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UOP - MATH 35 - Study Guide - Midterm

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UOP - MATH 35 - Study Guide - Midterm

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background image Math 035 - Dr. Albert Greer: Midterm #1 Study Guide  Introduction to Statistics  Vocabulary  1. Statistics​: the science of learning from data 
2. Statistical inference​: the analysis of data to learn about a population  
3. Population​: a set of similar individuals  
4. Sample​: a representative subset of a pop 
5. Variable​: a characteristic of an individual 
a. Categorical: descriptive group 
b. Quantitative: numerical value/units of measurement 
6. Simple Random Sample​ “SRS”: randomly pick ​n​ individuals from a population 
7. Statistical Inference​: Analysis of data in order to learn about properties of a population 
8. Bias​: systematic error in how a sample represents a population 
9. Stratified Random Sample​: divide a population into similar groups of “strata” obtaining 
an SRS from each group  10. Double-blind Experiment​: In order to reduce bias, neither subjects nor the persons  administering treatment know who gets which treatment  11. Treatment​: explanatory variable 
12. Matched Pairs design​: use this design to compare two treatments by choosing pairs of 
subjects that are closely matched  13. Distribution​: tells us what values it takes and how often it takes the values   
How We Get our Data 
(1) Observation Study  (a) *not trying to influence the responses  (2) Experiment  (a) *try to influence responses by introducing a treatment   
Common Source of Bias 
(1) Undercoverage: didn’t sample enough individuals 
(2) Nonresponse: not everyone responds or answers 
(3) Response Bias: people who answer are more likely to have certain traits 
(4) Poorly worded questions: 
 
Ways to reduce bias in an experiment 
(1) Replication: Include a large # of individuals/subjects  (a) i.e., the study of “does meditation reduce high blood pressure?”  (2) Control: the control group receives no treatment  (a) i.e., the experimental group is taught meditation  (3) Randomization: randomly assign who is in which group     
background image Math 035 - Dr. Albert Greer: Midterm #1 Study Guide  Interpreting Histograms        Measures of Center  Vocabulary  1. Mean​: the average value of a sample (µ) 
2. Median​: a measure of center such that half the observations are below µ and half are 
above  3. Variance​: a measure of variability or spread 
4. Standard Deviation​: a measure of spread 
5. Density Curve​: used to describe the distribution of the quantitative variable for a 
population   
Quartiles 
1st Quartile (Q​
1​ ) - 25% of observations are below Q​ 1   2nd Quartile (M) - larger than 50% of observations 
3rd Quartile (Q​
3​ ) - larger than 75% of observations   
Outlier - more than 1.5 IQR below Q​
1​  or more than 1.5 IQR above Q​ 3    
Boxplot​: shows the 5-number summary: min, Q​
1​ , M, Q​ 3​ , MAX   
Normal Distribution ​N 
x̄ - sample mean 
μ - population mean 
S - standard deviation for sample 

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School: University of the Pacific
Department: Engineering
Course: MATH35
Professor: Sara Malec
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Statistics, Math, least-squares regression lines, scatterplots, correlation, measureofspread, Quartiles, center, Variability, Histograms, histogram, Sampling, data, mean, median, and IQR
Name: Math 35 Midterm 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide provides an overview of all the material that will be on the exam.
Uploaded: 02/05/2019
3 Pages 34 Views 27 Unlocks
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