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UCONN - COMM 3300 - Communications 3300 Mass Media Exam 2 and Clicker

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UCONN - COMM 3300 - Communications 3300 Mass Media Exam 2 and Clicker

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background image Comm 3300 Study Guide   
 
ACQUIRING: You gain something  new  from media exposure  TRIGGERING: Media exposure  activates  something that already exists inside you  ALTERING: Media exposure  changes  something that already exists  REINFORCING: Repeated exposure  strengthens  existing thing   
Chapter 6: Physiological Effects 
 
Brian and mind distinctions two views:  ○ The brain and the mind are the same thing; everything is just a chemical  reaction--this is the  physiological approach  ○ The physical brain and our mind are separate; the mind is in the brain; but is not  the same thing--this is the  cognitive approach  The physiological approach:  ○ We are born with a brain that is programmed to perform certain functions to  ensure our survival  ■ Physical experience 
■ Responses are 
automatic​; we do not have to learn them   ■ Responses can be  measured physically   ○ Two key parts of the brain: limbic system and cerebral cortex  ■ Limbic system: governs survival, automatic processes  (emotion)​, oldest  part of the brain  ■ Cerebral cortex: newer part of the brain, more advanced cognition,  concerned with learning and memory rather than automatic processes  The Brain vs the media:  ○ The brian is old-has developed over a millions of years  ■ Brian has not has not had enough time to adopt new media stimuli  ○ Media is new-only a few hundred years old   ■ Media from real world--physiological effects still  occur (VR Experiences)  Automatic and Quasi-Automatic Processes:  ○ Automatic: hard-wired into our brains (breathing, heart  beating)  ○ Quasi-automatic: triggered automatically by a hard-wired  program in our brain; but we can become aware of 
reflection and take steps to enhance or reduce it (flight or 
flight) 
background image Types of physiological processes:  ○ Perceptual Processes: help us orient to our environment by selecting certain types  of stimuli to attend to  ○ Automatic survival mechanisms: body readies itself to fight or escape a threat 
○ Sexual mechanisms: driven by the biological need to reproduce 
○ Neurophysiological responses: complex set of chemical and electrical processes 
that media can influence  Measuring physiological responses:  ○ EEG: Measures brain wave activity, assesses relaxation and focus  
○ GSR: Skin conductive-measures electricity conducted between fingers, assesses 
arousal, excitation, and interest  ○ EMG: Muscle activity-measures electrical potential generated by muscles (ex.  eyebrows), assesses emotion (ex. frustration  and surprise)  Triggering Physiological Effects:   ○ Orienting Reflex  ■ Our brains continually monitor all incoming information 
■ When something changes, the orienting reflex causes us to pay attention to 
it-accompanied by decrease in muscle activity, lower heart rate, shorter, 
faster breathing 
■ We also monitor media messages automatically until something catches  our attention, and we orient it  ○ Arousal Reflex  ■ Orienting reflex is not an isolated, discrete effect...usually leads to other  effects  ■ Four types: generalized brian arousal, flight/flight, sexual, excitation  transfer  ■ Generalized brain arousal: examples of physical media effect  ● Fast paced media stories increase skin conductance 
● Exciting content (compared to calm content) increases heart rate  
● Watching tv commercials can include changes in: heart rate 
■ Fight/flight reflex: we experience vicarious response to characters  fight/flight  ● Triggers our attention and our own flight/flight reflex  ■ Sexual Arousal: erotic material presented in media messages triggers  sexual arousal  ● This response is automatic, even if we cannot engage with sexual  media protraylas (ex pornography)  ■ Excitation transfer: arousal from one activity transfers to another  ● Excitement from last activity not fully decayed before next activity 
background image ● Can’t distinguish remaining excitement from new excitement,  attribute it to new activity  Excitation Transfer  ○ Experiment  
○ Pre-test 
○ Participants sat on a bike for 10 mins. Peddled for 1 min at different times, 
viewing sides  ■ Control: exercised at 1 min 
■ Not perceived excitation: exercised at 5 mins 
■ Perceived excitation: exercises after 9 mins  
Altering Physiological Effects:  ○ Media effects research has focused on two alter effects:  habituation and altering  brain waves  ○ Habituation: When the media present the same pattern of stimuli over and over  again, they lose their power to elicit the same degree of reflex over time--ex: 
desensitization to violent media 
■ Habituation can be positive: if we are habituated to certain things, we  don’t worry about them over and over  ○ Desensitization: general exposure to media violence, participants watched violent,  sad, or funny movie clip  ■ Study: independent variables: general exposure to media  violence--participants watched violent, sad, or funny movie clip  ■ Dependant variable: skin conductance  ○ Brian waves  ■ Beta: normal alert consciousness 
■ Alpha: relaxed, calm not thinking 
■ Theta: deep relaxation, meditation, imagery 
■ Delta: deep, dreamless sleep 
■ Alpha blocking: beta waves block alpha waves when paying attention to 
something  ■ Relaxed: Alpha and beta wave are in sync 
■ Problem solving: brain waves become desynchronizes 
■ We seek the alpha wave state (ex. Listen to music with a regular beat) 
Reinforcing physiological effects  ○ Media conditions us to go back to it repeatedly, because of four reinforcing  effects  ○ Orienting, passivity, arousal, narcotization 
○ Orientation Reflex and arousal: 
■ Orienting to stimuli leads to pleasure 
background image ■ So we orient and are aroused again and again  ○ Narcotization: long term build-up or orienting→arousal   ■ Became dependent on media and keeps seeking more of it  ○ Passivity: consuming meia passively, rather than actively    ■ Conditioned by the media, ex watching tv 
■ In contrast, reading is more active 
 
 
Chapter 7: The Cognitive Effects 
 
How we remember things in ads, commercials, and media  Nature of cognitive effects  ○ Social Learning: intend to entertain, not inform--audience seeks entertainment  (fictional stories)  ○ Instructional: teaching old--audience does not have intention to learn (ads, PSA’s,  education)  ○ Education: intentions to teach--audience have intention to learn (news,  non-fiction)  The Cognitive Approach  ○ Human thinking is governed by the mind, which is located in the brain but is not  the same thing as the physical brian  ○ Thinking is more than chemical or electrical reaction  Cognitive Effects (information)  ○ Cognitive effects focus on how the human mind:  ■ Encounters media messages 
■ Filters those messages 
■ Processes information 
■ Stores information for later use 
Types of Cognitive Processes  ○ Inferring patterns: building an idea about someone/something by repeated media  exposure  ○ Generalizing patterns: new information alters an existing pattern and the pattern  becomes more stable  Acquiring Effects  ○ We acquire a lot of information through media including about the real world and  about the media world  ○ Acquiring information: generally positive  ■ Can get negative 
■ Factors include: mass media, audience, message, and environment 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Communications
Course: COMM 3300
Professor: Rory McGloin
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Communications 3300 Mass Media Exam 2 and Clicker Questions
Description: These notes are for the second exam for Comm 3300. Possibly the midterm exam. Also, have the clicker questions from chapters 6-10
Uploaded: 02/06/2019
16 Pages 65 Views 52 Unlocks
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