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BAYLOR UNIVERSITY / Psychology / PSY 1305 / What is sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks?

What is sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks?

What is sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks?

Description

School: Baylor University
Department: Psychology
Course: Introductory Psychology
Professor: Tsang
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: psychilogy
Cost: 50
Name: STUDY GUIDE #1 PSYCHOLOGY
Description: THESE ARE ALL NOTES FOR TEST #1 I recommend studying the text book still to really grasp the concepts!
Uploaded: 02/09/2019
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TEST #1 STUDY GUIDE


What is sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks?



I. Basic learning concepts and classical conditioning

A. What is learning  

i. Process of acquiring through experience new information or behaviors

B. How do we learn  

i. Though association: certain events occur together  

(classical condition); stimuli that are not control are  

associated and response is automatic

ii. Through consequences

1. Association between a response and consequences is

learned (operant conditioning)

2. Through acquisition of mental information that  

guides behaviors. Cognitive learning

II. Classical conditioning If you want to learn more check out finite math study guide

A. Pavlov  

i. Studied digestive system; first Russian Nobel prize


What is depressants?



ii. Demonstrated associative learning via salivary conditioning 1. Tube in dog’s cheek collects saliva, which is  

measured in cylinder outside of the chamber

iii. Consensus among psychologists that classical conditioning  is basic learning form  

1. Classical condition is basic learning form of learning  

that applies to all species

2. Pavlov demonstrated a learning process can be  

studied objectively

iv. Pavlov’s principles are used to influence human health and  well being

1. Areas of consciousness, motivation, emotion, health,  

psychological disorders, therapy  

2. Addicts counseled to avoid stimuli that trigger  

cravings

3. Pairing particular taste with drug that influences  


What is hallucinogens?



immune responses may lead to response from taste  

alone

v. Applications of Classical Conditioning We also discuss several other topics like ids uf

1. Pavlov’s work provided a basis for Watson’s ideas  

that human emotions and behaviors, though  

biologically influenced, are mainly conditioned  

responses.

2. Watson applied classical conditioning principles in his

studies of “Little Albert” to demonstrate how specific  Don't forget about the age old question of hdfs csu

fears might be conditioned.

III. Operant Conditioning

A. Cat in a puzzle box would be rewarded with a fish when they  found their way out of box

i. Behavior operated on the environment to produce  

rewarding or punishing stimuli

ii. Organisms associate their own actions with consequences iii. Actions followed by reinforcement increase; those followed  by punishments often decrease

B. Skinner and Skinners experiments

i. Skinner  

1. Expanded on Thorndike’s law of effect  

2. Developed behavioral technology and principles of  

behavior control  

3. Designed and used the skinner box for experiments  

and recorded responses

C. Everyday behaviors are continually reinforced and shaped i. Reinforcement  

1. Any event that strengthens a preceding response

ii. Shaping

1. Gradually guiding toward closer and closer  

approximations of the desired behavior

D. Types of Reinforcers

i. Positive reinforcement

1. Increases behaviors by presenting positive  

reinforcers

ii. Positive reinforcer

1. Is any stimulus that, when presented after a  

response, strengthens the response

iii. Negative reinforcement  

1. Increases behaviors by stopping or reducing negative Don't forget about the age old question of cs 31 ucla
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stimuli  

2. Any stimulus that, when removed after a response,  

strengthens the response

iv. Primary  

1. Unlearned; innately reinforcing stimuli

v. Conditioned (secondary)

1. Gains power through association with primary  

reinforcers

vi. Immediate

1. Occurs immediately after a behavior

vii. Delayed

1. Involves time delay between desired response of and

delivery of reward

E. Reinforcement schedules

i. Reinforcement schedule

1. Includes pattern that defines how often a desired  

response will be reinforced  

ii. Continuous reinforcement schedule

1. Involves reinforcing the desired response every time  

it occurs

iii. Partial (intermittent) reinforcement

1. Includes schedule reinforcing a response only part of  

the time; results in slower acquisition of a response  

but much grater resistance to extinction that does  

continuous reinforcement

F. Punishment

i. Administers an undesirable consequence or withdraws  something desirable in an attempt to decrease the  If you want to learn more check out stat 380 unl

frequency of a behavior

ii. Positive punishment

1. Presenting a negative consequence after an  

undesired behavior is exhibited, making the behavior

less likely to happen in the future

iii. Negative punishment

1. Removing a desired stimulus after particular  

undesired behavior is exhibited, resulting in reducing  

behavior in future

IV. Skinner’s legacy: applications of operant conditioning A. At school: computer and adaptive learning software used in  teaching and learning

B. In sports: behavioral methods implemented in shaping in shaping behavior in athletic performance

C. At work: rewards successfully used to increase productivity  D. At home: basic rules of shaping used in parenting

V. Biological constraints on conditioning

A. Limits on classical conditioning  

i. Garcia and koelling’s taste-aversion research  

ii. Animals and humans seem biologically prepared to learn  some associations rather than others

iii. Conditioning is stronger when the CS is ecologically  

relevant

iv. Genetic predisposition to associate CS with a US that  

follows predictably and immediately is adaptive

B. Limits on operant conditioning  

i. Nature limits species’ capacity for operant conditioning  ii. Biological constraints predispose organisms to learn  

associations that are naturally adaptive

iii. Instinctive drift occurs as animals revert to biologically  predisposed patterns

