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USC - NURS - Class Notes - Week 1

Created by: Tatum Kendall Elite Notetaker

USC - NURS - Class Notes - Week 1

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background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Mouth to the Esophagus  Teeth crush & soften foods Tongue tastes and moves food around Saliva moistens food Once food is swallowed, its called a bolus Food passes through the pharynx and across the epiglottis into the 
Esophagus to Stomach Bolus slides down the esophagus, through the cardiac sphincter to the 
Stomach adds gastric juices o Grinds the bolus to semi-liquid mass
o Called chime
Chime is released through the pyloric sphincter to the small intestine  The Small Intestine Passes by the opening to the common bile duct o Fluids enter from gallbladder
o Fluids enter from pancreas
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Travels through the duodenum, jejunum, & ileum The Large Intestine: Colon Chime passes through the ileocecal valve into the colon Colon withdraws water & electrolytes from the chime Carpeted with bacteria – some fiber digestion Waste travels to the rectum The Rectum Chime is now a semi-solid waste When it is time to defecate, the anal sphincter opens to allow the 
wastes to pass
Mechanical Digestion Chewing – teeth and tongue GI motility (involuntary muscles) o Peristalsis
o Segmentation
Stomach – 3 sets of strong muscles 
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Peristalsis Begins in the esophagus Wavelike contractions propel or push chime forward Involves longitudinal & circular muscles Segmentation Occurs in the intestines Mixes the chime with more gradual pushing Periodic squeezing occurs, forcing the contents back a few inches o Helps to mix with digestive juices
o Provides access to absorbing surface
Liquefying Process Begins in the mouth o Chewing
o Adding saliva
o Stirring with the tongue
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption Stomach further mixes & kneads the foods Intestinal muscles promote further breakdown & give further access to 
the digestive juices
Stomach Has 3 sets of muscles o Longitudinal
o Circular
o Diagonal
Gastric glands secrete juices Pyloric sphincter opens briefly, about 3 times a minute to let portions 
of the liquiefiied chime into the intestine 
Chemical Digestion Digestive juices come from o Salivary glands
o Stomach
o Small intestine
o Liver (via gallbladder)
o Pancreas
Digestive juices include
background image Chapter 2: Digestion & Absorption o Water 
o Enzymes
Enzymes o Are proteins
o Facilitate chemical reactions
o Are not changed by the reactions
Organs That Secrete Digestive Juices Salivary glands – breaks dwon starch (water, amylase, salt) Stomach – breaks down protein (water, HCl, pepsin, lipase) Pancreas – enzymes and sodium bicarbonate Liver – makes bile that emulsifies fat Small intestine – enzymes & fluid (2 gal/day) Digestion in the Mouth Salivary glands secrete saliva o Contains Water Salts Enzymes including salivary amylase Initial breakdown of carbohydrates Other nutrients aren’t affected Digestion in the Stomach Initial breakdown of protein occurs o Enzyme pepsin
o Hydrochloric acid
Mucus protects the stomach from acid  Acid prevents bacterial growth Salivary amylase is digested Minor events o Digestion of fat by gastric lipase
o Digestion of sucrose by stomach acid
o Attachment of protein carrier to vitamin b12 
Digestion in the Small Intestine Pancreatic juice contains o Enzymes to digest carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
o Sodium bicarbonate to neutralize acidic chime

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School: University of South Carolina
Department: Nursing and Health Science
Course: Clinical Nutrition
Term: Spring 2019
Name: Chapters 1 & 2
Description: These notes cover Chapter 1 & 2 of the provided Clinical Nutrition powerpoints. These leave room for additional notes to be written in during class discussion.
Uploaded: 02/04/2019
22 Pages 118 Views 94 Unlocks
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