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UH / Engineering / BIOL 1344 / Enumerate the functions of the blood.

Enumerate the functions of the blood.

Enumerate the functions of the blood.

Description

School: University of Houston
Department: Engineering
Course: Human Anatomy and Physiology 2
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: A&P2
Cost: 50
Name: A & P 2 Study Guide
Description: These study guide covers what has been done in class all the way to the Intro of Chp 19
Uploaded: 02/04/2019
48 Pages 33 Views 1 Unlocks
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A&P 2 Study Guide Don't forget about the age old question of Where can we see personality?

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Functions of blood

  1. Transportation of gases and other substances
  2. Buffering of pH, temp & osmolarity
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  4. Clothing to prevent blood fluid loss.

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Blood makes up a portion of extracellular fluid in the body.

Blood is a homogenous mixture with a red appearance

Veins observed through the skin appear blue because blue light is more readily reflected by body tissues whereas red light is more readily absorbed (especially in deoxygenated blood)If you want to learn more check out What regulates metabolism and calcium ion levels?

This creates the “tinting effect" when blood is viewed through sypoticaal Mayers of tissue.If you want to learn more check out What are the three functions of the circulatory system?

Blood volume is usually in proportion to body site, men have 5-6L of blood women have 4-5L of blood

Simplest way to analyze blood is by centrifuging which separates blood components based on density

Plasma is the liquid fraction of blood. (90% H2O by volune)

Plasma is a colloid solution (solution where all solutes are either soluble in the solvent, or small enough to avoid setting out of solution)

lons in plasma include, Na+, K+, Ca2+, Cl-, HCO3

Albumin:

  • Regulates osmolarity
  • Function as carrier molecules

Globulin:

  • Function as carrier molecules
  • transport immunoglobulins(antibodies)

Fibrinogen

  • Play a role in blood clotting

Hormones

  • Serve as ligands for receptors throughout the body

 Whole blood:

  • Plasma 55% [45-62%]
  • Formed elements 45% [ 36-55%]

Blood volume is regulated by homeostasis

An increase in RBCs is called polycythemia

An increase in WBC results in Leukemia

A procedure do analyze blood is called complete blood count (CBC)

WBC:

  • The # of white blood cell per volume of blood analyzed

RBC:

  • The # of red blood cells per volume of bloud analyzed a

HGB:

  • Mass of hemoglobín found in a given volume of blood

leukemia is caused acquired (not inherited) DNA Damage

100

HCT: Hematocrit

MCV (mean corpuscular volume):

  • approximates site of a typical red blood cell

MGH (mean cell hemoglobin)

  • average amount of hemoglobin within each red blood cell

MCHC (mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration)

  • Amount of hemoglobin in a packed volume of cells

RDW (red blood cell distribution width)

  • approximates fluctuation in mcv from cell to cell

PLT: # of platelets per volume of blood analysed

RBCs have a biconcave shape

Features of RBC's

  • Biconcave shape allows RBCs to bend, fold and “stack" to prevent blockage in tiny blood vessels.
  • Experience, greater shear stress.
  • Biconcavity also increases surface area for gas exchange
  • Anucleate: Don't have a nucleus, non-mitotic
  • Prone to apoptosis (programmed cell death)
  • Their biconcavity allows them to flex as they navigate through narrow capillaries
  • RBCs are produced from stem cell progenitors called hematopoietic stem cells.
  • Hematopoietic stem cell located inside med bone marrow

Men have higher hematocrit

Major stages of erythropoiesis

Hematopoietic stem cell -> myeloid stem cell -> proerythroblast -> basophilic erythroblast -> polychromatic erythroblast ->  orthochromatic erythroblast -> reticulocyte -> mature erythrocytes

Myeloablation is condition where RBCs production in the bone marrow is greatly impaired

Bone marrow can be obtained from the iliac crest of one's blood (autog) or a close relative (allograft)

Hypoxia is a stress condition created by low oxygen in the tissues

Erythropoietin (EPO) is a hormone which drives erythrocyte maturation

Hypoxia and (testosterone signal EPO release)

EPO is released by the kidney and liver

Blood doping is artificially inducing polycythemia by taking testerone, EPO or highly packed RBC suspensions

Anemia: Blood disorder characterised by body's failure to sup tissues with sufficient O2

Abnormally large erythrocytes are referred to as megaloblasts, due to lack of folate and Vit B12

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