

 French people don’t pay price of war

∙ Europeans pay the price of the wars

∙ The Reign of Terror

o France is gripped by this

o Committee of public safety is executing anyone who is viewed as an opponent of the French revolution

o Any danger of counterrevolution triumphing

∙ Phrygian Cap

o Gold symbol associated with republican gov’t under  romans

o Idea of liberty in FR

o Very easy to manufacture

o Sans Culottes

o Wore Phrygian caps

 Demanded reforms on France streets


∙ Conservatism

o Much greater violence

o Threat to leaders

o Fear that influence of France could spread  

o Too much change could be a bad thing

∙ Sans Culottes

o Wore Phrygian caps

o Demanded reforms on France streets

∙ Nationalism

o Strong belief that the interests of a particular nation state are of primary importance

o The belief that a people who share a common culture  should constitute an independent nation

o Free of foreign domination

Be able to identify, describe and explain: 

∙ Why do historians study and teach world history?

o Comparison, connection, change, chronology, context, contingency, complexity

∙ What makes global history different from other kinds of  history?

o Global history is the context for all other histories ∙ What is the difference between history and the past?

o History is the study of events that have already  occurred, the past is everything that has occurred  before the present day.


o History is always changing

∙ What do historians mean when they describe the past as a  foreign country? 


∙ What are some benefits of using objects to study the past?

o They can show historians what resources were  available

∙ What are some of the potential pitfalls or complications of  using them as sources?

o They can only infer the meaning unless specifically  noted

∙ Why do historians focus so much on moments of revolution in world history?

o They are the turning points to how the society we  have today came to be

∙ What is the relationship between premodern, early modern, and modern eras in world history?

o Modern era 1770-present

o Early modern era 1500-1700

o Pre modern era <1500

∙ What types of characteristics do historians associate with  the premodern era?

o Agricultural and organic

o Oral, local, limited ideas

o The biological old regime (nasty and short)

∙ What is the concept of the dual revolution and what was  the role of these revolutions in world history?

o Economic – Industrial Revolution


o Political - Atlantic

∙ The organization of the World Economy before 1800: o How was trade conducted?

o Who was trading and for what?

o Who dominated the global economy?

o How did Europeans attempt to break into Asian  markets?

 British – trading slaves, addicted to Chinese  Products

 India – largest exporter of goods, highly diverse  and specialized economy

 China – wealthiest country in early modern era bc of trade, highly commercialized, non

industrialized society, 90% of production is used,  very little imported and exported, very  

sophisticated society

 Guangzhou (British/Chinese trading market)

 People of great Britain hooked on Chinese  


 Sends representatives to make deal with  

McCartney and it fails

 GB now inspired to make risks and build a  

stronger economy

∙ What can Henry Smeathman’s golf game on Bunce Island  tell us about the early-modern world economy?

o Shows how normal slavery was time for a leisure  game of gold and how slow the trading system  was/ability to have extravagant dinners

∙ What were the consequences of the Slave Trade in Africa  before 1800?


o Internal warfare

o Demographic instability

o Inhibited economic development in Africa

o Legacy of racism

o Creation of the African diaspora

∙ What types of changes do historians identify in the history  of the world economy during the 18th century and what  were the sources of these changes?

o Historical changes favoring Europe

o Global economic divergence from Asia to Europe o Preconditions for the industrial revolution

o Global population explosion

 Improved food supply

 Decline of plague

o Growing importance of new world

o Imitation of Chinese and Indian goods

o Opium trade

o Global Economy shift

o Industrial revolution  

∙ Nature of the Early Modern Empires:

o How were they organized?

 Mostly empirical, dynastic, religious

 People ruled by family and distinct religious  traditions

o What types of ranks of society existed and how were  they defined?

 Monarch – family ruled


 Elite nobility – educated executive administrators, tax collectors

 Middling sorts – merchants, manufacturers, lots of tax, some education

 Peasants – agriculture, soldiers, public works,  tons of tax, no education

 Slaves – similar to peasants

o How did they address questions of race/religious  difference?

