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Cornell - HD 3570 - Social Inequality Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

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Cornell - HD 3570 - Social Inequality Exam 1 Study Guide - Study Guide

School: Cornell University
Department: Human Development
Course: Social Inequalities in Health
Professor: Elaine Wethington
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: social, inequality, and Exam 1
Name: Social Inequality Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes are from all the lectures that will be on the exam. It also includes potential questions that the professor will have on the exam.
Uploaded: 02/11/2019
This preview shows pages 1 - 5 of a 21 page document. to view the rest of the content
background image SOC 2208 PRELIM 1 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 1 ­ Intro 1/22 Active learning initiative o Iclicker o Participation Capuchin monkey study (reject equal pay) o Rock vs grape vs cucumber o Cucumber monkey gets mad that they’re not getting grapes Think­pair­share: monkeys and inequality o Do humans act the same way? Yes in different socialized settings But there are underlying behaviors that are universal People are rewarded in multiple ways ­ inequality is multi­dimensional ie) some jobs get a lot of pay, but they are difficult (compensating 
differential ­ compensate for low prestige and hard work with 
higher pay) Underlying reaction to something that is unfair is present for all, but 
response may differ between people
ie) feeling anger that pay is unfair vs acting on it There are ways of justifying inequality we see ie) current day: emphasis on inequality  Inequality is based on merit (somehow fair) Vs nurture affects people’s opportunities and where they 
end up
ie) divine right justified inequality in monarchies  o What does this video suggest about the importance of 
fairness?
Learning Objectives Why is econ inequality increasing?/ Is inequality inevitable? If so, how much? In what ways are we a class society?/ Is there a power elite? A cultural elite? Why is there so much poverty?/ What are the causes of poverty?/ Who gets ahead
and why?
o Class origins and family background o Education  o Aspirations  o Schools  o Neighborhoods  o Social networks o Firms and employers How have racial and ethnic inequalities changed?/ How and why do they persist? How have gender disparities changed?/ How and why do they persist? NOTE: won’t learn about inequality in the developing world, “shoulds and oughts” Iclicker poll In which society would you most like to live? (you don’t know where you’ll fall)
background image SOC 2208 PRELIM 1 STUDY GUIDE o A) More ppl with less income o B) Most ppl with avg income Greatest chance of being pretty well off Risk averse, lowest income is higher than all other graphs o C) Equal high and low Most ppl want to live here Representative of random sample answer o D) More ppl with high income Which society most accurately represents income in US today? o Society A) o Most ppl have less income, with two larger brackets at the very top income levels
(no longer in $5,000 chunks)
o Very long right hand tail to show significant inequality Why is there a discrepancy between what people prefer and actual distribution? Forms: Measuring Social Class What is a social class? How is it measured? o Income, education, wealth, access to services, opportunities, geographic  location, occupational status o Race, gender, location, are important to inequality but are not social class o Education level, income, and occupation are key indicators of social class As well as cultural markers (eat, dress, activities, pop cultural 
awareness)
Not just your own attributes, may also reflect the status of your parents 
(intergenerational mobility)
Iclicker : Extreme Poverty In the last 30 years, proportion of world pop living in extreme poverty has: o Majority says increased Almost identical distribution to random sample responses o Reality: extreme poverty declined (2015 around 10%) Based on how much ppl were consuming, and how much it cost to 
consume that
Iclicker: black white income gap For every $100 earned by an avg white family, how much was earned by an avg black 
family in 2013?
o Answer is B : $57 For every $100 of wealth an avg white family has, how much wealth for black? o Answer is C: $5 Lecture 2 1/24 Questions How have diff forms of econ inequality changed over time (US focus) Why is econ inequality increasing?
background image SOC 2208 PRELIM 1 STUDY GUIDE Forms of economic inequality Income o Pre­tax income: wages/salary + investment income + self employment o post ­tax income: market income ­ taxes + transfers o Personal income: graphs usually limited to adults of working age o Family: 2 + related individuals residing together Not just nuclear family o Household: all persons residing in a housing unit 1980s o Cornell went coed 1972 or 69 o Share of national income of the top 10% of US adults 1917­1980 Dramatic drop between 1940­1947 Appears that inequality is declining o Liberal Theory Equality of opportunity through mass education Equality of outcomes through strong unions, legal protections, breaking 
up monopolies
