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UGA / History / HIST 2112 / What are the challenging issues of sanitation?

What are the challenging issues of sanitation?

What are the challenging issues of sanitation?


School: University of Georgia
Department: History
Course: American History Since 1865
Term: Spring 2019
Cost: 25
Name: Week 3 Notes
Description: Lectures 5 & 6
Uploaded: 02/04/2019
7 Pages 108 Views 4 Unlocks

Lecture 5 - “Eight Hours for What We will”: Unionization and the Labor Movement I. Working Conditions in U.S. Factories, c. late 19th century

What are the challenging issues of sanitation?

A. Child Labor

1. Some parts of machinery required small hands

2. Breathed in threads or coal dust

3. Exposed belts → high number of accidents/injuries

B. Sanitation - bad

1. Ex: Chicago

a) Major meat distributor

b) Produced lots of waste → sanitation problems

(1) Waste from meat packing (blood, fat, grease, etc)

contaminated the river

2. Other issues: meat not refrigerated, no hairnets, fats/waste → river

3. eventually led to the FDA

C. Working Hours - long

1. Six days a week (Mon-Sat)

2. 10-16 hours a day (depending on factory), 60+ hours/week

a) Double shifts were a very common thing

What are the problems with child labor?

D. Work Style - regimented, repetitive, “on the clock”

1. Taylorism - scientific management system for labor We also discuss several other topics like What do older myth and newer myth mean?

a) Efficiency program to eliminate waste (but efficiency has human


b) Taylorism expert came into factory to examine how to maximize

efficiency, get rid of “waste”

(1) Told workers how to move their bodies in order to

maximize efficiency

2. “On the clock”

a) Culture shock for those who worked on farms

(1) Farm work was still hard, but was not regimented the same

way factory work was

(2) The day to day rhythm and tasks could change, busy/slow

depending on the season

b) Factory work - regimented, same task over and over

What does "deskilling" of labor connote?

E. “Deskilling” of labor

1. People didn’t have to be “skilled”, so could be paid less Don't forget about the age old question of What are the regulations under laissez-faire?

2. People didn’t have to be good at making a whole product, just one part of it

a) Shoemaker - knows materials, knows what styles for different

occasions, knows how to assemble entire shoe


b) Factory worker making a shoe - only has to know how to do one

task such as: attaching the heel, etc, and their entire job is

repeating that one task

3. Alienation of labor - “lack of humanity” to this kind of work

F. Wages - low

1. Farmland was becoming scarce, artisans were disappearing, so people moved to more of these kinds of jobs

2. High supply of workers, so wages stayed low

3. If someone complained about unfair pay, conditions, etc, they could be easily replaced

II. Mechanization

A. Produces things for cheap

1. Great for consumers and economic efficiency


1. Andrew Carnegie’s father (and many other artisans like him) lost his job due to big corporations taking over

III. Unionization and Strikes - Workers Resist Industrial Conditions

A. Union - organized group to negotiate conditions and salary of workers B. Types of Unions

1. Moderate, radical, etc

2. Some were exclusive (men only, skilled workers only, whites only, etc C. 1866 - National Labor Union If you want to learn more check out Which parties control the legislature and the executive?

1. First national labor federation in the U.S.

2. Founded by artisans (those who were most threatened by

industrialization), a bit elitist

3. excluded unskilled workers

D. 1877 - Great Railroad Strike

1. Baltimore, MD

2. B & O Railroad

a) Workers wages were cut 20% → went on strike

b) Gained lots of sympathy → sympathy strikes at other railroads →

spreads down the east coast, stops transportation

3. Strike divides people, causes controversy

4. Trying to subdue the strikers

a) Owners of factories could ask troops to come in to assist

b) Strike breakers - dangerous job, mostly blacks

(1) “Rubbed white supremacy in their faces”

5. Strikers realized they needed a national organization

IV. 1870s-1880s - Knights of Labor

1. Believed the people who labor built the land

a) Physical labor → creates wealth

2. Believed that the industrial system was skewed against them Don't forget about the age old question of What are the general transcription factors?

a) Ex: greased pole image from lecture slides

3. Support aggressive movements (strikes)

B. Radical goals - increased wages, fewer hours

1. Reduced hours → 8 hr/day standard shift

2. Bigger salary

3. Slower machinery

C. “More inclusive”

1. Open to anyone who works, esp with their hands

2. Black (segregated), irish, women, etc

3. Not so much: bankers, lawyers, etc

D. (somewhat) Anti-immigration We also discuss several other topics like Which pieces of evidence support continental drift?