 Race determined rank

o How were they ruled? How did they grow?

 More cultural norm

∙ What was the relationship between religion and early  modern empires?

o Determined by culture/empire “dynastic”

∙ What are the religious tradition associated with the  following empires?

o Ottoman Empire: Sunni Muslim

o Chinese Empire: Confucian

o Safavid Empire: Shi’a Muslim

o Mughal Empire: Sunni Muslim

o Russian Empire: Christian (Eastern Orthodox) o Spanish Empire: Christian (Catholic)  

o British Empire: Christian (Protestant)

∙ What types of changes do historians identify in the history  of world empires during the 18th century and what were the sources of these changes?

o Rise of public sphere  


o European enlightenment

o Embattled social elites and disillusioned middling sorts o Divergence between Asian and European militaries o Military innovation and improvement  

o creolization

∙ What were the differences between the early-modern  militaries of European and Asian Empires?

o Asia grew by land, Europe grew overseas (colonies)

∙ Why do historians refer to the Seven Years War as World  War Zero?

o It was the first world war before WWI

∙ What were the consequences of the Seven Years War in  Europe, Asia and the Americas?

o Britain won and gained control of N. America o Britain in debt and had to tax colonists heavily

o Limited colonial migration, said they can’t go west of  Appalachian Mountains

o Colonies had to house imperial soldiers (protection)  (quartering act)

∙ Who/what were the primary causes, phases, participants,  and short and long-term consequences of the : o American Revolution

 Cause:  

∙ colonists were taxed heavily to help pay off  

debt of seven years’ war/had to house  

imperial soldiers

 Phases:  


∙ Committees of correspondence/continental  congress

∙ Boycotting British goods that were heavily  


∙ Riots: Boston massacre

∙ Public sphere made soldiers look brutal and  the colonists innocent

∙ 13 colonies began to see themselves as  


 Participants:  

∙ Colonists vs. GB

 Short Term/Long Term Consequences:

∙ Declaration of Independence

o Other nations and colonies apply this  

document to their declarations

∙ Right to revolution

o Community should exercise when  

necessary universal human rights

 Life, liberty, pursuit of happiness

∙ Sovereign nation-state

o Free and independent states

∙ Limited sense of equality – only white adult  men could vote

o 3/5 compromise

o French Revolution

 Cause:

∙ Public sphere and public opinion


∙ Enlightenment

∙ Rousseau and other leading men pushed  

popular sovereignty

 Phases:

∙ Estates General called

o Great fear results: national assembly  

thinks the fix is to make France secular

∙ People and clergy dissatisfied with national  assembly’s decision

∙ Call to put end to radicalization

∙ Louis XVI executed

∙ War of kings

∙ Reign of terror

∙ Napoleon is dictator

 Participants: France vs. France

 Short Term/Long Term Consequences:

∙ Louis VI becomes king

∙ Holy Alliance

∙ Dedicated to preserving balance of  

monarchy power and keeping order

∙ Documents of Rights of Man

o Ideas spread around the world

∙ People identify with their countries

o Haitian Revolution

 Cause:

∙ Declaration of Independence in America


∙ Heavily taxed after 7 years’ war

∙ Tons of slaves working for sugar productivity ∙ Culture of insurrection

o Every slave worked for resistance

∙ Civil war in Haiti

∙ Declaration of Rights of Man

o Island in flames during fighting

 Phases:

∙ Slaves revolt because of the Extended Rights of Citizenship

∙ Sugar fields burned

∙ Slaves control all of Haiti but port cities

 Participants:

∙ French Haiti vs. Slaves

 Short Term/Long Term Consequences:

∙ Haiti wins war of racial extermination against France

∙ Isolation of Haiti

∙ Abolition of Atlantic slavery (eventually)

o Spanish American Revolutions

 Cause:

