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FSU - PUR - Intro to PR Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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background image Introduction to Public Relations
Exam 1 Study Guide
Chapters 1­4 • Chapter 1: “Defining Public Relations”: ­Public Relations Society of America’s 2012 definition = “Public relations is a strategic  communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and 
their publics.”
­ author of the textbook’s definition = “Public relations is a planned process to influence  public opinion, through sound character and proper performance, based on mutually satisfactory  two­way communication.”
* What are the importance differences between these two definitions?
­The second definition adds the elements of “planning” and “two­way communication”, as well 
as introducing ethics with “sound character.” These are all very important aspects of 
good/successful public relations practices.  ­ John Marston’s suggested 4­step model for influencing public opinion (RACE): 1) Research – research the attitudes at hand. 2) Action – identify action of the client in the public interest.
3) Communication – communicate that action to gain understanding, acceptance, 
and support. 4) Evaluation – evaluate the communication to see if opinion has been influenced. * What is the most important step within this model?
­Action is the key step in this model. You cannot have effective communication or positive 
publicity without taking the proper action. As the book says, performance must precede 
publicity.
­in order to work, public relations but establish an honest two­way communication  between representatives and the management (client) that they serve, advice to management 
must be “unfiltered, uncensored, and unexpurgated.”
­Professor Sharpe’s applied 5 principles to the public relations process: 1) honest communication for credibility 2) openness and consistency of actions for confidence
3) fairness of actions for reciprocity and goodwill
4) continuous two­way communication to prevent alienation and to build  relationships 5) environmental research and evaluation to determine the actions or adjustments  needed for social harmony. ­public relations professionals as “management interpreters” ­must know what the management is thinking, and once policy is established, to  communicate these ideas accurately and candidly to the public ­public relations professionals as “public interpreters”
background image ­finding out what the public really thinks about the organization and letting  management know ­The publics of public relations: * What constitutes a “public”? ­ a public arises when a group of people: 1) faces a similar indeterminate situation, 2) 
recognizes what is indeterminate and problematic in that situation, and 3) organizes to
do something about the problem.
­Categories of Publics:
­ Internal and external = internal publics are inside the organization (managers,  stockholders, employees, etc.) external publics are those not directly connected with  the organization (press, government, customers, etc.) ­ Primary, secondary, and marginal = primary publics can most help or hinder,  secondary are less important, and marginal are least important. ­ Traditional and future = employees and current customers are traditional,  students and potential customers are future. ­ Proponents, opponents, and the uncommitted = proponents are supporters,  opponents are opposed, the uncommitted are neutral and are often most important 
because they can be persuaded, they are the “swing vote”.
*What is the difference in function between public relations and marketing & advertising? ­Marketing and advertising promote a product or a service, while public relations promotes an 
entire organization.
*What is considered “the sin of spin”? ­ In its most mild form, the strategy of spin is the distinctive interpretation of an issue or action to
sway public opinion, for example, putting a positive slant on an apparent negative story. 
However, some fear spin because in its most aggressive form, spin is spinning an answer to hide 
what really happened, lying to and confusing the public.
­once you lie, you will never be trusted again ­Case Study: “Switchgate”: What steps should (did) public relations representatives do to combat this situation? 1) Fix the problem (recalls, appointed VP of global safety
2) Get the bad news out (recall past and current problematic products)
3) Find out why what happened happened (internal investigation)
4) Bridle the Lawyers (hire impartial arbiter)
5) Be visible and human (becoming the “face” of the company’s response) ­In public crisis, it’s very important to establish an environment of neutrality  and trust • Chapter 2: “The History and Growth of Public Relations”:
** I recommend just skimming over the early PR history on pages 26­28 for background
­emergence of the Robber Barons
background image ­American industrial revolution ushered in the growth of public relations, as  industry and big business became prominent, these big companies needed PR  ­ monopolies cared more about profit than their fellow citizens and the public  cursed them as “robber barons” ­enter the Muckrakers ­journalists dubbed “muckrakers”, exposed the scandalous operations of  America’s business enterprises (ex. Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle, Ida Tarbell’s History of 
the Standard Oil Company
, and magazines such as McClure’s)
­Ivy Lee: The Father of Public Relations ­hired by J.D. Rockefeller ­ he believed that instead of merely appeasing the public, a company should strive to earn public confidence and goodwill ­helped establish the idea that high­powered companies and individuals have a  responsibility to inform their publics ­The Growth of Modern Public Relations ­Government ­growth of PR during WWI and WWII, establishment of the Creel  Committee and the Office of War Information ­combat President Truman’s seizure of monopoly companies ­Counseling ­nation’s first public relations firm the Publicity Bureau est. 1900 Boston ­ most significant counselor (aside from Ivy Lee) was Edward L. Bernays,  author of the landmark book Crystalizing Public Relations, he taught the first course in PR in 
1923, underscored the importance of strategic communications advice for clients, one of his 
major contributions was transforming the PR practice from a purely journalistic based approach 
to one that also used psychology, sociology, and social­phycology in order to reach individuals 
in terms of desires, fears, and needs ­Corporations ­ Arthur W. Page became AT&T’s first public relations VP in 1927
­Page’s 5 principles of successful corporate public relations:
1)  to make sure management thoughtfully analyzes its overall     
relation to the public
2) to create a system for informing all employees about the firms’ 
general policies and practices
3) to create a system giving contact employees (those having direct
dealings with the public) the knowledge needed to be reasonable 
and polite to the public
4) to create a system drawing employee and public questions and 
criticism back up through the organization to management
5) to ensure frankness in telling the public about the company’s 
actions

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School: Florida State University
Department: Public Relations
Course: Introduction to Public Relations
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Public and relations
Name: Intro to PR Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: A study guide covering the material from Chapters 1-4.
Uploaded: 02/04/2019
7 Pages 140 Views 112 Unlocks
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