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FSU / American History / AMH 2020 / What are the regulations under laissez-faire?

What are the regulations under laissez-faire?

What are the regulations under laissez-faire?


School: Florida State University
Department: American History
Course: A History of the United States Since 1877
Term: Spring 2019
Cost: 50
Name: Midterm 1 study guide
Description: the gilded age, new and old immigrants, Spanish American War, Progressive Era
Uploaded: 02/08/2019
8 Pages 129 Views 2 Unlocks

Jonathan Shucavage (Rating: )

Study guide not complete. Only covers half the material on the exam.

AMH 2020

What are the regulations under laissez-faire?

Midterm 1 Study Guide

The Gilded Age, South and West 

∙ Reconstruction:  

o Democrats have control in 1850’s

o Civil war 1861-1865

o Republicans fought to:

 13th amendment: abolish slavery

 14th amendment: give African American rights to  


o There were enough black voters to to give republicans control for next 12 years

o Government pulled troops from south protecting blacks  o KKK rose and democrats took over office again

 The white southern democrats who got office back are  Don't forget about the age old question of Which parties control the legislature and the executive?


Who are the exodusters?

We also discuss several other topics like How does the initiation of tata box help rna polymerase?

∙ Redemption:

o New south economy became focused on becoming more  industrialized after civil war- the reason they felt they had lost is  because they weren’t

o Textiles, tobacco, mining were huge focuses

o Laissez-faire- “hands off” regulation

 No child labor laws

 No safety regulations

 No workers compensation

o All the new wealth generated went mostly to upper class ∙ Sharecropping

o Poor whites and blacks enter contract with landowners to be able to use their land and grow crops but with unfortunate regulation:  they were obligated to give the landowners some of their crops  and they had absolutely no control over the land

o Not to mention, if anything happened on the land, it was the poor people’s fault

What happened in the battling on the great plains?

We also discuss several other topics like What is isaac newton's contribution in the natural law?

o If they went into debt, it did NOT die with them, it was passed  onto generations of children  

o Very similar to slavery

∙ Exodusters

o After the reconstruction, African americans fled south in hope of  a better life in the West

o Over here people became Homesteaders under the Homestead  Act: settlers purchased cheap land from the federal government  (160 acres granted) if they were willing to farm on it for 5 years if they were successful, the land was theirs

o Hard life because droughts made farming difficult

o Large scale commercial farming also made it hard because they  produced sooooo much it made price competition almost  


∙ Railroad Monopolies If you want to learn more check out What refers to a person's cognitive understanding of a situation?

o Railroad industry helped people move across the country faster  than ever before and this made so many industries more  

profitable by transporting goods

o However, it was very dangerous

o Made prices so low no one could compete

o Big competitors were bribing politicians

∙ Battling on the Great Plains (late 1850’s-1890)

o The west and native peoples occupied valuable land so the US  sent troops to defeat them for it

o Natives were beat and agreed to exchange bulk of land for small  reservations

o Government didn’t know small reservations were rich in  resources and under the Dawes Act:

 Government granted this land to white settlers

 Reservations divided into allotments  

 Rest declared a surplus and put under govt control to be  sold to corporations, settlers and miners- sold cheap

o Us weakened tribes

The Gilded Age, North and national politics 

∙ Number of companies doubled during war time If you want to learn more check out How does a distillation set up?

∙ Monopolies  

∙ The Standard Oil Company- Rockefellar

∙ Carnegie Steel Company

∙ Problems with these monopolies

o Trusts: companies agreed to give up their power to monopolies  so they wouldn’t go out of business and monopolies would raise  the prices- monopolies basically given full ownership

∙ Rockefeller controlled over 30 businesses through trusts ∙ Irony: Carnegie and Rockefeller were like the richest people, but they  donated to big libraries and philanthropies

∙ Political machines: party organizations led by a single boss or small  autocratic group that commands enough votes to maintain control of a  city, county, state

New Immigrants

∙ Over 23 million new immigrants in US (1880-1920)

∙ Lived in tenements- Chicago, boston, philly, NY

o Unsanitary

o Crammed

o People had to sleep in shifts because not enough beds

∙ Back breaking labor in factories

o No child labor laws

o No minimum wage

o No standard work day/week

o No comp if injured

o Dangerous

∙ When life got rough, people went to political machines for food, advice, and shelter in exchange for votes Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between flowrate and flowtime?