VI. Cognition processes and classical conditioning

A. Mental information that guides behavior is acquired through  cognitive learning

i. Animal learning of predictability of event

ii. British children conditioning of ice-cream associated  

characters

iii. Adult gut-level liking for characters associated with positive stimuli  

iv. Stronger likes and dislikes when notice and awareness of  association learned  

VII. Mirrors and imitations in the brain  

A. Mirror neurons

i. Include frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe  fire when performing certain actions or when observing  

another doing so  

B. Brains mirroring of another’s action  

i. May enable imitation and empathy

VIII. Applications of observational learning

A. Pro social effects

i. Behavior modeling enhances learning of communication,  sales, and customer service skills in new employees

ii. Modeling nonviolent behavior prompts similar behavior in  others

iii. Across seven countries, viewing prosocial media increased  later healing behavior  

iv. Socially responsive toddlers tend to have internalized  

conscience as preschoolers

B. Antisocial effects

i. Abusive parents may have aggressive children  

ii. Watching TV and videos may teach children  

1. Bullying is effective tool for controlling others

2. Free and easy sex has little later consequences

3. Men should be tough; women should be gentle

iii. Violence-viewing effect

IX. Brain states and consciousness

i. Consciousness

1. Awareness of self and environment

ii. Inattentional blindness

1. Failure to see visible objects when our attention is  

directed elsewhere

X. The biology of consciousness

A. Cognitive neuroscientists

i. Explore and map conscious cortex function and can  

sometimes “read” minds

ii. Suggest consciousness arises from synchronized brain  activity

XI. Dual Processing: The two track mine

A. Dual Processing

i. Principle that information is often simultaneously  

processed on separate conscious (explicit) and  

unconscious (implicit) tracks

ii. Perceptions, memory, attitudes, and other cognitions are  affected  

B. Blind sight awareness

i. Condition in which a person can respond to a visual  

stimulus without consciously experiencing it

ii. When the Blind can “see”

1. In this compelling demonstration of blind sight and  

the two-track mind, researcher Lawrence weiskrantz  

trailed a blind-sight patient down a cluttered hallway

2. Although told the hallway was empty, the patient  

meandered around all the obstacles without any  

awareness of them

C. Consciousness and selective attention  

i. Selective attention  

1. Focusing conscious awareness on a particular  

stimulus

ii. Parallel Processing

1. Processing many aspects of a problem  

simultaneously; the brain’s natural mode of  

information processing for many functions  

iii. Inattentional Blindness

1. Failing to see visible objects when attention is  

directed elsewhere

D. Selective attention and accidents

i. Rapid toggling between activities is common  

ii. Multitasking distracts brain resources allocated to driving;  brain activity decreases average of 37 percent when  

conversation occurs

1. Cell-phone use increases accident risk fourfold

2. Crashes or near-crashes increase sevenfold when  

dialing or reaching for phone

XII. Sleep

A. Periodic, natural loss of consciousness- as distinct from  unconsciousness resulting from a coma, general anesthesia, or  hibernation  

B. Biological rythms  

i. 24-hour biological clock  

ii. 90 minute sleep cycle for younger adults

C. Circadian rhythm  

i. internal biological clock of 24-hour cycle of day and night  ii. as morning approaches, body temperature rises, peaks  during day, dips in early afternoon, and begins to drop in  evening

iii. Altered by age and experience  

D. Measuring sleep activity  

i. Sleep researchers measure brain-wave activity, eye  movements, and muscle tension by electrodes that pick up weak electrical signals from the brain, eyes, and facial  muscles

E. Brain waves and sleep stages  

i. Beta waves of an alert, waking state and the regular alpha  waves of an awake, relaxed state differ from the slower,  larger delta waves of deep NREM-3 sleep

ii. Although the rapid REM sleep waves resemble the near waking NREM-1 sleep waves, the body is mpre aroused  during REM sleep than during NREM sleep

F. Sleep and dreams

i. REM (rapid eye movement)

1. Sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly  occur  

ii. REM rebound

1. Tendency for REM sleep to increase following REM  sleep deprivation  

iii. Alpha waves  

1. Relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed, awake state iv. Hallucination  

1. False sensory experiences, such as seeing something in the absence of an external visual stimulus  

v. Delta Waves

1. Large, slow brain waves associated with deep sleep G. Sleep patterns are genetically and culturally influenced i. Bright morning light activates light-sensitive proteins that  trigger suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) to cause decreased  production of melatonin in morning and increased  

production in the evening

ii. Social jet lag may occur when sleep routines are disrupted  during weekends

H. Why do we sleep?

i. Sleep may have played a protective role in human  

evolution by keeping people safe during potentially  

dangerous periods

ii. Sleep also helps restore and repair damaged neurons

iii. REM and NREM-2 sleep help strengthen neural connections that build enduring memories

iv. Sleep promotes creative problem solving the next day

v. During deep sleep, the pituitary gland secretes a growth  hormone necessary for muscle development

