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SDSU / Biochemistry / CHEM 100 / Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?

Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?

Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?

Description

School: San Diego State University
Department: Biochemistry
Course: INTRO GENERAL CHEM
Professor: G elliot
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: General Chemistry, Chemistry, chemist, and general
Cost: 50
Name: Chem 100 Exam 1 6 Page Study Guide
Description: These notes are comprehensive and cover what has happened so far; it will be super useful for the exam 1 coming up and final! it is 6 full pages of organized notes on Laws, periodic table, atomic structure, temperature, density, heat, rules for significant figures, metric systems, pure substances, chemical/physical properties, and more!
Uploaded: 02/13/2019
6 Pages 38 Views 2 Unlocks
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CHEM 100 EXAM STUDY GUIDE


Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?



Chapter 1

Hydrophilic

➢ Water-like

Homogeneous (a solution)

➢ Ex: water + sugar

➢ uniform

Heterogeneous

➢ When something does not mix together and you can still see the compound ➢ Not uniform

➢ Ex: Sugar + gas

➢ Gas = hydrocarbon 

○ Very hydrophobic

What are the 4 major categories of biomolecules?

➢ Proteins

➢ nucleic acids

○ DNA is the biomolecule responsible for heredity


What are the 4 major categories of biomolecules?



➢ Lipids

➢ carbohydrates

Scientific method

➢ Quantitative (numbers)

2 types of pure substances

➢ Elements

○ Most basic building blocks

➢ Compounds

○ Formed by elements

○ The ratio of elements is always the same We also discuss several other topics like What type of nucleus cannot be used for nmr spectroscopy?

➢ In most substances → solid has the highest density

○ When is liquid more dense than a solid?

■ Water (why ice floats!)

3rd Law of thermodynamics

➢ Energy is conserved, never destroyed or formed

Scale


What are the two types of pure substances?



➢ Deposition of Mg and Ca → tap water

Water

➢ Bonds to itself by hydrogen bonds

Metric system

➢ Modern metric system = SI If you want to learn more check out How is analysis of variance calculated?

○ kg, meter, second

➢ 1 m = 100 cm

➢ 1 cm = 1/100 m

➢ Nano = 1 x 10−9 

➢ Micro = 1 x 10−6 

➢ Milli = 1 x 10−3 

➢ centi = 1 x 10−2 

➢ Kilo = 1 x 103 

➢ Mega = 1 x 106 

➢ Giga = 1 x 109 If you want to learn more check out What are three examples of ecosystem services?

➢ Tera = 1 x 1012 

➢ *1 in = 2.54 cm

➢ *1gal = 3.785 L

➢ *1 cm^3 = 1 mL

Pure substances

➢ Can be obtained by separation methods

➢ Unique physical and chemical properties We also discuss several other topics like What is initial and final velocity?
If you want to learn more check out Does art have to be beautiful to be considered art?

➢ Usually in a container

Physical properties

➢ Texture, color, odor, density, solubility, boiling/melting point

What physical property is used in distillation?

➢ Variable boiling points

Physical properties used in 3 purification methods?

➢ Variable affinities against solid support

➢ Variable solubility

➢ Variable boiling points

Chemical property

➢ Substances lose their chemical identities and make new substances that have new physical/chemical properties If you want to learn more check out What is an altruistic action?

➢ Heat or light made is a chemical change

Significant figures

➢ Accuracy of measurement

➢ Last number in sig fig = has uncertainty 

➢ 4 → 1 sig fig

➢ 4.0 → 2 sig figs

➢ any number raised to power of zero is equal to 1

Rules for Significant Figures

➢ A trailing zero is significant

➢ A zero in a number is significant

➢ A zero before a number is not significant

➢ A number that ends with 0 and has no decimal point, ex: 60, is ambiguous Writing number in Scientific Notation

➢ Write it as a number between 1-10 multiplied by 10 raised to a whole number ➢ 30 x 10^4 is not correct because 30 is not between 1-10

● When multiplying or dividing, the answer should be rounded to the least number of sig figs ● When adding or subtracting, round to least numbers after decimal point Density 

➢ g/mL = g/cm^3

➢ = Mass (g) / volume (cm^3)

