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VIRGINIA COMMONWEALTH UNIVERSITY / Psychology / PSYC 412 / In 10000bce, an illness caused by evil spirits is treated with what?

In 10000bce, an illness caused by evil spirits is treated with what?

In 10000bce, an illness caused by evil spirits is treated with what?

Description

School: Virginia Commonwealth University
Department: Psychology
Course: Health Psychology
Term: Spring 2019
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Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 412 Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: Chapter 1,2,6 and 7
Uploaded: 02/04/2019
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Health Psychology Test 1 Study Guide Chapter 1: Intro to Health Psychology


In 10000bce, an illness caused by evil spirits is treated with what?



● What is health psychology? 

“The application of psychological principles and research to the enhancement of health and the prevention/treatment of illness”

● Good working definition because prior the idea of health was all physical; this includes ALL aspects of health

● Areas of Health Psychology and their goals:

○ Health promotion and maintenance → promote/instill health behaviors

○ Prevention/Treatment of illness → new focus on We also discuss several other topics like What is the 3rd law of thermodynamics?

prevention medicine

○ Etiology- the scientific study of causes/origins of specific diseases → focuses on the correlating psychology factors of diseases


What is the focus of the ecological systems theory?



○ Healthcare system check → improving our current

healthcare and policies to fit our changing society

○ Help people cope with disease/illnesses → psychology factors and interdisciplinary approach to treatment

● History of Health

Timeline for Healing We also discuss several other topics like Adaptive radiation means what?

● Prehistoric period (10,000 BCE)

○ illness caused by evil spirits and treated with sorcery

● Ancient Egypt (2000 BCE)

○ Demons and punishment by the gods caused illnesses ○ Sorcery and primitive forms of surgery and hygiene were considered treatment


What is the biomedical model?



● Ancient China (1100-200 BCE)

○ Unbalanced forces of nature caused illness

○ Treated with herbal medicine and acupuncture

● Ancient Greece

○ Illness caused by an imbalance of bodily humors ○ Good diet and good living would cure it

● Ancient Rome (200 BCE)

○ “Pathogens” such as bad air and body humors caused illness Don't forget about the age old question of What is the function of the endocrine system?

○ Treated by bloodletting, enemas and baths If you want to learn more check out Texans have a high poverty rate of how many percent?

● Middle Ages (476-1450)

○ Disease was divine punishment for sins

○ Cured by miraculous intervention, invoking saints ● Renaissance

○ Disease was a physical condition of the body which was separated from the mind

○ Surgical techniques first used

● 1800s

○ Disease caused by microscopic organisms

○ Treatment was surgery and immunization

● 1920s We also discuss several other topics like Who is benjamin franklin?

○ Disease influenced by mind and emotions and treated with psychoanalysis, psychiatry and other medical methods ● 21st Century

○ Biopsychosocial model

● Biomedical model - the idea that a physical cause is at the root of all illness

○ No psychology considerations are considered irrelevant ○ Challenges

→ Freud and his psychoanalytic contributions, some illnesses have psychological symptoms that manifest physically

→ Franz Alexander and psychosomatic medicine,

personality (mind) patterns linked to bodily

■ Result of challenges: neither are sufficient enough alone to cause illness

● Pathogen​ - a virus bacterium or some other microorganism that causes a particular disease

● Reductionism - “complex phenomena” have root in a single primary factor

○ Plays into Mind Body Dualism where mind and body are separate and their interactions are obsolete

● Biopsychosocial Approach

Health Psychology We also discuss several other topics like What is meaning of down syndrome?