I. Sleep Deprivation  

i. Causes fatigue and irritability  

ii. Impairs concentration, productivity, and memory  

consolidation  

iii. Can also lead to depression, obesity, joint pain, a  

suppressed immune system, and slowed performance with  a greater vulnerability to accidents

J. Insomia  

i. Recurring problems in falling or staying asleep

K. Narcolepsy  

i. Sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks, sometimes lapsing  directly into REM sleep  

L. Sleep apnea

i. Stopping of breathing while asleep; associated with  

obesity, especially in men  

M. Night terrors

i. High arousal and appearance of being terrified

XIII. Dreams

A. Genitals aroused during REM sleep, even when dream content is  not sexual

B. Brainstem blocks messages from motor complex

i. Sleep paralysis

ii. Paradoxical sleep

C. What do we dream

i. We usually dram of ordinary events and everyday  

experiences, most involving some anxiety or misfortune

1. Daydreams: familiar details of our life

2. REM dreams: vivid, emotional, bizarre

3. Dreams with negative event or emotion: 8 in 10  

dreams

4. Dreams with sexual imagery: 1 in 10 young men and  

1 and 3o among young women

5. Drams incorporating pervious days’ experience: most

common

D. Why We dream

i. There are five major views of the function of dreams.  

ii. (1) Freud’s wish-fulfillment: Dreams provide a psychic  

“safety valve,” with manifest content (story line) acting as  a censored version of latent content (underlying meaning  

that gratifies our unconscious wishes).  

iii. (2) Information-processing: Dreams help us sort out the  day’s events and consolidate them in memory.  

iv. (3) Physiological function: Regular brain stimulation may  help develop and preserve neural pathways in the brain.  

v. (4) Neural activation: The brain attempts to make sense of  neural static by weaving it into a story line.  

vi. (5) Cognitive development: Dreams reflect the dreamer’s  level of development.

XIV. Tolerance and Addiction

A. Tolerance

i. With repeated use, the desired effect requires larger doses B. Addiction

i. Compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as  gambling) despite known harmful consequences

C. Withdrawal

i. Discomfit and distress that follow discontinuing an  

addictive drug or behavior

D. Those with a substance use disorder may exhibit impaired  control, social disruption, risky behavior, and the physical effects  of tolerance and withdrawal

E. Psychoactive drugs alter perceptions and moods

i. They may produce tolerance  

1. Requiring larger doses to achieve the desired effect  

and--- and withdrawal----significant discomfort  

accompanying attempts to quit

ii. Continued use may lead to addiction, which is the  

compulsive craving of drugs or certain behaviors (such as  

gambling) despite known adverse consequences

F. How has the concept of addiction changed?

i. Concept of addiction

1. Extended to cover many behaviors  

2. Degree and scope debated

ii. Addiction as disease needing treatment

1. Offered for many driven, excessive behaviors that  

become compulsive and dysfunctional

iii. Psychologists debate whether the concept of addiction has  been stretched too far and whether the addiction are really as irresistible as believed.  

1. The addiction-as-disease-needing-treatment idea has been extended to a host of excessive, driven  

behaviors, but labeling a behavior doesn’t explain it.  The concept of addiction continues to evolve, as  

psychiatry’s manual of disorders now includes  

behavior addictions such as “gambling disorder” and  proposes, “Internet gaming disorder” for further  

study.

G. Types of psychoactive drugs

i. Depressants

1. Drugs such as alcohol, barbiturates (tranquilizers),  and opiates that calm neutral activity and slow body  functions

ii. Alcohol acts as disinhibitor  

1. Slows neural processing and potent sedative when  paired with sleep deprivation  

2. Disrupts memory and has long-term effect on brain  and cognition; impairs growth of synaptic  

connections

3. Reduces self-awareness and self-control; produces  myopia by focusing on arousing situation at expense  of normal inhibitions and future consequence

iii. MRI scans show brain shrinkage in women with alcohol use  disorder compared with women in control group (LOOK AT  SLIDE 33)

H. Alcohol expectancy effects

i. Expectations influence behavior

1. Attribution social behaviors or sexual responses to  alcohol releases inhibitions

2. Fourteen intervention studies with college students  lowered positive expectations of alcohol and reduced drinking in the ensuing month

ii. Alcohol use disorder (alcoholism)

1. Alcohol use marked by tolerance, withdrawal, and a  drive to continue problematic use

I. Depressants

i. Barbiturates

1. Depress the activity of the central nervous system,  reducing anxiety but impairing memory and  

judgment  

2. Can impair memory and judgment; potentially lethal  when combined with alcohol  

3. Nembutal, seconal, and amytal

ii. Opiates

1. Include opium and its deriatives, such as codeine,  morphine and heroin; addictive

2. Constricts pupils, slow breathing, causes lethargy  3. Depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain  and anxiety  

