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APSY 389 EXAM #1 STUDY GUIDE Highlight=Key Terms Highlight= Key Concepts

A drug that alters the mind and effects mood and behavior.


Drug Classes:

Sedative: A drug taken to calm down, to induce sleep. Its goal is to slow  

brain activity.  


Acute: Sedation, coma, anesthesia, and death

Chronic: withdrawal, cross-tolerance, and insomnia

o Alcohol

o Barbiturates: they start with Pheno, Seco, Amo, Barbital e.g.  amobarbital

o Hypnotic

o Benzodiazepines: Xanax, klonopin, clonazepam, valium ∙ Stimulant: A drug that increase alertness, attention, and energy by  raising the levels of key chemicals (such as dopamine) in the brain and other parts of the body. Mainly used for ADHD


Acute: Elation, heightened arousal, dilated pupils, sweating Chronic: Irritability, paranoia, and sleep disturbance, psychosis o Cocaine

o Caffeine: derived from cocoa bean pods,

Comprising the bulk of the neuron and containing the nucleus,

o Nicotine

o Amphetamine: Ma Huang, Ephedrine, Synthetic

∙ Narcotic: A drug that alters the mind and effects mood & behavior Effects:

Acute: Euphoria, relaxation. Constipation, potential, lethality Chronic: Insomnia, irritability, twitching, and spontaneous orgasm o Opium

o Morphine

o Heroin

o Codeine

∙ Anxiolytic: A drug used to reduce anxiety

Acute: upset stomach, confusion, drowsiness, headache, dry mouth Chronic: diarrhea, sexual dysfunction, seizures, suicidal thoughts,  

weight gain

e.g. antihistamines, diphenhydramine

∙ Inhalant 


Acute: laughter, intoxication

Chronic: Cancer, kidney and liver failure, hypoxia

o Ether

o Glue

o Solvents

o Nitrites

∙ Hallucinogen Don't forget about the age old question of serotiny bio


Acute: mood swings, thought disorder, synesthesia, and hallucinations Chronic: Bad trip, DNA damage, flashbacks

What is a dendrites?

If you want to learn more check out maria benford


o NOREPINEPHRINE; peyote, mescaline

o ACETYCHOLINE; Atropine, scoplamine

o MISCELLANEOUS; ketamine, cannabinoid

Tachycardia= Fast heart rate

Pain relievers:

∙ Opiate

∙ Sedatives

∙ Anxiolytic

Inhalants: If you want to learn more check out verool

∙ Cocaine

∙ Ether

∙ Amphetamine

Drugs Effects:

∙ Physical condition

∙ Experience

∙ Setting

∙ Expectancy


Routes of Administration 

1. Oral administration  

2. Inject it with syringe 

3. smoke it, diffusing solid or liquid into gas 

4. absorbing it; sniff, a patch (think of a patch) 5. rectal suppository 


the time required for any specified property (e.g. the  concentration of a substance in the body) to decrease

by half. 

depending on the drug, it takes longer to reduce into half of  what it was

nicotine, cocaine- a few hrs

fun fact: in blood is about 1.5 hours, in saliva is about 1.2  hours, and in urine is about 4.1 hours.

marijuana- 3-4 weeks

Caffiene- 5-6 hrs

Forms of Drug Interaction 

Acute interactions 

– addictive interaction

– hyperactive interaction; very similr to ADHD

Chronic Interactions 

– tolerence: resistance to the effects of a substance  because of exposure to a pharmacologically similar  substance.

– cross- dependance: When one drug is able to suppress  the withdrawal signs and symptoms resulting from  discontinued repeated administration of another drug

metabolic tolerance- your liver gets really good at  metabolizing If you want to learn more check out oloms

Nervous system organization 

Peripheral Nervous system

– somatic system

– Autonomic system

sympathetic branch: fires you up

Sympathetic Autonomic nervous system responses Pupil dilated 

Salivary gland inhibited 

Breathing more rapid 

Accelerated heart rate  

Digestion inhibited 

Bladder relaxed 

Penile erection/vaginal moistening inhibited 

Parasympathetic branch: mellows you out; heart rate  slow

Parasymoathetic Autonomic nervous system  responses 

Pupil constricted 

Salivary gland excited 

Breathing less rapid 

Decelerated heart rate  

Digestion excited 

Bladder tension increased

Penile erection/vaginal moistening excited 

intercourse…… stimulants and sedatives work generally in  these areas. Sedatives the opposite If you want to learn more check out reverse socialization


Central Nervous System 

– spinal cord

– brain

Stimulants and Depressants 

– Stimulant drugs usually stimulate sympathetic  autonomic responses, inhibit parasympathetic  autonomic responses, or both.

– Depressant drugs usually stimulate parasympathetic  autonomic responses, inhibit sympathetic autonomic  responses, or both.

Major parts of the brain 


medulla, pons, cerebellum


substantia nigra

FOREBRAIN: We also discuss several other topics like bind 305 study guide

 hypothalamus, thalamus, cerebral cortex

(Insert picture here)

review of neurons from BIO

Cell body — comprising the bulk of the neuron and  containing the nucleus

Dendrites — relatively short appendages that receive  information from the outside (the environment or other  neurons)

Axon — relatively long appendage that transmits information outward to muscles or other neurons

(inset picture here)

Major Neurotransmitters 





Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)


Blood Brain Barrier

The blood-brain barrier is a system whereby some  substances in the bloodstream are excluded from entering  the nervous system.

Fat solubility is a key factor in the ability of a drug to pass  the blood-brain barrier

for example, body mass

Placebo Effect: sugar pill

Individuals administering the drug do not know whether the  substance administered is actually the drug or a placebo, so  in their mind they think they are  

Individuals receiving the drug do not know whether the  substance received is actually the drug or a placebo.

Review questions for Exam

1. Fastest mode on drug administration is= smoked 2. Alcoholics don’t fall asleep after taking barbiturates  because: cross-tolerance

3. Drug A= intox of 10. Drug B= intox of 5. Together they  mcreate intox of 15. Effect? = Addictive; its not  synergistic because thy value would have to be bigger  than both,  

4. The spinal cord is apart of the: central nervous system 5. Stimulating this part of the nervous system incrases  heart rate: sympathetic

6. Stimulating this part of the nervous system constricts  the pupil: parasympathetic

7. The bulk of the neuron that contains the nucleus is the:  cell body

8. The liver grows more efficient in braking down the drug  in: Metabolic tolerance

9. Receptors on the nerve grow less sensitive to a drug in:  pharmacodynamics tolerance

10. Drugs that pass the blood brain barrier are often soluble  in: FAT

11. What’s oldest? Mead, vodka, opium or Morphine? Mead

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