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UCONN - PSY 2201 - Class Notes - Week 3

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UCONN - PSY 2201 - Class Notes - Week 3

School: University of Connecticut
Department: Psychology
Course: Drugs and Behavior
Professor: Salamone
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Psychology
Name: Psych 2201 Week 3 Class Notes
Description: these notes cover material from week 3 of class
Uploaded: 02/08/2019
5 5 3 67 Reviews
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background image PSYC 2201 Drugs and Behavior 
Dr. Salamone 
Week 3 
 
   
2/05/2019 
 
Review of last week: 
● ED50 measures potency of a drug 
● Opening of Na+ voltage gated channel mediates the ascending limb of an action potential 
● Opening of K+  voltage gated channel mediates the descending limb of an action potential 
 
 
DRUG ACTION 
→ 
toxin (​natural​​acting on action potentials  Example: Tetrodotoxin (TTX) found in puffer fish  ● Blocks Na+ voltage channel, which blocks action potentials 
● Useful in research, scientists can determine whether a chemical is released by an 
action potential based on whether it is affected by the drug   
INFORMATION PROCESSING BY NEURONS 
1. Neuron receives many inhibitory/ excitatory  inputs  2. Inputs are  integrated ​(summed) over ​time ​(temporal integration) and ​space ​(spatial integration)  3. Action potentials triggered if integrated excitatory input exceeds threshold 
4. Action potentials travel down length of the axon 
5. Neurotransmitter 
released when action potential opens voltage gated Ca++ channels when it  reaches the axon terminal   
PROCESSES OF NEUROTRANSMITTERS 
1. Synthesis : neurotransmitter made from  precursor ​(starting material)  2. Storage : neurotransmitter stored in membranous vesicles, which are mostly concentrated in axon  terminals  3. Release : neurotransmitter stimulated by influx of Ca++ into terminal  4. Postsynaptic Effect : neurotransmitter binds to receptor proteins, stimulates biological  activity/neurotransmitter function   5. Inactivation : enzymes break down neurotransmitter, transporters take up neurotransmitter  a. Reuptake inhibitors prevent this   
*This is all to achieve 
synaptic homeostasis   
 
 
background image NEUROTRANSMITTERS VS. NEUROMODULATORS 
→ 
examples of Neurotransmitters: Serotonin, Acetylcholine, Dopamine, GABA  → examples of Neuromodulators:  Opiate Peptides  (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins),   Adenosine (caffeine is an adenosine antagonist)  1. Processes:  Neurotransmitters work under specific processes (the 5 listed above),  Neuromodulators have diverse processes  2. Length of Activity:  Neurotransmitters are quickly degraded in synaptic cleft / quickly reuptaken,  Neuromodulators do not have such limited activity  3. Communication:  Neurotransmitters communicate with adjacent neuron, Neuromodulators can  have effect far from release site 
 
 
 
CLASSIFICATION  
 
1. Monoamines  a. Catecholamines  i. Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine  b. Indolamines  i. Serotonin  2. Histamines (sometimes classified as monoamines, but distinct) 
3. Acetylcholine 
4. Amino Acids 
a. Excitatory  i. Glutamate, Aspartate   b. Inhibitory   i. GABA, Glycine  5. Cannabinoid -  endo​cannabinoids act as neuromodulators (​endogenous​ = made in brain)  a. Anandamide 
b. 2-AG 
6. Purines  a. Adenosine (neuromodulator)  7. Peptides  a. Endogenous Opiate Peptides (neuromodulators)  i. Endorphins  ii. Enkephalins  iii. Dynorphin   8. Other Peptides  a. Substance P 
b. Oxytocin 
c. Vasopressin 
d. CCK 
 

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School: University of Connecticut
Department: Psychology
Course: Drugs and Behavior
Professor: Salamone
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Psychology
Name: Psych 2201 Week 3 Class Notes
Description: these notes cover material from week 3 of class
Uploaded: 02/08/2019
6 Pages 52 Views 41 Unlocks
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