4. Causes withdrawal when ingestion is stopped

J. Stimulant drugs  

i. Includes caffeine, nicotine, and the more powerful  amphetamines, cocaine, ecstasy (MDMA), and  

methamphetamine that excite neural activity and speed up body functions

ii. Involved dilation of pupils, increase in heart and breathing  rates, rise in blood sugar, and drop in appetite

iii. Often involves increase in energy and self-confidence K. Nicotine

i. Is the stimulating and highly addictive drug in tobacco? ii. Signals the central nervous system to release a flood of  neurotransmitters

iii. Diminishes appetite, boosts alertness and mental  efficiency, calms anxiety, and reduces sensitivity to pain iv. Involved challenging acute craving and withdrawal  symptoms which contribute to relapse  

v. Where there’s smoke… The physiological effects of nicotine 1. Nicotine reaches brain within 7 seconds, twice as fast as intravenous heroin  

2. Within minutes, the amount in the blood soars

L. Cocaine

i. Produces quick rush of euphoria  

ii. Involves crash of agitated depression within 15 to 30  minutes after neurotransmitters drop

iii. Produces psychological effects depending on dosage and  form consumed and user’s expectations and personality M. Methamphetamine  

i. Produces effets depending on dosage and form consumed  and user’s expectations and personality

ii. Powerfully addictive

N. Ecstasy (MDMA)

i. A synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen

ii. Produces euphoria, but with short term health risks and  

longer term harm to mood and cognition

XV. Hallucinogens

A. Distorts perceptions and calls up sensory images without any  input from the senses

B. LSD

i. Powerful hallucigenic drug, also known as acid (lysergic  

acid diethylamide)

ii. Interferes with serotonin neurotransmitter system  

C. Marijuana and synthetic marijuana (K2 and Spice)

i. Contains THC and produces mix of effects

ii. Relaxes, disinhibits, and may produce euphoria

iii. Is mild hallucinogen which amplifies sensory sensitivity,  impairs motor coordination, perceptual skills, and reaction  

time

iv. Disrupts memory formation and immediate recall

v. Impairs brain development with prenatal exposure

vi. Can linger in body for weeks

XVI. Marijuana

A. Has leaves containing THC (delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) which  are smoked or eaten to produce increase sensitivity to colors,  sounds, tastes, and smells; lingers in body longer

B. Can also relax, disinhibit, impair motor and perceptual skills and  reaction time

XVII. Drug Prevention and Treatment programs

A. Educate young people about the long term costs of a drug’s  temporary pleasures

B. Help people find other ways to boost their self-esteem and  purpose in life

C. Attempt to modify peer associations or to “inoculate” youths  against peer pressures by training them in refusal skills

XVIII. Neural Communication

A. Biological psychology  

Peripheral

Autonomic (controls

Nervous

system

Skeletal (controls

Central

(brain and spinal cord)

i. Branch of psychology concerned with the links between  biology and behavior

ii. Some biological psychologists call themselves  1. Behavioral neuroscientists, neuropsychologists,  

self-regulated action of internal organs and glands)

Sympathetic

(arousing)

voluntary movements of skeletal muscles)

Parasympathetic

(calming)

behavior geneticists, psychological psychologists, or  bio psychologists

B. Nervous system

i. The body’s speedy, electrochemical communication system consists of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central  nervous systems

C. Central nervous system (CNS)

i. The brain and spinal cord

1. Interconnected neurons form network in the brain  2. These networks are complex and modify with growth  and experience  

D. Peripheral nervous system (PNS)

i. The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central  nervous system (CNS) to the rest of the body

1. Somatic nervous system  

a. The division of the peripheral nervous system  

that controls the body’s skeletal muscles

i. Division of the autonomic nervous  

system that arouses the body, mobilizing

its energy in stressful situations

2. Autonomic nervous system (ANS)

a. Part of the PNS that controls the glands and  

other muscles

i. The part of the peripheral nervous  

system that controls the glands and the  

muscles of the internal organs (such as  

the heart)

3. Parasympathic nervous system

a. Division of the autonomic nervous system that  

calms the body, conserving its energy  

4. Sympathetic NS “arouses” (fight or flight)  

5. Parasympathetic NS “calms” (rest and digest)

E. Afferent and efferent pathways

F. Endocrine system

i. Is the body’s “slow” chemical communication system  ii. Communication is carried out by hormones synthesized by  a set of glands

G. Hormones

i. Chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands that are  secreted in the bloodstream. Hormones affect the brain  and many other tissues of the body  