1. Chinese excluded

2. hypocritical

E. The Eight Hour Movement, 1886

1. “8 hrs for work, 8 hrs for rest, 8 hrs for will”


F. Haymarket Square Riots (Summer 1886). Spells the end of the Knights 1. Protest in Haymarket Square, held May 1886 and ended well

2. Afterwards → incident where local strikers were killed

a) Some (of the more intense) people returned to the square

b) Ended up being more police present than protesters

c) Someone among the protesters threw a bomb at the police →

police opened fire on them

3. Riot vs Massacre

a) Depends on POV: Police saw riot, protesters saw massacre

b) 4 people hanged, more jailed

c) Some weren’t even involved, but were punished due to


4. Knights became associated with bomb throwing radicals, revolution, and violence → end of the Knights of Labor

V. 1886 - American Federation of Labor. More “respectable”

1. Replaced the Knights of Labor

2. Much more mainstream

B. More exclusive

1. Whites only (?)

2. Skilled laborers only

VI. More Radical Unions - often repressed by authorities

1. There were still people in labor unions who were more “revolutionaries” B. Reformers vs Revolutionaries If you want to learn more check out What is the goal and purpose of nationalism?

1. Reformers:

a) Fix the system →

b) Pass laws and regulations

c) Believe the system can work if done right

2. Revolutionaries

a) The system is rotten (Marx)/problem is systematic

b) System is against them

c) Must be completely torn down and rebuilt (may require violence)

d) Willing to be violent to produce change

e) Very small group of people

f) Found in places where jobs are the worst

(1) Ex: coal mining - most exploitative of industries at this time

C. United Mine Workers of America - Ludlow Massacre, 1914

1. Issues

a) Located in the middle of nowhere, no towns, live in house rented

from the employer

b) Everything bought from the company store (food, clothes, etc)

c) Not always paid in $$ - coupons, scrip (used only in company


d) Company had private police force - controlled workers

2. So, they were obviously sympathetic to these radical ideas

D. Industrial Workers of the World - very radical: socialists, communists, anarchists, etc.

1. Most radical organization

2. Influenced by Marx, “one union for the world”

3. (see pyramid of capitalist system)

4. Atheists - believed that religion was simply a tool for control

VII. 1892 -- Homestead Steel Strike: Andrew Carnegie Fights back

(not covered in lecture)

1. Aka: Pinkerton Rebellion, Homestead Massacre

2. Third most violent disputes in U.S. labor history

3. Ended in failure for union

Lecture 6 - Farmer Brown Strikes Back: The Populist Revolt Against Industrialism I. Intro: “The Rectangle of Righteousness?”

A. Rectangle of Righteousness = Kansas

1. One of hotbeds of rural movement against industrialization

2. Farmers saw union as ally

a) Wanted to reform industrialization

b) → more fair, humane, less corrosive

3. Strongly evangelical christian movement

B. Later

1. Middle class citizens join against industrialization

II. “Agrarian America”

A. “Jeffersonian agrarianism” - farmers as ideal citizens

1. Idolizes farmers as the center of american democracy and culture

2. Jefferson = big fan of american farming

3. “Person who tills the land = most politically virtuous citizen”

a) Willing to put the community’s needs above their own

b) Good of the commonwealth is more important

4. Not held under anyone’s thumb because they feed and clothe

themselves, independent

a) Factory workers - work under a boss who has their livelihood in

their hands (esp jobs like coal mining)

5. Jefferson believed this (factory working) was toxic →

a) Opened up land from Louisiana Purchase for farmers

III. Industrialism’s Threats to Farmers

A. Believe that the industrial system is built to hold them in place and rigged to benefit the big corporations

B. Evidence:

1. They’re in debt, always struggling financially

a) In good times struggling, in bad times even worse)