∙ Harsh treatment of people working the cash  crops

∙ Creoles officer positions taken by the elites

 Phases:

∙ Temporarily abolishes the Spanish monarchy 23

∙ Revolution in Spanish America

∙ Guerilla Warfare in Spain

o Little wars

o Emergence of untraditional warfare in  

response to Napoleons influence

o Napoleon slaughters everyone

∙ Creating independent states

∙ No enlightenment experiments

∙ Bourbon reforms and the Peninsulares

o Bourbon Reforms

 Rules and reforms enforced by  

Bourbon Family  

 Dramatically reorganizes Spanish  


 Brings whole new cast of Spanish

born bureaucrats

∙ Increased taxation and colonial sales taxes o Imposed taxes

o When people sell goods, they have to  

pay a fraction of their profits to the  

Spanish crown for defense expenses

o New tensions appear

∙ Heightened oppression of Native American  and mixed race populations

o Produces greater oppression of native  

American community

o Unwilling to tolerate mixed race

 Participants:  


∙ Civil war

 Short Term/Long Term Consequences:

∙ Debt

∙ Reforms

∙ Oppression for mixed race populations

∙ Compare and contrast the events and ideas in the  American and French Revolutions

o American began on borders of the British empire o French began in capital city

o So many differences  

 French was more violent

∙ How did the European Enlightenment contribute to the  Atlantic Revolutions?

o It was the basis of all revolution ideas

∙ How did Enlightenment thinkers specifically criticize: o Existing political systems

 Critical of absolute rule and reign

o Existing economic systems

 Critical of heavy taxation

∙ How closely did these revolutions come to realizing  Enlightenment ideas in practice?

o Society is more productive by paying laborer’s, the  idea that all men are born equal, power of the masses, international trading

∙ How did European Enlightenment contribute to European  ideas about racial and cultural differences?

o More documents supporting equality of man 25

∙ How were the American and French Revolutions each  important political experiments?  

o All tested enlightenment ideas brought on rights of  man and citizen

o Goals were male emancipation, freedom from tyranny

∙ Did the actual systems of gov’t they created live up to the  ideals of the revolutionaries?

o American – successful gov’t  

o Haitian – least successful

∙ Why didn’t British Caribbean colonies revolt in 1775 (or at  any point during the Atlantic Revolutions)?

o Challenges created by geographic potion

o Only source of survival were ports controlled by GB,  revolting would make them lose this freedom

∙ Why didn’t Britain have a political revolution like France in  1789?

o It was more about enlightenment ideas than  secularism

∙ Know the chronology and historical significance of the  following objects:

o The David Vases

 Part of David gallery

 Sir Percival Davis collected them

 British man interested in spending tons of money  on a collection of porcelain

o Holy Thorn Reliquary

 Understanding of time based on theology

 Religion is important in the premodern worlds and is a focus on artistry and wealth


o Ming Banknote

 Threshold of modernity

 Shows how many copper coins the banknote  represents

o Mechanical Galleon

 Toy ship sits on dinner table

 Represents perfect empire

 Clockwork

 Space shuttle of century

 Symbolic of technological achievement

o Pieces of Eight

 Standard Spanish coin that became medium of  exchange in Europe

o Reformation Centenary Broadsheet

 Document trying to express ideas

 Convert people to sense of ideas

 Catholics are dangerous so you should convert o Miniature of a Mughal Prince

 Meeting with Hindu religious leaders

 Treated with respect

 Tolerates the existence of these religions

o Jade Bi

 Inscribed jade disk

 McGregor says it tells us about premodern and  early modern era

o North American Buckskin Map


 Explains origins of the American Revolution  

because it shows how the colonists were going  behind the backs of the British gov’t

 Gap between how N Americans saw territory and  how the British gov’t saw it

o French Revolutionary Medals and Jetons  

 Medals that showed the progression of separating monarchs and the people (removal of fleur di les)


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