● Mind and body are not separated

● Ecological Systems Theory - which states all levels are linked together hierarchically → changes in one level causes changes to another level

● Clinical Applications - diagnosis should contain 3 factors → biological, psychological and social factors

○ Relationship with patient and practitioner is important ■ Improves treatment efficiency

● Health Psychology as a Growing Field

○ Positive health- scientific study of health assets which are factors that produce longer life, reduce illness and increase overall well-being

○ Health psychology is a growing field as researchers work to see the types of things (diseases/illnesses) that are killing people today

■ Because of higher death expectancy, causes of death has changed

■ Acute disorders - flu

■ Chronic illnesses - heart disease

○ Formal Emergence of Health Psychology 

■ 1973 - AOA creates task force to study role of health in psychology

■ 1979 - APA creates diversion 38 of health psychology ■ 2000- APA creates diversion 54 for pediatric psychology ○ Careers in Health Psychology 

■ Behavioral Medicine - adherence to medical regimes and coping with illness

■ Pediatric Medicine - health psychology focusing on children, adolescents and their families

■ Public health - aims to spread health promotion and preventative health services

Chapter 2: Research in Health Psychology

● The Scientific Method

○ Pose question and formulate hypotheses

○ Design an investigation

○ Collect data

○ Analyze data

○ Distribute the results

Types of Data

Nature of Data

Surveys and Interviews

Quantitative data

Observations

Qualitative data

Standardized Tests

Physiological measures

● Psychology Research Designs

○ Correlation - determine naturally occurring associations among existing variables

○ Correlation coefficient - quantifies strength and direction of associations

**Correlation is not the same as causation**

● Experimental - manipulate the independent variable and then look for changes in the dependent variable, while controlling all other variables

○ Helps identify cause and effect

● Quasi Experimental - study comparing two groups that differ naturally on a specific variable of interest

○ Hard to control and manipulate because this is dealing with intractable variable → variable that is difficult or

impossible to manipulate

○ Ex) age, gender, ethnicity

○ Tend to be related to underlying biological, cognitive and social factors that are the true causal variable

● Time Span of Research

○ Cross sectional study - a type of observational study in which data are collected from a population, or representative subset, at one specific point in time

■ Limitations

● Do not reveal information about changes in people

over a period of time

● Make sure that the various groups are somewhat

similar in ways other than different levels of the

independent variable

○ Longitudinal Study - where a single group of people is observed over a long period of time

■ Allows information about a person at one age to be

compared with information about the same person at a

different age

● Epidemiology

“The scientific study of the frequency, distribution and causes of a particular disease of other health outcome in a population”

● Common terms :

○ Etiology - the origins of causes of specific diseases

○ Morbidity - number of cases of a specific disease, injury or disability in a given group of people at a time

○ Mortality - number of deaths due to a specific cause in a given group or people at a given time

■ Incidence - number of new cases of a disease or

condition that occur in a specific population within a

defined time interval

■ Prevalence - number of diagnosed cases of a disease

or condition that exist at a given time

● Objectives in Epidemiological Research 

1. Pinpoint the etiology of a particular disease in order

to generate hypotheses

2. Evaluate hypotheses

3. Test the effectiveness of specific preventative health

interventions

● Epidemiology- Research Design:

○ Retrospective studies - a longitudinal study that looks back at the history of a group of people, often suffering from a particular disease or condition → ex) AIDS - increase among gay men because of unprotected anal sex

■ case control study - people with disease or condition (case) are compared with people who are not affected by the

disease or condition (control group)

○ Protective study - a forward looking longitudinal study that begins with a health group of subjects and follows the

development of a particular disease in that sample → ex) tracking women’s alcohol consumption to see if women who drink more are likely to get breast cancer

■ Can yield to more specific information than retrospective studies about potential causal relationships between health behaviors and health outcomes

● Experimental Research

○ Natural Experiment - a researcher attempts to study an independent variable under natural conditions that approximate to a controlled study → ex)- group members exposing themselves to health hazards (drugs) vs. group members who are not

○ Randomized Clinical Trial - an experiment that tests the effects of one independent variable (drug or treatment) on individuals or on groups of individuals

■ Gold standard of biomedical research

■ Involves measurement of a baseline level of a condition, followed by a measure of the effectiveness of a treatment

● Meta-Analysis

○ A quantitative technique that combines the results of many studies examining the same effect or phenomenon