2. Always in trouble due to overproduction

a) Too good at their jobs, lots of product → prices go down

3. International competition also depresses prices

C. They feel like much of this is deliberate…

1. Banking

a) They need loans, but are charged a higher interest rate by banks

b) Banking = system of gouging/taking advantage

2. Railroads

a) Most efficient way to transport their products

b) Railroads charge the farmers to transport their goods

c) Carnegie gets lower rates → they feel cheated

D. Monopolies - railroads and banks

1. “Producerism”: the true source of wealth

a) Idea that ultimately wealth is created by physical labor, very


b) Originally, wealth in the US came from people who did manual

labor (fields and factories)

c) People like bankers aren’t doing “real work”

d) Bankers = cheaters

e) (see image: business compared to a big octopus - stretches out

and strangles everything, takes over)

E. “Status Anxiety”

1. Farmers feel like they’re being displaced → form alliances

2. (Country equivalent of a labor union)

IV. Forming “Alliances”

A. 1867-70 -- Patrons of Husbandry, aka “The Grange”

1. Activist farmers

2. Get involved in political lobbying

a) Granger laws

3. Initially not too successful

4. As industrialization ramps up, people’s feelings become more intense → National Farmers Alliance

B. 1880s - National Farmers’ Alliance

1. Equivalent to the Knights of Labor

a) “Knights of Labor are our allies”

b) Pro-right to strike

c) Interesting comparing urban-rural relationship

(1) Then: alliance

(2) Now: divide

2. In South

a) Black farmers sharecropping, tenant farming

b) populist movement was also white supremacist

c) Mutual enemy (industrialism) but whites still dedicated to

segregation and anti-immigration

d) Blacks formed own populist groups

V. The National Alliance’s Plan - the “Ocala Demands” (1890) and the “Omaha Platform” (1892)

A. Grievances/proposed changes of the Populists

1. Public ownership of the railroads

a) Should be government run - “too important to be left to private


b) To get fair rate for transportation

2. Direct election of senators/graduated income tax

a) Unfair that the wealthy vote, want the voice of ALL the people to

be heard

3. No protective tariffs for industry

a) Where is the tariff to protect agriculture? Why only industry?

b) Land giveaway

(1) homestead act - Easily taken advantage of - people want

to get hands on public land

(2) Land given to railroads - given so much land, but “the land

is more valuable than the railroads themselves”

c) Anti-immigration

(1) Fear of wage depression

(2) “Pauperized imported labor”

d) Banks

(1) Disliked

(2) Many jews worked in them → anti-semitic

4. The “subtreasury” system

a) Problem: crop prices too low b/c of surplus

b) Solution: reduce supply to raise the prices

(1) Create artificial scarcity

c) Government builds silos and storage units for crops, when prices

get high enough, farmers flood the market with their surplus


d) Need better way to get loans

(1) Govt loan through co-op associated with the storage facility

(through subtreasury) at “fair” level

(2) Anti-predatory loaning

5. Free coinage of silver

a) Gold standard in this period

(1) $$ backed by gold → not a lot of money circulating

b) For those in debt, hard to get $$

c) Solution: try to put more $$ in circulation → put silver in the

market, induces inflation

(1) Now the value of a loan decreases, bankers lose $$

VI. 1892-96 - The Populist Party

“People’s Party”

A. Successes

1. One of the most important 3rd parties in US history

2. Won state legislatures, got people to Senate, etc

3. Relatively successful esp compared to the third parties of today

B. Women

1. In the west, have more power/opportunities than in the east

a) Get more leeway, can vote on state level

2. Important to populists

a) Saw capitalism as corrosive to the family

b) Women’s job to make sure that everyone was “communally okay”

3. Women went around pushing the populist platform

a) People are slaves and monopolies are the master

b) Politicians lie/mislead us

c) Bane of farmers - low prices

d) “Raise less corn and more hell”

e) (all said by Mary Elizabeth Lease)

C. 1896 - William Jennings Bryan and “fusion” with Democrats

1. WJB - hero of populists

a) Cross of gold speech

2. Populists worked more with democrats

a) Republicans = pro-industrialism

b) So, fusion of those two parties occurs

D. The demise of (political) Populism

1. McKinley wins election of 1896

a) Election outcome = decision to continue with industrialization

b) Populists fade away, but not culturally

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