1. Ex. Epinephrine (adrenaline) increases heart rate,  blood pressure, blood sugar, and feelings of  

excitement during emergency situations

H. Pituitary gland

i. The master gland

1. The anterior pituitary lobe releases hormones that  

regulate other glands

2. The posterior lobe regulates water and salt balance

I. Thyroid and parathyroid  

i. Regulate metabolic and calcium rate

ii. Thyroid  

1. Affects metabolism

iii. Parathyroids

1. Help regulate the level of calcium in the blood

J. Adrenal glands

i. Adrenal glands conist of the adrenal medulla and the  

cortex. The medulla secretes hormones (epinephrine and  

norepinephrine) during stressful and emotional situations,  while the adrenal cortex regulates salt and carbohydrate  

metabolism  

K. Gonads

i. Sex glands are located in different places in men and  

women. They regulate bodily development and maintain  

reproductive organs in adults

1. Testis

a. Secretes male hormones

2. Ovary

a. Secretes female sex hormones

XIX. The Brain

A. Older brain structures

i. Brainstem  

1. Oldest part of the brain, beginning where the spinal  

cord swells and enters the brain  

a. Responsible for automatic survival functions

ii. Medulla

1. The base of the brainstem and controls heart and  

breathing

iii. Thalamus

1. The brain’s sensory switchboard, located on top of  

the brainstem  

a. Directs messages to the sensory areas in the  

cortex and transmits replies to the cerebellum  

and medulla

iv. Reticular formation

1. Nerve network in the brainstem that plays an  

important role in controlling arousal

v. Cerebellum  

1. “little brain” attached to the rear of the brainstem

a. helps coordinate and voluntary movements  

and balance

B. The brain lesion experimentally destroys brain tissue to study  animal behaviors after such destruction  

C. Limbic system  

i. A doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the  border of the brainstem and cerebrum associated with  emotions such as fear

1. Aggression and drives fro food and sex  

2. it includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and  

hypothalamus

D. Amygdala

i. Consists of two lima bean sized neural clusters linked to  the emotions of fear and anger

E. Hypothalamus  

i. Lies below the thalamus  

ii. Directs several maintenance activities like eating, drinking, body temperature, and control of emotions  

iii. Helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland F. The cerebral cortex

i. Intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers  the cerebral hemispheres

ii. It is the body’s ultimate control and information processing  center

1. Each brain hemisphere is divided into four lobes that  are separated by prominent fissures

a. Frontal lobe (forehead)

b. Parietal lobe(top to rear head)

c. Occipital lobe (back head)

d. Temporal lobe (side of head)

iii. Motor complex  

1. The area at the rear of the frontal lobes that control  voluntary movements  

iv. Sensory cortex

1. (parietal cortex) receives information from skin  

surface and sense organs

v. Reward Center Experiment

1. Rats crossed an electrified grid fro self-stimulation  when electrodes were placed in the reward  

(hypothalamus) center  

2. When the limbic system is manipulated, a rat will  navigate fields or climb up a tree  

vi. Association areas

1. More intelligent animals have increased  

“uncommitted” or association areas of the cortex

vii. Neural communication

1. Neurobiologists and other investigators understand  that humans and animals operate similarly when  

processing information  

a. Note the similarities in the above brain regions  

with are all engaged in

information processing

viii.

Language  

1. Aphasia is an impairment  

of language, usually caused by left hemisphere  

damage either to Broca’s area (impaired speaking) or to wernicke’s area (impaired understanding)

ix. Specialization and Integration

1. Brain activity when hearing, seeing, and speaking  words

x. Brains plasticity  

1. Brain is sculpted by our genes but also by our  

experiences

2. Plasticity refers to the brain’s ability to modify itself  after some types of injury or illness

G. Cell types in the Nervous system  

i. Neurons

1. Basic unity of the nervous system  

2. Three main parts: dendrite, soma (body), axon

ii. Glia  

1. “caretaker” cells (nutrients, waste, repair)

a. nutritive function  

b. clear debirs

c. cellular repair

2. myelin sheath

H. The nervous system  

i. Nerves

1. PNS neural “cables” containing many axons

2. Connect the central nervous system with muscles,  glands, and sense organs

ii. Neurons  

1. A nerve cell, consists of several parts

a. Cell body  

i. Life support of the neuron

b. Dendrites

i. Branching extensions at the cell body.  

Receive messages from other neurons

c. Axon

i. Long single extension of a neuron,  

covered with MYELIN SHEATH  

1. Insulate and speed up messages  

through neurons

d. Terminal branches of axon

i. Branched endings of an axon that  

transmit messages to other neurons

iii. Sensory neurons

1. Carry incoming info from the body to the CNS iv. Interneurons

1. CNS neurons that internally communicate and  intervene between sensory inputs and motor outputs 2. Connect the sensory neurons and motor neurons v. Motor neurons

1. Carry outgoing info from the CNS to muscles and  glands

vi. Action potential  

1. A neural impulse

a. A brief electrical charge that travels down an  axon and is generated by the movement of  

positively charged atoms in and out of  

channels in the axon’s membrane

2. Properties

a. All-or-none response

i. A strong stimulus can trigger more  

neurons to fire and to fire more often but  

it does not affect the potential strength  

or speed

b. Intensity  

i. An action potential remains the same  

through out the length of the axon

vii. Synapse

1. A junction between the axon tip of the sending  

neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving  neuron  

a. This tiny gap is called the synaptic gap or cleft

viii. Threshold

1. Each neuron receives excitatory and inhibitory  

signals from many neurons  

2. When the excitatory signals minus the inhibitory  signals exceed a minimum intensity (threshold) the  neuron fired an action potential  

ix. Neurotransmitters

1. Released from the sending neuron travel across the  synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving  neuron, thereby influencing it to generate an action  potential  

x. Reuptake

1. Neurotransmitters are reabsorbed into the sending  neurons though the process of reuptake. This process applies the brakes on neurotransmitter action

xi. Serotonin pathways are involved with mood regulation xii. Dopamine pathways are involved with diseases such as  schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease

