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YSU / Chemistry / CHEM 1516 / What are the four intermolecular forces?

What are the four intermolecular forces?

What are the four intermolecular forces?

Description

School: Youngstown State University
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry 2
Professor: Brian leskiw
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: General Chemistry and exam
Cost: 50
Name: Study Guide for Exam 1
Description: The study guide when used to study along with other methods will help you learn material to pass the exam.
Uploaded: 02/06/2019
48 Pages 23 Views 2 Unlocks
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"}.lst-kix_eco5ehdx6s7n-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-8}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-1 0}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-4 > li:before{content:"- 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"}.lst-kix_47osbcgx0k4z-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q4ax5x1t6grf-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_q4ax5x1t6grf-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_eco5ehdx6s7n-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-7 0}.lst-kix_eco5ehdx6s7n-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_40tft4sccs2x-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_40tft4sccs2x-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_x6p5m6txgbta-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_2oicqr6zebg1-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-8 0}.lst-kix_2oicqr6zebg1-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-0}.lst-kix_i6dag6ddz6-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_i6dag6ddz6-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_12t470w2wuct-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_pkoo6lf3j83x-3,decimal) ". 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Exam 1 Study Guide Don't forget about the age old question of How does the law shape society, and how do these things change?

Chapter II

Polar - which means it has a "dipole moment." If you want to learn more check out How do sociologists go about studying families?

δ = lowercase We also discuss several other topics like How can trade create value?

H2O is a polar molecule with polar bonds

CO2 has polar bonds beat is a nonpolar moleculeIf you want to learn more check out Is it possible to have mass but no weight?

Intermolecular forces:

In order of strongest to weakest

  1. Ion-Dipole

Ex: We also discuss several other topics like What are the oxidation numbers for p and o in po4 3­?

Ions bonding to polar molecules

  1. Hydrogen Bonding
  • N - H; O - H; F - H
  • Bonds between hydrogen and N, O or F
  1. Dipole - dipole (- +) (- +)
  • Polar molecules Bonded through differences in charge

  1. London Dispersion Forces
  • Cetsa “Induced Dipole"
  • These can be sebrantsed by differences in size and shape

Don't forget about the age old question of How do you calculate turbine efficiency?

Know : Numbers 2, 3, and 4 of the above are known as Van Der Waals Forces

 

Ex: Place Atoms in order of Increasing Boiling points

BaCl2; CO; HF; H2; Ne

Which has the strongest Intermolecular forces? Why?

Br2, Cl2, F2, H2, I2

Viscosity - Resistance to flow

  • Higher IMF's = Higher viscosity
  • Higher Temperature = Lower Viscosity = Lower IMFS

Cohesion - IMFs between a liquid and Itself

Adhesion - IMFs between a liquid and It's container

Heating Curves

Above is an example Heating Graph. It shows that the temperature will not change as heat is added to force a phase change.

 

Looks at the Above Heating Carve when answering the next Example,

Ex: Determine the heat released when 428g of Steam at 130°c condenses and the resultant water cools to 100°c.

Heat of Fusion:

  • Energy required to change a solid at its melting point to a liquid

Heat of Vaporization:

  • Energy required to change a liquid at its boiling point to a gas

Volatile liquids:

  • Liquids that evaporate readily

Boiling point:

  • Temp at which Vapor pressure = atmospheric pressure

Structures of solids

Crystalline Solids - Highly ordered in arrangement of particles

(Particles being Atoms, molecules,or Ions)

Amorphous solids - No particular order in the arrangement of particles.

Ex: Ionic Crystals pacts themselves so as to  maximize attraction and minimize repulsion between ions.

Crystalline solids

  • Unit cell: The smallest repeating unit with all the symmetry of the entire crystal

Primitive cube

  • Contains 1 full atom
  • ⅛ of each corner atom is in the cube

Body centered cube

  • Contains 2 full atoms
  • 1 center atom and 8 corners = atoms

Face -  centered cubic

  • 4 full atoms
  • 8 corner = 1 atom
  • 6 faces = 3 atoms
  • = 4 atoms
  • ½ of each face atom is in the cube

Bonding in solids

  • Physical Properties of crystalline solids depend on:
  • Attractive Forces between particles
  • Arrangement of particles

Molecular Solids

  • Contain only IMF's

Covalent

  • Networks solids
  • Diamond and graphite
  • Consists of atoms held together by networts or chains of covalent bonds
  • High melting points

Ionic Solids

  • Ion's held together by Ionic bonds. - Hard, Brittle, and very high melting points

Metallic Solids

  • Consists of Metal Atonsonly
  • soft or hard high melting points
  • Good electric and thermal conductor
  • Ductile and malleable

Chapter 13

Solutions

  • For due to IMF’s

Solubility

  • The maximum amount of solute that can be dissolved at equilibrium at a given temperature

Solvent

  • The substance that does the dissolving / dissociation

Solute

  • The substance being dissolved / disassociated
  • * like dissolves like *
  • Ex: Polar dissolves Polar

H2O  →   HCl

Saturated - a solution at maximum dissolved solutes

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