“Kuznets curve”: high inequality in early industrialism   lower levels as  markets mature o ALL WRONG o Share of national income of the top 10% of US adults 1917­2016 After 1980s share dramatically increased Larger gap between pre and post tax income (taxed more post 1980) But national income share to top 10% is continuing to increase SAME for top 1% with even less of a gap between pre and post tax 
income (taxed less)
Takeoff in terms of share of national income going to top distribution Post 1950 progressive taxation bringing down top post tax income Scale of 10% vs 1% graph creates illusion of greater variability in 1% 
graph
2008 recession doesn’t see a significant effect on these incomes  o Bottom 50% of US adults Pre tax share must lower than post tax share (taxes raising income) Declining income over time Personal income inequality lower than family income inequality o Why? Dual­earner families (usually) have higher total income than single earner
families
“Assortive mating” ­ marry those like you or of similar status Wages Hourly earnings from employment Excludes self employment income Hourly wages in 2017 $ of US workers by percentile 1973­2017
background image SOC 2208 PRELIM 1 STUDY GUIDE o 95th $60/hr o 90th $46/hr o 70 $26/hr o Median $18/hr o 10th $10/hr As percentage of 1973 wages o Most of the increase in wages in upper percentiles (95th & 90th) driven by top 
end of labor mkt
Wealth Assets ­ debt Includes housing equity Shares of wealth of richest families in the US o Top 10%­1% o Top 1% o Comparison between the two is relative inequality Real avg wealth in 2010$ of bottom 90% and top 1% of families o Split axis, entirely different income brackets used to compare o Scales are both still a multiple of 10 o Divergence between the two after great recession 2008 o Bottom 90% saw significant drop in wealth and hasn’t recovered, while top 1% 
has recovered
Main Points Wage inequality < personal income inequality < family income inequality < wealth 
inequality
Great u turn: inequality not always as extreme in US as is today Most of recent growth in econ inequality driven by o Takeoff at very top of wage, income, wealth distributions o Stagnation or slight decline of bottom Why has econ inequality increased? Explanation 1: Inevitable Dynamics of Capitalism o r>g o R = rate of return on capital Can think of this as an investment income from wealth o If r >g, rising inequality o G = rate of growth in econ From more ppl or more productivity per person o In mature capitalist economies, r>g o Growing share of total national income held by owners of capital vs those whose 
income comes from work
Three ways inevitable growth in inequality can be halted o Abandon capitalism o Global wars (see 20th cent) o Global progressive wealth tax
background image SOC 2208 PRELIM 1 STUDY GUIDE Explanation 2: Immigration Raises supply of labor o Substitutability 1: do immigrants and native born workers compete for same  jobs? Simulated long­term impact of 1990­2010 immigration documented and 
un on wages of native born (partial substitutability)
For HS dropouts, negative effect on native (­1.7%) For HS grad­BA degree, positive effect on native For Post College, negative effect on native (but smaller ­.1%) If assume perfect substitutability of HS dropout and HS grad, removes 
negative effect for native HS dropouts, leaving only negative effect on 
post­college Raises demand for labor o Each immigrant creates 1.2 jobs 63% of these jobs are non­tradable services (restaurants, barbers, 
lawyers)
o If assume large (10%) increase in immigrants AND complete imm/NB  substitutability 1.7% decline in wages in tradable sector 4% increase in wages in non­tradable sector Increases profits of business owners who hire immigrants o Current in the news: Labor department audit shows Oracle had “extreme 
preference” for visa holders, primarily from Asia, who they paid less than native­
born workers Explanation 3: skill­biased Tech Change (SBTC) Tech changes favor high skilled workers Declining demand for unskilled labor   wage premium that goes to skilled Unemployment rates and earnings by educational attainment 2017 o Higher degree = higher earnings Growth in college wage premium 1973­2016 o Percent increase having a college degree compared to HS degree o Growth has leveled off o Women with BA earn about 50% more than women of similar age, race, etc but a
high school degree
o Men with BA earn about 47% more Goldin & Katz o Computerization: raised employer demand for younger, more educated workers o Leads to growth in wages of skilled workers relative to unskilled workers NOTE: college degree is assumed to measure skill o Not all just about tech Early 20th cent: tech shifts but no run up in inequality Why not? Supply of skilled labor kept up with demand Unanswered Questions

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School: Cornell University
Department: Human Development
Course: Social Inequalities in Health
Professor: Elaine Wethington
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: social, inequality, and Exam 1
Name: Social Inequality Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes are from all the lectures that will be on the exam. It also includes potential questions that the professor will have on the exam.
Uploaded: 02/11/2019
21 Pages 76 Views 60 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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