■ Provides a systematic procedure for summarizing existing evidence about focused research hypotheses

○ Advantages:

■ Pooling results → significant results because combined

studies have more participants

■ Findings hold up across different studies from different

researchers → gives researchers greater confidence in

findings’ validity

■ Researchers can repeat experiment and should reach same conclusion

● Relative Risk

“Ratio of the incidence or prevalence of a health condition in a group exposed to the risk factor to the incidence or prevalence NOT exposed to the risk factors”

● Indicates likelihood a particular risk factor is related to a health outcome

**Risk is NOT the same as causation**

● Critical thinking - a questioning approach to all information and arguments

● Confirmation bias - a form of faulty reasoning in which our expectations prevent us from seeing alternative explanation for our observations

Chapter 6: Theories of Health Behavior

● Health behaviors - actions that people take to maintain or improve their health

● Important Health Promoting Behaviors (example → textbook) ○ No smoking and other forms of tobacco use

○ No eating high-fat and low-fiber foods

○ Engaging in enough physical activity

○ No alcohol or other drugs (including prescription drugs) ○ Using proven medical methods for preventing or diagnosing disease early (ex. Flu shots)

○ No engaging in violent behavior or behavior that may cause unintentional injuries

● Theories of Health Behavior

○ Health belief model (HBM)- theory that identifies 4 factors that influence decision making regarding behavior

■ Perceived susceptibility - the greater the perceived

susceptibility, the stronger the motivation to engage in

health-promoting behaviors

■ Perceived severity of the health threat - the condition will have an impact on family, friends and coworkers

■ Perceived benefits of and barriers to treatment -

evaluating pros and cons of a particular health behavior

■ Cues to Action - advice from friends, media campaigns and factors like age and socioeconomic status will influence a

person

○ Theory of Planned Behavior - theory that predicts health behavior on the basis of three factors:

■ Attitude towards the behavior

● Behavior intention​ → the rational decision to engage

in a health-related behavior or to refrain from

engaging in that behavior

■ subjective norm regarding behavior

● individual’s interpretation of the views of other

people regarding particular behavior

■ control over behavior - expectation of success

○ Criticism of HBM and TPB: 

■ Attitudinal approaches are limited in explaining spontaneous or long term behavior changes

■ Attempts of health-based attitude change may evoke irrational or defensive reactions

■ Attitude change may not alter behavior change or provide necessary steps to change the behavior

■ A lot of health behaviors are automatic or unconscious ■ Doesn’t take self-regulation in account

○ The Transtheoretical Model- stage theory that contends that people pass through 5 stages in altering health-related behavior

People are not seriously thinking about

changing their behavior

People acknowledge the existence of a

problem and considering changing their

behavior

Includes thoughts and actions, preparing

themselves

People have actually changed their

behavior and trying to sustain their effort

Successful at their effort

○ Self Determination Theory - people are actively motivated to pursue their goals and change their behavior → usually tied to important values

■ Free will and choice

■ Belief that one is capable of making the change

● Levels of Prevention

○ Primary Prevention​ - health promoting actions to prevent diseases or injuries from occurring

○ Secondary Prevention​ - actions taken to identify and treat an illness or disability early in its course

○ Tertiary Prevention​- actions taken to contain damage once a disease or disability has progressed beyond its early stages

● Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

○ Focus on the conditions that elicit health behaviors and the factors that help to maintain and reinforce them

○ Form of physical therapy that emphasizes the important roles of thought processes and behavioral reinforcements in impacting behaviors and wellness

○ Apply principles of classical and operant conditioning to modify thoughts and behaviors

■ Classical - a response which is at first elicited by the second stimulus is eventually elicited by the first stimulus alone ■ Operant - learning process through which the strength of a behavior is modified by reinforcement or punishment 

○ Actions 

■ Self Monitoring- people tracking their own behavior; 

frequency and consequences of target behavior 

■ Stimulus control interventions - ridding the environment of discriminative stimuli 