I. Lock and key mechanism  

i. Neurotransmitters bind to the key receptors of the  receiving neuron in a key –lock mechanisms

ii. Agonist  

1. Mimics neurotransmitters

a. Ex. Morphine mimics the action of endorphins  

by stimulating in brain areas in mood and pain  

sensation

iii. Antagonists

1. Blocks neurotransmitters

a. Curare poisoning paralyzes its victims by  

blocking Ach receptors in muscle movement

J. Electroencephalogram (EEG)

i. An amplified recording of the electrical waves sweeping  across the brain’s surface, measured by electrodes placed  on the scalp

K. PET scan  

i. Position emission tomography scan  

1. A visual display of brain activity that detects a  

radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs  a given task

L. MRI scan  

i. Magnetic resonance imaging scan  

1. Uses magnetic fields and radio eaves to produce  

computer-generated images that distinguish among  

different types of brain tissue  

2. Shoes the visual cortex is active as subject looks at  

faces

3. Shows auditory cortex is active in patients who  

hallucinate

XX. The brain  

A. Divided into two hemispheres

i. Left is used to process reading, writing, speaking,  

mathematics, and comprehension skills

1. Dominant brain  

B. Splitting the brain  

i. A procedure in which two hemispheres of the brain are  

isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of  

the corpus callosum) between them  

ii. Patients

1. With the corpus callosum severed  

a. Objects (apple) presented in the right visual  

field can be named but objects on the left  

(pencil)  

XXI. The need for psychological science

A. Humans cannot rely solely on intuition and common sense  B. Three phenomena illustrate this:

i. Hindsight bias

1. Tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that  

we could have predicted it

2. Also known as the I-Knew it-all-along phenomenon

ii. Judgmental overconfidence

1. People tend to think they know more than they do  

2. This occurs in academic and social behavior

iii. Tendency to perceive patterns in random events

1. People perceive patterns to make sense of their  

world

2. Even in random, unrelated data people often find  

order, because random sequences often do not look  

random

3. People trust their intuition more than they should  

because intuitive thinking is flawed

C. Why is intuition overused and errors made?

i. Hindsight bias, overconfidence, and our tendency to  

perceive patterns in random events often lead us to  

overestimate our intuition  

ii. But scientific inquiry can help us sift reality from illusion  XXII. STOP POTENTIAL TEST QUESTION (answers  

A. Functionalism was a school of psychology that focused attention  on the:

i. A.adaptive value of thoughts and behaviors

ii. B.component elements of sensory experience

iii. C.disruptive effects of unconscious motives

iv. D.treatment of psychological disorders

B. The view that psychology should be an objective science that  studies observable behavior without reference to mental  

processes is known as

i. A.cognitive neuroscience

ii. B.behaviorism

iii. C.humanistic psychology

iv. D.treatment of psychological disorders

C. Cognitive neuroscience studies relationships between

i. A.natural selection and genetic predispositions

ii. B.childhood memories and psychological disorders

iii. C.thought processes and brain functions

iv. D.philosophy and physiology

D. The nature-nurture issue refers to the debate over the relative  contributions that ________________________ makes to the  

development of psychological traits.

i. A.massed practice and spaced practice

ii. B.unconscious and conscious motives

iii. C.behavior and mental processes

iv. D.genes and experience

E. The survival of organisms best suited to a particular environment is known as

i. A.functionalism

ii. B.natural selection

iii. C.behavior genetics

iv. D.structuralism

XXIII. The scientific attitude

A. Curiosity  

i. Includes a passion to explore and understand the world  

without misleading influences or being misled

ii. Questions to consider

1. What do you mean  

2. How do you know

B. Skepticism  

i. Supports questions about behavior and mental processes  ii. Draws a line between science and pseudoscience by  

demanding testable proofs for claims/theories  

iii. Employs critical thinking skills and scientific methods

C. Critical thinking

i. Refers to a more careful style of forming and evaluating  

knowledge than simply using intuition

ii. In addition to the scientific method, critical thinking helps  develop more effective and accurate ways to figure out  