➢ How much matter in a set volume

Mass

➢ Measure of quantity of matter

➢ independent of the temperature, pressure, or location

➢ # of atoms

Temperature

➢ 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

○ Heat will flow from hot → cold object if in contact

➢ Kelvin is most used when making temperature measurements

➢ K = + 273 ° C

➢ F = ° C x (9/5) + 32

➢ C = ( 2) x (5/9) ° F − 3

Specific heat

➢ Cp = Joules/grams x Δ ° C

○ Δ = change in temperature ° C

○ Mass, amount of heat added, and temperature change

➢ Water = highest specific heat

○ Takes most amount of energy to increase its temperature

Heat

➢ Measured by rise in temperature of a given mass of water in device called calorimeter ➢ 4.184 J = 1 cal

➢ SI unit for heat = Joule

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

➢ Isotopes

○ Same number of protons but different # of neutrons

➢ Periodicity

○ Similar chemical properties in a column

➢ Law of conservation of mass

○ Mass is neither created or destroyed

➢ Law of Constant Composition

○ Elements in compound are in exact proportions by mass

➢ Entropy

○ Disorder

➢ Enthalpy

○ Bond formation/breakage

➢ John Dalton

○ Developed atomic theory

■ All matter contains atoms

■ Atoms of any 1 element are identical

■ Atoms of different elements have different mass

■ Compounds are combinations of atoms of separate elements

■ Atoms are exchanged in chemical reactions (neither created nor destroyed) ➢ Structure of Atoms

○ Protons and neutrons make up most mass of an atom

■ In nucleus

○ Neutral atom

■ Equal number of protons and electrons

○ An atom can gain or lose electrons to become charged, but never gain or lose protons in nucleus

➢ Periodic law

○ Elemental properties repeat periodically

➢ Periodic table

○ those with similar chemical properties are arranged in same vertical column (group, family)

○ Horizontal row = period

○ Upper left superscript = atomic mass number (protons and neutrons) ○ Most elements = metals (left side of table)

○ Nonmetals = upper right

○ Metalloids are in between metals and nonmetals and have properties in between them

➢ Specific Heat of Common Substances

○ Water = 4.18

➢ Cation

○ Positively charged ion

➢ Anion

○ Negatively charged ion

➢ Atomic Energy

○ A beam of light contains photons, particles with energy

➢ Bohr model

○ First model of atom, incorrect

➢ Visible spectrum of light

○ Does not comprise all known wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation ➢ Quantum mechanics

○ New theory, accurate

○ Describes properties of atoms, molecules, subatomic particles

○ Describes how electrons are organized

➢ Principle quantum #

○ Relationship between levels of organization depends on the energy state of atom ➢ Noble elements (gas @ room temp)

○ Bc the things used to make liquids are too weak to overcome the tendency to be free at gas @ room temp

➢ Quantum Mechanics: Atom

○ Shell

■ Identified by princip. Quantum # (energy level) of shell.

● Higher quantum #, more energy and farther electrons are from

nucleus

○ Subshells

■ S, p, d, f

■ Electrons per subshell: 2, 6, 10, 14

○ Orbital

■ In subshell

■ Where electrons exists in an atom

■ Size and shape depend on atom’s energy state

● More energy, the larger the orbital

■ # or orbitals: 1, 3, 5, 7 (corresponds to subshells)

■ Electrons per orbital: 2 for all kinds

➢ Lewis Symbols

○ Atoms often surrounded by dots rep. Valence electrons (same as its group number except with He)

○ Non bonding electrons = pair of dots

○ Bonding electrons = lines

Chapter 3

➢ Noble gases

○ Represent a closed shell

➢ Nonpolar

○ No poles

■ No diff between ends of bonds

➢ Ionic bond

○ Strong attraction between a positive and negative ion

○ Determined if it will form by the ionization energy of metal atom ■ Energy needed to remove electron from atom

■ Increases when left→ right of periodic table

■ Decreases when top → bottom of periodic table

○ Will form if one has a much greater electron-attracting pwr than the other ○ Cross over approach to find ratios

➢ Covalent bond

○ Electrons shared

○ Usually in nonmetals

○ Forms when electron-attracting pwrs are similar in strength

○ Nonmetal + nonmetal

➢ Group 4 of periodic table

○ No ionic bonds

➢ Polyatomic Ions

○ 2+ atoms

○ Memorize!

○ Ex: OH- (hydroxide)

➢ Electrolytes

○ conduct electricity when dissolved in water

➢ Nonelectrolytes

○ Do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water

➢ Greek prefixes

○ Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

➢ Octet rule

○ Trying to reach 8

○ Duet rule for Hydrogen

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