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TEXAS STATE / Business / Chem 1342 / What forces are responsible for condensed phases of matter?

What forces are responsible for condensed phases of matter?

What forces are responsible for condensed phases of matter?

Description

School: Texas State University
Department: Business
Course: General Chemistry II
Professor: Jeff mcvey
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: General Chemistry, Intermolecular Forces, heating curve, and Specific heat
Cost: 25
Name: CHEM 1342 weekly notes
Description: these notes cover what we have discussed from chapter 11. - intermolecular forces - vapor pressure - heating curve - solubility - specific heat - process heat - phase diagram - solids - unit cells
Uploaded: 02/03/2019
48 Pages 26 Views 2 Unlocks
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CHAPTER 21


What forces are responsible for condensed phases of matter?



WKI 1123

Intermolecular Forces (IMF)

the forces between molecules]

condensed

What forces are responsible for

phases of matter?

Condensed phases are solids

a liquids

Intramolecular Forces

y the forces that hold


How do intermolecular forces affect properties?



molecule together Intermolecular Forces

the atoms in a

a

Tupes of IMF - order of bond strength 1. Ion-dipole 2. Hydrogen bonding 13. Dipole - dipole

4. London Dispersion – a heaviest molar mass non 4 weakest but all matter has DFS


Which molecules are capable of hydrogen bonding?



Properties of IMF

(bonds) * all are much weaker than intramolecular forces

- 300 kJ Imol v. 30 kJ Imol maximum * all are based on electrostatic interactions Don't forget about the age old question of How does oxidation affect the environment?

Study Soup

©

©

stw water is a polar molecule!

Ion-Dipole Forces on rund

exists btwn an ion & the partial charge.

on an atom in a polar molecule o bicon otxo

O

of

H

Stud

Dipole - Dipole Forces * exist btwn the partial charges on atoms Don't forget about the age old question of How do we acquire our knowledge?

in two polar molecules

C-Cl-...H-C-Cl

Hydrogen Bonding

av Strong dipole - dipole interaction * ONLY btwn atoms of V. HIGH ELECTRONEG.

* Nitrogen 7 * Oxygen all are electronegative * Flourine on a on n=2 atoms' * Hydrogen Don't forget about the age old question of When an individual takes the drug regularly and becomes dependent on the drug, this is termed as what?

Stoup

t viscosity

↑ Surface tension,

Î boiling pt.

Wk 2 1/28

| Which molecules are capable of Hydrogen

Bonding?

you need to draw the Lewis

Structure in order to solve!

Effects of Hudrogen Bonding in water in accounts for the very high bp of water * accounts for the high Surface tension We also discuss several other topics like What can shift both the supply and demand curves?
We also discuss several other topics like What does pharmacology encompass?
If you want to learn more check out What are the eight dimensions of wellness?

accounts for the high viscocity of water

Which of the followind should have the

highest boiling point!

* more london forces - BiGGER *

London Dispersion Forces a part now

• most important for nonpolar atoms/molecules

b also called induced dipole forces d

* Nitrogen is a gas under bormal conditions ANN * can force the molecules together to

e make liquid nitrogen * remains a liquid... Some force holds it

Induced Dipole (LDF)

MOMENTARILY PARTIAL POS/NEG CHARGE

ELECTRON

D

D

NUCLEUS

ot

D

D

Ал, LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE)

Which of the following is the strongest

IMF ?

LD

COMPOUND NONPOLAR

POLAR dort POLAR WI H-

F H-O or H-N

FORCE DISPERSION 10-D / DISPERSION

H-BONDING

& DISPERSION

NOTE depends on molar mass depends on polarity must have H-F D. HO or HAN

Intermolecular Forces * affects many of the physical

of Substances

y Surface tension - 9 IMF

properties

↑ ST cobrol

y Boiling

Point

-

↑ IMF

↑ BP 20

4 vapor Pressure

- ↑ IMF

↑ BVP

a

b ViscoCity -----.1 IMF, T viscosity

L

Solubility ----- like dissolves like

Sed

* POLAR V. NONPOLAR # iiod

to Yogy

* SOLUBILITY

RULES * Soft

Nato

-

s-0

Vapor Pressure

• the K. E. of the molecules at the surface of a liquid varies over a range of values:

y some molecuies have enough KE to overcome

the attractive forces btwn the molecules Ly the weaker the attractive forces, the greater - the fraction of molecules wl enough Ke to escape As the water evaporates the pressure exerted by the vapor above the liquid 1, until at

some point, the pressure reaches a constant value, the vapor pressure of a substanice

At CONSTANT PRESSURE & CONSTANT TEMPERATURE What is the relationship btwn amount of

an ideal gas & the volume of that

same gas? HINT" PV = nRT

THE GREATER THE VOLUME

THE GREATER THE AMOUNT LOF GAS!!!