what makes people do think and feel the things they do  

D. Humility  

i. Involved awareness that mistakes are possible and  

willingness to be surprised

XXIV. The scientific method

A. Scientific method is the process of testing ideas about the world  by

i. Setting up situations that test our ideas

1. If the data do not fit our ideas, then ideas are  

modified and tested again

ii. Making careful, organized observations

iii. Analyzing whether data fit with our ideas

iv. Theory  

1. Explanation using an integrated set of principles that  

organizes observations and predicts behaviors of  

events

v. Hypothesis

1. Testable prediction, often implied by a theory

vi. Operational definition  

1. Carefully worded statement of the exact procedures  

(operations) used in a research study  

vii. Replication

1. Repeating the essence of a research study, usually  

with different participants in different situations, to  

see whether the basic finding extends to other  

participants and circumstances

viii. Testing Hypothesis and Refining theories

ix. Research Strategies  

1. Descriptive research  

a. A systematic objective observation of people b. The goal is to provide a clear, accurate picture  of people’s behaviors, thoughts, and attributes

c. Correlational studies

i. Descriptive technique in which one  

person is studied in depth in the hope of  

revealing universal principles

ii. Examines one individual in depth

iii. Provides fruitful ideas

iv. Cannot be used to generalize

d. Naturalistic observations

i. Descriptive technique of observing and  

recording behavior in naturally occurring  

situations without trying to change or  

control the situation

ii. Records behavior in natural environment

iii. Describes but does not explain behavior

iv. Can be revealing

e. Surveys & interviews

i. Descriptive technique for obtaining the  

self- reported attitudes or behaviors of a  

group, usually by questioning a  

representative, random sample of that  

group

ii. Examines many cases in less depth

1. Wording effect

2. Random sampling

iii. Utilizes random sampling of population  

for best results

2. Correlation

a. General definition

i. An observation that two traits or  

attributes are related to each other  

b. Scientific definition

i. A measure of how closely two factors  

vary together, or how well you can  

predict a change in one from observing a  

change in the other

c. Positive correlation (between 0 and +1.00)

i. Indicates a direct relationship, meaning  that two things increase together or  

decrease together

d. Negative correlation (between 0 and -1.00) i. Indicates an inverse relationship: as one  thing increases the other decreases

e. Correlation coefficient  

i. Provides a statistical measure of how  

closely two things vary together and how

well one predicts the other

f. Correlations can range from +1.00 (scores on  one measure increase in direct proportion to  scores on another), to 0.00 (no relationship), to -1.00 (scores on one measure decrease  

precisely as scores rise on the other)

3. Regression toward the Mean  

a. Illusory correlation

i. Refers to the perception of a relationship  between two variables when only a minor

or no relationship actually exists  

ii. May be fed by regression toward the  

mean  

b. Regression toward the Mean  

i. Refers to the tendency for extreme or  

unusual scores or events to fall back  

(regress) toward the average

4. Correlation and Causation  

a. No matter how strong the relationship,  

correlation does not prove causation  

b. Correlation indicates the possibility of a cause effect relationship, but does not prove it

5. Three possible Cause-Effect Relationships 6. Experimentation

a. With experiments, researchers can focus on the possible effect of one or more factors in several ways

i. Manipulating the factors of interest to  

determine their effects

ii. Holding constant (“controlling”) other  

factors

1. Experimental group and control  

group

b. Variables

i. Independent variable in an experiment  

1. Factor that is manipulated; the  

variable whore effect is being  

studied

ii. Confounding variable in an experiment  

1. Factor other than the independent  

variable that might produce an  

effect  

iii. Dependent variable in an experiment

1. Factor that is measured; the  

variable that may change when the

independent variable is  

manipulated

c. Double-Blind Procedure: Eliminating Bias

i. Neither those in the study nor those  

collecting the data know which group is  

receiving the treatment  

ii. Treatment’s actual effects can be  

separated from potential placebo effect  

iii. Placebo Effect  

1. Effect involves results caused by  

expectations alone

XXV. Statistical Reasoning In Everyday Life:  

A. Describing Data

i. Accurate statistical understanding is important

1. Casual estimates often misread reality and misinform

2. Big, round, undocumented numbers warrant caution  

3. Teaching statistical reasoning is needed

4. Presentation of statistical information needs more  

transparency

ii. Measures of central tendency include a single score that  represents a set of scores

1. Mode  

a. Most frequently occurring score(s) in a  

distribution  

2. Mean  

a. Arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained  

by adding the scores and then dividing by the  

number of scores; can be distorted by few  

atypical scores

3. Median

a. Middle score in a distribution; half the scores  

are above it and half are below it

iii. Measures of variation reveal similarity or diversity in scores 1. Range

a. Difference between the highest and lowest  

scores in a distribution  

2. Standard deviation

a. Computed measure of how much scores vary  

around the mean score

3. Normal Curve (normal distribution)

a. Symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes  

the distribution of many types of data; most  

scores fall near the mean (about 68 percent fall

within one standard deviation of it) and fewer  

and fewer near the extremes

B. Significant Differences

i. When is an observed difference reliable

1. Representative samples are better than biased  

samples

2. Less-variable observations are more reliable than  

those that are more variable  

3. More cases are better than fewer  

ii. Generalizations based on a few unrepresentative cases are  unreliable

iii. When is an observed difference significant?

1. When sample averages are reliable and difference  

between them is relatively large, the difference has  

statistical significance.

