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Clemson - ANTH - Study Guide - Midterm

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Clemson - ANTH - Study Guide - Midterm

School: Clemson University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Anthropology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers what will be on our next exam
Uploaded: 02/11/2019
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background image Anthropology Exam 1 Study Guide : chapters 1-8   
Things to think about while studying: 
*Establishing the mechanisms for why we exist. 
       *How do we get to where we are? 
**make sure to study your own notes and skim through the chapters instead of just memorizing this study guide.  
  Leakey: ​Louis Leakey was a legendary paleoanthropologist who discovered the ​Paranthropus boisei ​in 
1959 in western tanzania. This discovery was important because it demonstrated that early hominins 
were present in East Africa. ​P. boisei ​is not ancestral to our genus, ​Homo.  
Paranthropus boisei    
Neanderthals: ​There has been much controversy over the years over whether the Neanderthals are 
Homo sapiens ​or their own distinct species, ​Homo neanderthalensis. ​These confusing hominin fossil 
group are from 500,00-200,00 years ago and were first discovered in 1856.  
Homo neanderthalensis.   
Oldowan Tools:  ​The earliest stone tool making tradition, named after the tools found at Olduvai 
George, Tanzania from about 2.5 million years ago. The stone artifacts include core tools and 
sharp-edged flakes made by striking one stone against another. Flake tools predominate. 
   
background image Achuliaen Tools: ​    The archaeological industry of stone tool manufacture characterized by  distinctive oval and pear-shaped "hand-axes" associated with Homo erectus and derived species such as 
Homo heidelbergensis. **hand axes 
   
Levallois Tools: ​Toward the end of the Acheulean period, a technique developed that enabled 
toolmakers to produce flake tools of a predetermined size instead of simply chipping flakes away from 
the core at random. In this​ Levalloisian  method,​ toolmakers first shaped the core and prepared a 
“striking platform” at one end. Flakes of predetermined and standard sized could then be knocked off.  
 
   
 
 Mousterian Tools: ​Compared with an Acheulian tool, the mousterian tools has smaller proportions 
of large core tools such as hand axes and cleavers and a bigger proportion of small flake tools such as 
scrapers.   
 
   
Kinds of primates: 
Prosimians​: “pre monkeys” consisting of lemurs, lorises, and tarsiers.   Old World Monkeys: ​aka Cercopithecoids are more closely related to humans than New 
world monkeys. Some live on the ground and in trees while others are completely terrestrial.  
New World Monkeys: ​completely arboreal​ ​or living in trees. Three premolars unlike two 
which old world monkeys do.  
background image Lesser Apes: ​gibbons.different from great apes in that they are ​ smaller, exhibit low sexual  dimorphism, and do not make nests.   Great Apes  Chimpanzees - arboreal and terrestrial. Less sexually dimorphic compared to other 
great apes.  
Gorillas- arboreal and terrestrial. Largest of the surviving apes. Tend to live in groups 
with a dominant male. Knuckle walking.  
Orangutans- clearly recognizable as males/females. Primarily fruit eaters and arboreal.     Traits of Chimpanzees (tools, warfare, etc.)   Chimpanzees both fashion and use tools in the wild.   *remember the termite fishing article we read  Chimps also are communicative, using gestures and vocalizations   
Charles Darwin: ​“Father of evolution” ​
proposed that all species of life have descended over time  from common ancestors    Voyage on the ​Beagle  On the Origin of Species by Means of NAtural Selection, ​1859  The Descent of Man, ​1871   
Gregor Mendel: ​
monk and ameature botanist who bred several varities of pea plants and made 
detailed observations of their offspring. Discovered lots about genetics.  
 
Natural Selection: ​
The more frequent survival and reproduction of the better adapted. “Survival of 
the fittest.” Proposed by charles darwin 
Mutation: ​A change in the DNA sequence which produces an altered gene.     Variation: ​Every species is composed of a great variety of individuals, some of which are 
better adapted to their environment than others. 
 Environmental Factors: ​changes in a species can be expected to occur as the environment 
changes or as some members of the species move into a new environment. 
Seriation​:​ is a relative dating method in which assemblages or artifacts from numerous sites, in  the same culture, are placed in chronological order.     Absolute dating methods   Radiocarbon dating: ​most popular method of determining the absolute age of a specimen. It 
is based on the principle that all living matter possesses a certain amount of a radioactive form 
of carbon.  
 

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School: Clemson University
Department: Evolutionary Anthropology
Course: Introduction to Anthropology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers what will be on our next exam
Uploaded: 02/11/2019
8 Pages 155 Views 124 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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