Studio

SOU

V vapor

atm

=

↑ boiling

point

304 x

that

form

What is inside the bubbles when Ethyl Alcohol boils?

ETHYL ALCOHOL

1

Whicho of the following molecuies should

have the lowest vapor pressure

Lone wl highest molar mass CL14 153.819/mol

SOU

Conversion of States of matter SOLID LIQUID

GAS Méttina

VAPORIZATION

snov

Fusion

test SUBLIMATION

Git all of these processes require energy stis and are considered ENDOTHERMIC

gas

liquid

Solid 1

love

CONDENSATION

FREEZING

DEPOSITION

energy

* all of these

considered

proceses Produce EXOTHERMIC

Soup

Heating

Curve

angled lines represent Specific heat change.

100°C

gas

Temp.

liquid

horizontal lines represent I process change

Solid

Heat Added

[ENDOTHERMIC

OSO

Calculating Heat Added 1. A heat => enthalpy

• 2 types of heat:

4 Specific heat s process heat

Specific Heat * amount of heat required to raise the temp.

of a specific amount of substance

U

Specific

Heat (Ophase ) = 5

MAT

q=ht added m= mass Ato change in temp

in

SOM

Process Heat * heat associated wla Specific Change

4 example:

A H ( fusion) AH (vaporization) AH ...etc.

Example

Question

0°64 20) = 20°C

500

Xg 2 0.500kg/ 1000g

Hinat

1158 - 500g

VASO

Cice

=

8

MAT

g = (Cice) (m) (07)

God (500g) (2002) q = 21 kJ

OH = 500g i moly 16.02 KJ - 1167 KJ

(4.25 ) (500g) (5030) - 105,00 Llos »J] 167 + 105 + 21 = 293 kJ

4.2

J

1000 g/kg

practice

problem is exothermic

Studio

Stuur

TAKE HOME QUIZ DUE NEXT WEEK

Phase

Diagram

-

relationships btwn 3

SOM

Stud SOUS

solid

pressure/

• triple point : all 3 Som

exist at the same time

gas

Temperature

Solids

* crystalline Solids

- Unit celis (3 types: Primitive, body-Centered, face-Centered * amorphous Solids - glass

Cubic) * types of Solids *

* molecular

* Covalent - network (diamond, graphite * ionic * metallic

Unit Cells

Primitive cubic G atoms @ Corners contribute to 18 of an atom

to each unit cell; 5o 8 (18) = 1 atomlion 1. Body-centered Cubic

4 atoms in the center contribute 100% to each

unit cells so I atomlion in center = 1 atomlion h in a body-centered cell the total is 8 (18) + L

center = 2 atoms/ions EMPERICAL FORMULA = AB

• Face - Centered

atoms

Stud

USO

• Edge - Centered thg

Ly each atomlion in an edge Centered

Unit cell contributes 14 of an atomlion

to the unit Cell y so 12 (114) = 3 atoms/ions Contributed

to the unit cell

Svatima

CHAPTER 21

WKI 1123

Intermolecular Forces (IMF)

the forces between molecules]

condensed

What forces are responsible for

phases of matter?

Condensed phases are solids

a liquids

Intramolecular Forces

y the forces that hold

molecule together Intermolecular Forces

the atoms in a

a

Tupes of IMF - order of bond strength 1. Ion-dipole 2. Hydrogen bonding 13. Dipole - dipole

4. London Dispersion – a heaviest molar mass non 4 weakest but all matter has DFS

Properties of IMF

(bonds) * all are much weaker than intramolecular forces

- 300 kJ Imol v. 30 kJ Imol maximum * all are based on electrostatic interactions

Study Soup

©

©

stw water is a polar molecule!

Ion-Dipole Forces on rund

exists btwn an ion & the partial charge.

on an atom in a polar molecule o bicon otxo

O

of

H

Stud

Dipole - Dipole Forces * exist btwn the partial charges on atoms

in two polar molecules

C-Cl-...H-C-Cl

Hydrogen Bonding

av Strong dipole - dipole interaction * ONLY btwn atoms of V. HIGH ELECTRONEG.

* Nitrogen 7 * Oxygen all are electronegative * Flourine on a on n=2 atoms' * Hydrogen

Stoup

t viscosity

↑ Surface tension,

Î boiling pt.

Wk 2 1/28

| Which molecules are capable of Hydrogen

Bonding?

you need to draw the Lewis

Structure in order to solve!

Effects of Hudrogen Bonding in water in accounts for the very high bp of water * accounts for the high Surface tension

accounts for the high viscocity of water

Which of the followind should have the

highest boiling point!