∙ Most politicians didn’t like immigration restrictions bc they needed  people to work in these factories


∙ Import tax

∙ If youre from an area of the US with a large manufacturing base, you  like high tariffs

o Less competition- easier and more profitable and good for  economy

∙ If youre from an area without one you like low tariffs

o More competition- price of goods is cheaper  

Temperance Movement

∙ Against public alcohol consumption

∙ This was an issue between social classes

∙ Alcohol was seen as cause for problems in society like crime and  immorality

∙ Many saw alcohol as a social outlet

Sherman Anti-Trust Act

∙ Prohibited companies from aspiring to create monopolies ∙ Almost impossible to enforce

Interstate Commerce Commission Act

∙ One of the first federal regulatory agencies

∙ Make sure railroad rates are reasonable

∙ Corrupt because railroad execs were working on ICC, so much of the  things that the ICC was supposed to do to regulate railroad companies  didn’t happen

Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act

∙ 15% of federal jobs had to be filled by merit through competitive  exams

∙ First step to permanent civil service

∙ These acts shows intentions of fighting corruption and led the way for  more efforts in the future

The 1890’s 

∙ Labor Union: an association of employees who band together to secure favorable wages, to gain improved working conditions, and to resolve  grievances against employers

o Knights of Labor and American Federation of Labor

∙ Haymarket Riot 1886

o Workers on strike in Chicago protecting 8 hour work day instead  of 12- employees hired scabs**- people to work while employees  strike

o Violence and death in 2 days- officers opened fire

o The press blamed strikers and this backfired on the unions ∙ Homestead Steel Strike 1892

o Involved Carnegie and administrators

o People in steel mill had to take a huge pay cut and the union  argued for less severe pay cut- they couldn’t reach an  

agreement- so barbed wire put up, guards, watch towers, lights o Made sure scabs had no protection and when private agency  came there was more violence, militia came to break this up union leaders arrested for murder and treason, unions asked for  jobs back

∙ Pullman Strike 1894

o Passenger cars on rail lines

o There was a company town where workers for Pullman company  were forced to live

o The town was controlled by company

o Issues arrised when half the employees were fired and the other  half had wage cuts of ½- they were forced to stay living here so  unions striked back

o They refused to let trains go through stations

o This shut down commerce in west

o US already in economic depression- pres Cleveland sent 2000  troops to ensure the “mail was delivered”- commerce can  continue

∙ these strikes were widely publicized and the press argued that the  unions were the bad guys

∙ The Grange: goal was to provide educational and social outlet for  farmers struggling due to several obstacles

∙ The People’s Party: tried to address debt and low prices in the market o Wanted to nationalize railroads and make them public

o Advocated for the national income tax to fall on the richer ∙ Populists:

o Bimetalism: backing paper money with gold and silver instead  of just gold (monometalism) since silver is less scarce than gold  Drives down the value of paper money making it have less  power so the price of goods would go up and farmers  

would make more money to get out of debt

∙ Election 1896

o William Mckinley- pro gold- ally of businessman- republican o Grover Cleveland- democrats  

o William Mckinley WON

∙ William Jennings Bryan was democratic nominee in 1900 election  running against Mckinley

Spanish American War and Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson 

∙ War for Cuban independence (1895-1898)

∙ “splendid little war”

∙ 1898 “Remember the Main:”  

o Maine was outside Cuba and there was an explosion

o The US immediately blamed the Spanish

o Historians conclude this explosion was actually an accident and  that the Spanish didn’t want war because they knew they would  probably lose

∙ Mckinley was reluctant about war- he served during Civil War o People wanted war and he gave in

∙ Battle of Manilla Bay (May 1898)

o US destroyed Spanish fleet- they were badly outdone and  annihilated by US

o US only lost one sailor and it was due to heat stroke

∙ Battle of San Juan Hill

o US tried to push through san juan hill and kettle hill and charged  straight up

∙ Theodore Roosevelt got good press for his involvement

o Became famous after battle and was elected governor of new  York

o Later became president

o Fleet in cuba was destroyed by navy and TR got press

∙ Jack Pershing

o White and led all black regime up kettle hill in same battle as TR got nickname “black jack pershing”

o Soldiers referred to as “buffalo soldiers”