2. Observed difference is probably not due to chance  

variation between the samples.

3. In psychological research, proof beyond a reasonable

doubt means that the odds of its occurrence by  

chance are less than 5 percent.

XXVI. Protecting research participants  

A. Studying and protecting animals  

i. Is it right to place the well-being of humans above that of  other animals

1. Response varies by culture

a. Canada and US about 60% deemed medical  

testing on animals as “morally acceptable”

b. Britain only 37%

ii. Professional associations and funding agency guidelines  

1. Universities: IRB ethics committees; laboratory  

regulation and inspection

2. British Psychological Association (APA): guidelines for

humane treatment and minimization of infection,  

illness, and pain

3. European parliament: standards for animal care and  

housing

B. Studying and protecting humans

i. Ethics code of APA, Britain’s BPS, university ethics  

committee

1. Obtain potential participants informed consent before

the experiment

2. Protect them from harm and discomfit  

3. Keep information about individual participants  

confidential  

4. Fully debrief people (explain the research afterward)

XXVII. What is psychology  

A. Psychological science is born  

i. First laboratory  

1. Aristotle used observation and questioning to  

understand the body-psyche relationship  

2. Questions were answered through observation and  

guesses

3. Willhelm Wundt

a. Defined psychology as “science of mental life”

b. Added two key elements to enhance scientific  

nature of psychology  

c. Elements include carefully measure  

observations and experiments

4. William James

a. Studied human thoughts, feelings, and  

behaviors  

i. Asked  

1. What function might they serve

2. How might they have helped our  

ancestors survive

b. Authored principles of psychology  

B. Psychological science develops

i. Behaviorism  

1. Defined psychology as “scientific study of observable

behavior” without reference to mental processes

2. Became major force in psychology in 1960’s

ii. Proponents

1. John B. Watson  

a. Classical conditioning

2. BF Skinner

a. Operant conditioning

3. Dismissed introspection  

iii. Freudian psychology  

1. Emphasized ways unconscious thought processes  and emotional responses to childhood experiences  

affect later behavior  

2. Major force until 1960s

iv. Humanistic Psychology

1. Revived interest in study of mental processes  

2. Focused on ways current environments nurture or  limit growth potential and importance of having need for love and acceptance satisfied

3. Led by carl rogers and Abraham maslow

v. Cognitive Revolution  

1. Occurred around 1960 and focus returned to interest  in mental processes

2. Cognitive psychology (thinking, knowing,  

remembering) scientifically explored ways in which  information is perceived, processed, and recalled  

3. The interdisciplinary field of cognitive neuroscience  ties the science of mind (cognitive psychology) and  the science of the brain (neuroscience) and focuses  on the brain activity underlying mental activity

C. Contemporary psychology

i. Martin Seligman: positive psychology  

1. Uses scientific methods to investigate building of  good life that engages skill-building and a meaningful life that extends beyond self

ii. the big nature vs. nurture questions

1. to what extent are our traits already set in place at  birth (“nature”)?

2. To what extent do our traits develop in response to  our environment/experience (“nurture”)

3. Nature

a. Plato: character and intelligence inherited,  

some ideas inborn

b. Descartes: Some ideas are intuitive  

c. Darwin: Some traits, behaviors, and instincts  

are part of species; natural selection

4. Nurture

a. Aristotle: content of mind comes through  

senses

b. Locke: mind is blank slate

D. Psychology’s three main levels of analysis

i. Biological influences

1. Genetic predispositions (genetically influenced traits) 2. Genetic mutations

3. Natural selection of adaptive traits and behaviors  passed down through generations

4. Genes responding to the enviroment

ii. Psychological influences

1. Learned fears and other learned expectations  

2. Emotional responses

3. Cognitive processing and perceptual interpretations iii. Social-cultural influences

1. Presence of others  

2. Cultural, societal, and family expectations

3. Peer and other group influences

4. Compelling models (such as in the media)

E. Psychology’s subfields

i. Neuroscience

1. How the body and brain enable emotions, memories,  and sensory experiences

ii. Evolutionary  

1. How the natural selection of traits has promoted the  survival of genes

a. Ex. Biological; cognitive; clinical

iii. Behavior genetics  

1. How our genes and our environment influence our  individual differences

a. Ex. Biological; developmental; social

iv. Psychodynamic  

1. How behavior springs from unconscious drives and  conflicts

a. Ex. Personality; developmental; legal/forensic

v. Behavioral  

1. How we learn observable responses

a. Ex. Clinical; counseling; industrial

organizational

vi. Cognitive

1. How we encode, process, store, and retrieve  

information

a. Ex. Cognitive neuroscience; clinical,  

counseling; industrial-organizational

vii. Socio-cultural  

1. How behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures

a. Ex. Developmental; social psychology, clinical,  

counseling

F. Best learning practices

i. Testing boosts retention of matierl

ii. Actively processing material and retrieving material helps  master it  

iii. Spaced rehearsal, interspaced with other subjects, is more  efficient than cramming

iv. Concept familiarity is not effective enough

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