■ Self reinforcement - rewarding or punishing oneself to increase or decrease a behavior 

■ Contingency contracting - contracting with another person detailing reward or punishment 

■ Behavioral Assignments- home practices supporting the goals of therapy

○ Building new skills

■ Cognitive restructuring - modifying internal monologues to promote behavior change

■ Social skills training - program teaching skills to be more effective in social situations or to deal with social anxiety ■ Relaxation training - procedure that would help people relax → decreases negative emotions

■ Mindfulness - bringing awareness and focus to what you are directly experiencing → acceptance

○ Additional components

■ Motivational interviewing - non judgemental, non

confrontational, encouraging and supportive therapy that helps a patient

● Client based

● Focuses on addressing how to change their behavior ■ Relapse Prevention - Overtime the likeliness of relapse increases

● Additional risk factors for relapse → negative affect,

low social support

● Abstinence violation effect - feeling loss of control

when a person has violated self-imposed rules

● Integrate into treatment from the onset → discuss

how it’s a lifelong process

● Techniques

○ Help identify situations likely to induce a

relapse

○ Mental rehearsal of coping responses

○ Practice exposures leads to small triggers

○ Booster sessions

● Community Health Education Programs

○ They promote changes that are difficult for individuals to accomplish

○ They reach out to a broader cross-sections of the public ○ Combine family information with the social support of friends and families

Chapter 7: Exercise, Sleep and Injury Control

● Three Pillars of Good Health

○ Physical Activity, Diet and Sleep

● Physical Activity, Exercise and Fitness

○ Exercise improves sleep, and sleep improves athletic

performance and many other facets of our well-being

○ Physical fitness - defined as a set of attributes or characteristics that people have to achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity

○ Most people likely to stick with exercise programs if they: ■ Enjoy exercise

■ Formed habit of exercising

■ Grew up in supporting families that exercise

■ Social support for exercising

■ Favorable attitude and strong sense of efficiency toward exercising

■ Believe that people should take responsibility for their

health

○ Physical Activity Recommendations: 

■ Children (under 17) → Everyday 60 mins (Moderate and

Vigorous

■ Adults (18-64 years old) → weekly 150 mins moderate OR 75 minutes of vigorous

■ Older Adults (64 years and older) → weekly 150 mins

moderate OR 75 minutes of vigorous

○ Physical Activity Interventions: 

■ Improve attitude and increase self-efficiency for PA

■ Support motivation for exercising

■ Connect to personal values

■ Self-monitoring and reinforcement

■ Environmental interventions

** Presence of barriers (ex. time or environmental factors) and self efficiency for addressing barriers**

● Sleep

○ Circadian rhythm - biological clock that operates on a 24 hour cycle

○ Rapid eye Movement (REM) - a sleep stage during which vivid dreams occur

○ Sleep in Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood

■ 25-40% children and adolescents deal with sleeping

problems

■ Most adolescents sleep 7-7.5 hours when 8-10 hours is needed per day

■ Most adults get 7-8 hours of sleep but 40% of adults get less than that

○ Adolescence

■ Chronic Sleep Deprivation

● Sleep rebound - sleeping more in the weekend to

makeup lack of sleep throughout the week

■ Factors that affect lack of sleep

● Puberty triggers circadian rhythm

● Social/environmental → school/work schedule,

increased academic demands, TV/phone use

● Emotional influence - stress and depression

○ Sleep Interventions: 

■ Education on sleep hygiene

■ Cognitive Behavioral Approaches

● Self monitoring, stimulus, mindfulness

■ Policy Changes → school change times

■ Environmental Changes

● Light exposure, bedding

● Injury Control

○ Unintentional injury - harm that is accidental

○ Intentional Injury - harm that results from behavior that is meant to hurt oneself or others

○ Leading Causes of Injury Death by Age 

■ Children less than a year old → suffocation

■ 1-4 years old → drowning

■ 5-19 years old → automobile accidents

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