* more london forces - BiGGER *

London Dispersion Forces a part now

• most important for nonpolar atoms/molecules

b also called induced dipole forces d

* Nitrogen is a gas under bormal conditions ANN * can force the molecules together to

e make liquid nitrogen * remains a liquid... Some force holds it

Induced Dipole (LDF)

MOMENTARILY PARTIAL POS/NEG CHARGE

ELECTRON

D

D

NUCLEUS

ot

D

D

Ал, LIKE DISSOLVES LIKE)

Which of the following is the strongest

IMF ?

LD

COMPOUND NONPOLAR

POLAR dort POLAR WI H-

F H-O or H-N

FORCE DISPERSION 10-D / DISPERSION

H-BONDING

& DISPERSION

NOTE depends on molar mass depends on polarity must have H-F D. HO or HAN

Intermolecular Forces * affects many of the physical

of Substances

y Surface tension - 9 IMF

properties

↑ ST cobrol

y Boiling

Point

-

↑ IMF

↑ BP 20

4 vapor Pressure

- ↑ IMF

↑ BVP

a

b ViscoCity -----.1 IMF, T viscosity

L

Solubility ----- like dissolves like

Sed

* POLAR V. NONPOLAR # iiod

to Yogy

* SOLUBILITY

RULES * Soft

Nato

-

s-0

Vapor Pressure

• the K. E. of the molecules at the surface of a liquid varies over a range of values:

y some molecuies have enough KE to overcome

the attractive forces btwn the molecules Ly the weaker the attractive forces, the greater - the fraction of molecules wl enough Ke to escape As the water evaporates the pressure exerted by the vapor above the liquid 1, until at

some point, the pressure reaches a constant value, the vapor pressure of a substanice

At CONSTANT PRESSURE & CONSTANT TEMPERATURE What is the relationship btwn amount of

an ideal gas & the volume of that

same gas? HINT" PV = nRT

THE GREATER THE VOLUME

THE GREATER THE AMOUNT LOF GAS!!!

Studio

SOU

V vapor

atm

=

↑ boiling

point

304 x

that

form

What is inside the bubbles when Ethyl Alcohol boils?

ETHYL ALCOHOL

1

Whicho of the following molecuies should

have the lowest vapor pressure

Lone wl highest molar mass CL14 153.819/mol

SOU

Conversion of States of matter SOLID LIQUID

GAS Méttina

VAPORIZATION

snov

Fusion

test SUBLIMATION

Git all of these processes require energy stis and are considered ENDOTHERMIC

gas

liquid

Solid 1

love

CONDENSATION

FREEZING

DEPOSITION

energy

* all of these

considered

proceses Produce EXOTHERMIC

Soup

Heating

Curve

angled lines represent Specific heat change.

100°C

gas

Temp.

liquid

horizontal lines represent I process change

Solid

Heat Added

[ENDOTHERMIC

OSO

Calculating Heat Added 1. A heat => enthalpy

• 2 types of heat:

4 Specific heat s process heat

Specific Heat * amount of heat required to raise the temp.

of a specific amount of substance

U

Specific

Heat (Ophase ) = 5

MAT

q=ht added m= mass Ato change in temp

in

SOM

Process Heat * heat associated wla Specific Change

4 example:

A H ( fusion) AH (vaporization) AH ...etc.

Example

Question

0°64 20) = 20°C

500

Xg 2 0.500kg/ 1000g

Hinat

1158 - 500g

VASO

Cice

=

8

MAT

g = (Cice) (m) (07)

God (500g) (2002) q = 21 kJ

OH = 500g i moly 16.02 KJ - 1167 KJ

(4.25 ) (500g) (5030) - 105,00 Llos »J] 167 + 105 + 21 = 293 kJ

4.2

J

1000 g/kg

practice

problem is exothermic

Studio

Stuur

TAKE HOME QUIZ DUE NEXT WEEK

Phase

Diagram

-

relationships btwn 3

SOM

Stud SOUS

solid

pressure/

• triple point : all 3 Som

exist at the same time

gas

Temperature

Solids

* crystalline Solids

- Unit celis (3 types: Primitive, body-Centered, face-Centered * amorphous Solids - glass

Cubic) * types of Solids *

* molecular

* Covalent - network (diamond, graphite * ionic * metallic

Unit Cells

Primitive cubic G atoms @ Corners contribute to 18 of an atom

to each unit cell; 5o 8 (18) = 1 atomlion 1. Body-centered Cubic

4 atoms in the center contribute 100% to each

unit cells so I atomlion in center = 1 atomlion h in a body-centered cell the total is 8 (18) + L

center = 2 atoms/ions EMPERICAL FORMULA = AB

• Face - Centered

atoms

Stud

USO

• Edge - Centered thg

Ly each atomlion in an edge Centered

Unit cell contributes 14 of an atomlion

to the unit Cell y so 12 (114) = 3 atoms/ions Contributed

to the unit cell

Svatima

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