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Exam 1 Study Guide
● Environmental Science- part of biology that focuses on the study of relationships in the natural world and the relationships between organisms and their
● Some major environmental changes we face today are pollution, global warming, overpopulation, climate change, and natural resource depletion
● Sustainability- is the capacity to endure or how biological systems remain diverse and productive over time.
● Most populous countries in the world: China, India, and the USA Don't forget about the age old question of thomas beigel umd
● The more our population increases means the more fresh water that will need to be provided.
○ Ex: Three Gorges Dam- China
○ The more people=more energy
○ More demand for food and more housing
○ More people means more pollution
○ Ex: Our electricity comes from coal, nuclear, and power plants, and
producing energy from these resources takes a severe toll on our
environment, polluting our air, land, and water.
● How would you define something as “living”
○ Order- Lifeforms show organization
○ Living things can independently reproduce
○ Living things grow and develop
○ Respond to environment and require energy inputs
○ Life adapts
● Life shows a “hierarchy” of form
Upper level hierarchy:
● Science always starts with observations
● How do scientists test hypotheses We also discuss several other topics like stqa notes
○ If (hypothesis)
○ And (test)
○ Then (prediction)
● You can evaluate whether a scientist is right by viewing their observations and using logic to test their hypothesis.
● All claims made in scientific papers have to be supported by data or references to other papers
● The peer review process determines whether journals should publish a paper or not Don't forget about the age old question of Define energy and how it relates to the states (solid, liquid, gas) of matter.
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● Peer Review Process:
○ Author submits paper to a journal
○ Journal decides where paper goes based on the specific subject
○ Editor asks 2-3 peers to read and write an anonymous review of the paper ○ If all the reviews are positive the editor will publish the paper but if the reviews are negative the editor will either ask for revisions from the author or reject the paper Don't forget about the age old question of marine biology study guide
Chemistry of Life
★ Elements: a substance that cannot be be decomposed into simpler substances ★ Molecules: a group of atoms bonded together
★ Atoms: smallest possible unit of an element consisting of a nucleus surrounded by electrons
★ Compounds: formed when two or more chemical elements are bonded together ★ Physical change: change that affects the form of a chemical substance but not its composition
★ Chemical change: when a new substance is formed through a chemical reaction ★ Nuclear change: fission or fusion of a nucleus of an atom or combing of protons and neutrons Don't forget about the age old question of sian evans fiu
★ Chemical equation for combustion: CH+O₂→CO₂+H₂O
★ Elemental states
○ Solids: Atoms are rigidly bound together
○ Liquids: Atoms moving around slowly
○ Gases: Atoms are flying around
★ Plants use 6 carbon dioxide molecules to make 1 glucose molecule ○ Energy is required to rearrange atoms and make chemical bonds
○ Plants eat carbon from the atmosphere and hydrogen from groundwater ★ CO₂: Carbon Dioxide
★ O₂: Oxygen
★ C₆H₁₂O₆: Glucose
★ H₂O: Water
★ Respiration: Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water
★ Photosynthesis: Carbon Dioxide + Water → Glucose + Oxygen
★ Limestone forms from shells, coral, and algal, it can also be formed from calcium carbonate from lake or ocean water.
★ One piece of evidence for the age of Earth is the bombardment era ★ The miller experiments were significant because it showed how the atmosphere and how life resulted from it
★ Chemical Evolution Hypothesis: organic building blocks of life were created when inorganic molecules bonded together.
★ Faunal Succession: observation that sedimentary rock contains fossilized fauna and flora and that the fossils are stacked horizontally telling what existing during a certain period of time.
❖ We identify different environments on earth based on their climate ❖ Biomes are affected by average annual rainfall and temperature because it determines what life exists in that biome
❖ Latitude and elevation affect the distribution of biomes because it affects the temperature of that biome.
❖ Physical setting also plays a role in biome distribution because it affects what plants and animals can live and grow there based on the environment conditions.
❖ A habitat is the environment of an animal, plant, or other organism ❖ Biotic factors: people, animals, plants
❖ Abiotic factors: rocks, water, air, wind, temperature, light
❖ Biomes in Montana: arid lands, grasslands, steppe, boreal forest, and wetlands
● Where did all the species come from?
○ Species evolved from a common ancestor
● Charles Darwin’s theory: all species on earth are descended with modification from a common ancestor
● Evolution explains vestigial structures, like why humans have “tail bones” or why whales have “leg bones”
● Descent hypothesis: fossil record should show transitional species
○ Transitional fossils: cetacea
● An example of a transitional fossil is the archeopteryx, which was a dinosaur like skeleton with feathers (discovered 1861)
● Natural selection- environment selects who survives and reproduces ○ Ex: Musk ox
○ Variation- some oxen have thicker wool than others
○ Selection- musk ox without thick wool died
○ Inheritance- offspring of surviving ox had warm wool
○ Generations- this slowly changed the population
○ Another example: mountain cliffs were an escape habitat for sheep, clumsy sheep do not survive and sure footed sheep do
● Three requirements for natural selection
○ Variable trait
○ Trait is heritable
○ Differential survival/ reproduction (selection)
➢ 29 reindeer that were on Saint Matthews Island in 1944 turned into 6,000 by 1963 but then the population crashed and by 1980 all the reindeer on the island were dead due to over population and not enough food
○ Another example of this is in 1859, 24 rabbits were released in Australia, the population grew so much that ranchers had to leave because the rabbits destroyed the area
➢ Carrying capacity is the number of living organisms that a region can support without environmental degradation.
➢ Exponential growth- growth that increases by a constant percentage each unit of time. ➢ Arithmetic growth- increases by a constant number each unit of time ➢ Doubling time depends on growth rate
➢ Doubling time formula: DT= ln(2)/r (r= percent increase)
➢ Age pyramids show if a population is increasing, decreasing, or is stable ○ Mushroom shape= declining population
○ Bell shape= increasing population
○ Relatively straight= stable population
● Keystone species: a species which other species in an ecosystem depend, and if it were removed the ecosystem would drastically change.
○ Ex: cougar, sea otter, beaver, hummingbirds, jaguar, star fish, african elephants ● Effects of grey wolves in Yellowstone, lower elk population, prevent more erosion, change the way rivers/creeks move, promote more tree growth, etc.