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USC - NURS - Class Notes - Week 1

Created by: Tatum Kendall Elite Notetaker

USC - NURS - Class Notes - Week 1

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background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Mouth to the Esophagus  Teeth crush & soften foods Tongue tastes and moves food around Saliva moistens food Once food is swallowed, its called a bolus Food passes through the pharynx and across the epiglottis into the 
esophagus
Esophagus to Stomach Bolus slides down the esophagus, through the cardiac sphincter to the 
stomach 
Stomach adds gastric juices o Grinds the bolus to semi-liquid mass
o Called chime
Chime is released through the pyloric sphincter to the small intestine  The Small Intestine Passes by the opening to the common bile duct o Fluids enter from gallbladder
o Fluids enter from pancreas
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Travels through the duodenum, jejunum, & ileum The Large Intestine: Colon Chime passes through the ileocecal valve into the colon Colon withdraws water & electrolytes from the chime Carpeted with bacteria – some fiber digestion Waste travels to the rectum The Rectum Chime is now a semi-solid waste When it is time to defecate, the anal sphincter opens to allow the 
wastes to pass
Mechanical Digestion Chewing – teeth and tongue GI motility (involuntary muscles) o Peristalsis
o Segmentation
Stomach – 3 sets of strong muscles 
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Peristalsis Begins in the esophagus Wavelike contractions propel or push chime forward Involves longitudinal & circular muscles Segmentation Occurs in the intestines Mixes the chime with more gradual pushing Periodic squeezing occurs, forcing the contents back a few inches o Helps to mix with digestive juices
o Provides access to absorbing surface
Liquefying Process Begins in the mouth o Chewing
o Adding saliva
o Stirring with the tongue
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Stomach further mixes & kneads the foods Intestinal muscles promote further breakdown & give further access to 
the digestive juices
Stomach Has 3 sets of muscles o Longitudinal
o Circular
o Diagonal
Gastric glands secrete juices Pyloric sphincter opens briefly, about 3 times a minute to let portions 
of the liquiefiied chime into the intestine 
Chemical Digestion Digestive juices come from o Salivary glands
o Stomach
o Small intestine
o Liver (via gallbladder)
o Pancreas
Digestive juices include
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption o Water 
o Enzymes
Enzymes o Are proteins
o Facilitate chemical reactions
o Are not changed by the reactions
Organs That Secrete Digestive Juices Salivary glands – breaks dwon starch (water, amylase, salt) Stomach – breaks down protein (water, HCl, pepsin, lipase) Pancreas – enzymes and sodium bicarbonate Liver – makes bile that emulsifies fat Small intestine – enzymes & fluid (2 gal/day) Digestion in the Mouth Salivary glands secrete saliva o Contains Water Salts Enzymes including salivary amylase Initial breakdown of carbohydrates Other nutrients aren’t affected Digestion in the Stomach Initial breakdown of protein occurs o Enzyme pepsin
o Hydrochloric acid
Mucus protects the stomach from acid  Acid prevents bacterial growth Salivary amylase is digested Minor events o Digestion of fat by gastric lipase
o Digestion of sucrose by stomach acid
o Attachment of protein carrier to vitamin b12 
Digestion in the Small Intestine Pancreatic juice contains o Enzymes to digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
o Sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidic chime

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School: University of South Carolina
Department: Nursing and Health Science
Course: Clinical Nutrition
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Chapters 1 & 2
Description: These notes cover Chapter 1 & 2 of the provided Clinical Nutrition powerpoints. These leave room for additional notes to be written in during class discussion.
Uploaded: 02/04/2019
22 Pages 120 Views 96 Unlocks
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