∙ Phillipine-American war

o Americans got control of Philippines  

o Phillipines didn’t like reasons America wanted it so they tried to  declare independence

o “dirty little war”

o Costed millions of dollars and 4000 american soldiers

∙ 1900 election  

o Dem- William Jennings bryan

o Rep- Mckinley (won comfortably)

o Mckinley assassinated 1901

o TR was VP and replaced him

 Domestic policy different

 Foreign similar

∙ Both embraced interventionalist policy

∙ Don’t hesitate to send troops to protect interests

∙ Ex: Panama Canal- TR negotiating prices to build  

canal, but Colombia wanted more money so he sent  

troops to protect people so they could get  

independence and he could purchase canal

o Big Stick Diplomacy- don’t go around threatening, but if you need to, take out big stick and military

Progressive Era 

∙ Progressives= dominant political groups in 1900-1920

∙ Political reformers early 1900’s

∙ White, middle class, protestant

∙ Professionals- doctors, lawyers, editors, educators

∙ TR and Wilson most famous

∙ Progressives aimed to represent “the people”

∙ Policies: opposed monopolies, spoke out against bad factory  conditions, against political machines

∙ TR turned and ended up relying on political machines

∙ Square Deal:

o Conservation of natural resources- national forests (2000 acres of land)

o Consumer protection- talk to experts for protection

o Controlling excess of corporations

∙ Pure Food and Drug Act:

o Government inspectors had to visit companies before they can  sell their products

∙ TR gave up presidency so TAFT took over

o Taft similar to TR and Mckinley with Foreign policy, but called it  Dollar Diplomacy, not Big Stick

∙ Woodrow Wilson wins 1912 election

o Governs as progressive

o Underwood-Simmons Tariff Act: lowered tariff rates and  imposed 1st national income tax (affected the wealthy)

o Federal Farm Loan Act: guaranteed loans to farmers at  relatively low interest rates

o Keating Owen Act: prohibited products made by child workers  from crossing state lines to try and prevent child labor

o Adamson Act: required companies to pay workers overtime  (over 8 hours of work)

 Geared toward railroad industry

∙ 1916 Election

o Wilson Re-elected

o Was going against Charles Evan Hughes

 Disagreed about foreign policy, but similar domestic views

Immigration and Public Health Fears 

∙ Robert Koch and Louis Pasteur: bacteria and infectious disease ∙ Germ Theory- late 1800’s- infectious diseases caused by spread of  microorganisms

∙ Trachoma: pink eye

∙ Venereal Disease: STD’s- didn’t understand how theyre spread though by toilet water

∙ Much racial bias

∙ Alfred Binet- IQ tests

o Drew from memory, use words in a sentence, figure out time if  hands switched

o Very poor application

o Degrading terms- imbecile, idiot, low grade intelligence o Took IQ concept to officials and they said nothing to do with race ∙ Ellis Island (1892-1954)

o Processed over 12 million immigrants

o Your place on the ship determined your treatment

o Said if wealthy enough for first class ticket then you get a private screening and they obviously expected not to find any issues o Steerage class: working class people

 If saw issue with you they pull you aside

 Mark a letter on you based on your issue

 May be malnourished

 Strip searched, debloused, checked for sores, take button  hook to clip eyelid inside out to check for Trachoma

 If passed medical exam had to take IQ test

∙ Unfair- how can you ask someone to tell time if they  

never seen a clock? Doesn’t mean theyre stupid

theres a difference between no education and low IQ

o Many immigrants fleeing during time of abuse, massacre, or  corrupt govt

∙ Eugenics

o Positive: encourage more of the “right folks” to have kids- people of northern and western Europe

o Negative: discourages the “wrong folks” from having kids- didn’t  want bad traits passed on

∙ Buck V. Bell

o Women was sterilized against own will and she sued

o Case went to supreme court

o Court said this was constitutional

o Over 60,000 people were forced sterilized

o Continued onto 1900’s then stopped when Hitler thought this  was a good idea… uhh yeah…

∙ 1917 Immigration Act

o This legislation was actually so dumb it was banning literally  everyone that was supposedly stupid

o 3 D’s: dependents, delinquents, defectives (people relied on  govt)

o Criminals, beggars, poor people, imbeciles, health issues ∙ Quota Acts: each country limited to small quota of immigrants ∙ 1921 Quota Act

o 3% of group’s population in the US under 1910 census ∙ 1924 Quota Act

o 2% of group’s population in US under 1890 census

o Asian immigrants were barred from entering

∙ Acts meant to hurt New Immigrants not old

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