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WSU - NFS 2030 - Class Notes - Week 5

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WSU - NFS 2030 - Class Notes - Week 5

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background image Continuation of Chapter 3… The Chemical Aspects of Digestion I. Digestive juices a. Salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver, and small intestine
b. Occurs through the gastrointestinal tract starting in the mouth 
and going all the way down to the small intestine II. Saliva functions in the mouth a. Breaks down starches and fat
b. Maintains tooth health
c. Saliva starts digestion in the mouth
d. There is an enzyme called alpha-amylase, which starts the 
process of digestion and can help break up fat (sometimes) III. Stomach a. Gastric juice includes hydrochloric acid i. Initiates protein digestion b. Enzymes that are involved in denaturing proteins i. Can be problematic c. Pro-peptide isn’t activated until it is a certain length i. Part of a control system IV. Intestine a. Bile i. Is slightly basic and a good emulsifier -> breaks up large  globs of fat into smaller globs of fat b. Pancreatic juice neutralizes stomach acid
c. Digestive enzymes in intestinal wall
d. Water, fiber, and some minerals remain
i. Not everything is absorbed V. Microbes in the digestive tract a. Ferment many indigestible fibers
b. Break down undigested protein, bile components, and drugs
c. Colonies of bacteria in the large intestine that will help to break 
down things such as carbohydrates and turn them into short 
chain fatty acids
pH Values of Digestive Juice and Other Common Fluids I. Normal pH range is 7.3-7.5 II. Controlled situations III. Range is pretty tight, and we need to monitor it Digestion of a Peanut Butter Sandwich I. Within 24 to 48 hours a. Body digests and absorbs 90% of carbohydrate, fat, and protein  in a meal II. Mouth a. Food is crushed, mashed, and mixed with saliva
background image b. Carbohydrate digestion begins
c. Swallowing
i. Peristaltic waves III. Stomach a. Gastric juice mixes with food i. Acid unwinds proteins b. Chyme IV. Small intestine a. Bile from the liver
b. Enzymes from pancreas
V. Large intestine a. Fiber fragments, fluid, and some minerals absorbed Absorption and Transport of Nutrients I. Nutrient molecules transverse intestinal lining a. Water-soluble components: can be dissolved in water
b. Fat-soluble components: cannot be dissolved in water, but can be
if put into a solution of lipids or fats II. Cells of small intestine are selective a. Don’t let everything through; have barriers
b. Immune system -> produce mucus
III. Folded structure a. Villi
b. Microvilli
Details of the Small Intestinal Lining I. The wall of the small intestine is wrinkled into thousands of folds and is
carpeted with villi
II. If you have ever watched a sea anemone with its fingerlike projections 
in constant motion, you have a good picture of how the intestinal villi 
III. Between the villi are tubular glands that secrete enzyme-containing 
intestinal juice
IV. Each villus, in turn, is covered with even smaller projection, the 
V. Each of these has the capacity to absorb water-soluble and fat-soluble 
VI. The mucosal cell lies on the surface of the intestinal level Nutrient Transport I. Lymph vessels a. Products of fat digestion
b. Fat-soluble vitamins
c. Handle lipids
II. Blood vessels a. Products of carbohydrate and protein digestion

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School: Wayne State University
Department: Nutrition and Food Sciences
Course: Nutrition and Health
Professor: Eno Latifi
Term: Winter 2019
Tags: nutrition and health
Name: Nutrition and Health Week 5 Notes
Description: These notes cover lecture material from the first half of chapter 4.
Uploaded: 02/10/2019
4 Pages 43 Views 34 Unlocks
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