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SDSU / Biochemistry / CHEM 100 / Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?

Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?

Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?

Description

School: San Diego State University
Department: Biochemistry
Course: INTRO GENERAL CHEM
Professor: G elliot
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: General Chemistry, Chemistry, chemist, and general
Cost: 50
Name: Chem 100 Exam 1 6 Page Study Guide
Description: These notes are comprehensive and cover what has happened so far; it will be super useful for the exam 1 coming up and final! it is 6 full pages of organized notes on Laws, periodic table, atomic structure, temperature, density, heat, rules for significant figures, metric systems, pure substances, chemical/physical properties, and more!
Uploaded: 02/13/2019
6 Pages 98 Views 2 Unlocks
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CHEM 100 EXAM STUDY GUIDE


Can heterogeneous mixtures be separated by physical means?



Chapter 1

Hydrophilic

➢ Water-like

Homogeneous (a solution)

➢ Ex: water + sugar

➢ uniform

Heterogeneous

➢ When something does not mix together and you can still see the compound ➢ Not uniform

➢ Ex: Sugar + gas

➢ Gas = hydrocarbon 

○ Very hydrophobic

What are the 4 major categories of biomolecules?

➢ Proteins

➢ nucleic acids

○ DNA is the biomolecule responsible for heredity


What are the 4 major categories of biomolecules?



➢ Lipids

➢ carbohydrates

Scientific method

➢ Quantitative (numbers)

2 types of pure substances

➢ Elements

○ Most basic building blocks

➢ Compounds

○ Formed by elements

○ The ratio of elements is always the same

➢ In most substances → solid has the highest density Don't forget about the age old question of What type of nucleus cannot be used for nmr spectroscopy?

○ When is liquid more dense than a solid?

■ Water (why ice floats!)

3rd Law of thermodynamics

➢ Energy is conserved, never destroyed or formed

Scale


What are the two types of pure substances?



➢ Deposition of Mg and Ca → tap water

Water

➢ Bonds to itself by hydrogen bonds

Metric system

➢ Modern metric system = SI

○ kg, meter, second

➢ 1 m = 100 cm

➢ 1 cm = 1/100 m

➢ Nano = 1 x 10−9 We also discuss several other topics like How is analysis of variance calculated?
Don't forget about the age old question of What are three examples of ecosystem services?

➢ Micro = 1 x 10−6 

➢ Milli = 1 x 10−3 

➢ centi = 1 x 10−2 

➢ Kilo = 1 x 103 

➢ Mega = 1 x 106 

➢ Giga = 1 x 109 

➢ Tera = 1 x 1012 

➢ *1 in = 2.54 cm

➢ *1gal = 3.785 L

➢ *1 cm^3 = 1 mL

Pure substances

➢ Can be obtained by separation methods

➢ Unique physical and chemical properties If you want to learn more check out What are the rules of significant figures?

➢ Usually in a container

Physical properties

➢ Texture, color, odor, density, solubility, boiling/melting point

What physical property is used in distillation?

➢ Variable boiling points

Physical properties used in 3 purification methods?

➢ Variable affinities against solid support

➢ Variable solubility

➢ Variable boiling points

Chemical property

➢ Substances lose their chemical identities and make new substances that have new physical/chemical properties

➢ Heat or light made is a chemical change

Significant figures

➢ Accuracy of measurement

➢ Last number in sig fig = has uncertainty 

➢ 4 → 1 sig fig

➢ 4.0 → 2 sig figs

➢ any number raised to power of zero is equal to 1

Rules for Significant Figures

➢ A trailing zero is significant If you want to learn more check out Does art have to be beautiful to be considered art?

➢ A zero in a number is significant

➢ A zero before a number is not significant

➢ A number that ends with 0 and has no decimal point, ex: 60, is ambiguous Writing number in Scientific Notation We also discuss several other topics like What are the three facets of spirituality?

➢ Write it as a number between 1-10 multiplied by 10 raised to a whole number ➢ 30 x 10^4 is not correct because 30 is not between 1-10

● When multiplying or dividing, the answer should be rounded to the least number of sig figs ● When adding or subtracting, round to least numbers after decimal point Density 

➢ g/mL = g/cm^3

➢ = Mass (g) / volume (cm^3)

➢ How much matter in a set volume

Mass

➢ Measure of quantity of matter

➢ independent of the temperature, pressure, or location

➢ # of atoms

Temperature

➢ 2nd Law of Thermodynamics

○ Heat will flow from hot → cold object if in contact

➢ Kelvin is most used when making temperature measurements

➢ K = + 273 ° C

➢ F = ° C x (9/5) + 32

➢ C = ( 2) x (5/9) ° F − 3

Specific heat

➢ Cp = Joules/grams x Δ ° C

○ Δ = change in temperature ° C

○ Mass, amount of heat added, and temperature change

➢ Water = highest specific heat

○ Takes most amount of energy to increase its temperature

Heat

➢ Measured by rise in temperature of a given mass of water in device called calorimeter ➢ 4.184 J = 1 cal

➢ SI unit for heat = Joule

Chapter 2: Atomic Structure

➢ Isotopes

○ Same number of protons but different # of neutrons

➢ Periodicity

○ Similar chemical properties in a column

➢ Law of conservation of mass

○ Mass is neither created or destroyed

➢ Law of Constant Composition

○ Elements in compound are in exact proportions by mass

➢ Entropy

○ Disorder

➢ Enthalpy

○ Bond formation/breakage

➢ John Dalton

○ Developed atomic theory

■ All matter contains atoms

■ Atoms of any 1 element are identical

■ Atoms of different elements have different mass

■ Compounds are combinations of atoms of separate elements

■ Atoms are exchanged in chemical reactions (neither created nor destroyed) ➢ Structure of Atoms

○ Protons and neutrons make up most mass of an atom

■ In nucleus

○ Neutral atom

■ Equal number of protons and electrons

○ An atom can gain or lose electrons to become charged, but never gain or lose protons in nucleus

➢ Periodic law

○ Elemental properties repeat periodically

➢ Periodic table

○ those with similar chemical properties are arranged in same vertical column (group, family)

○ Horizontal row = period

○ Upper left superscript = atomic mass number (protons and neutrons) ○ Most elements = metals (left side of table)

○ Nonmetals = upper right

○ Metalloids are in between metals and nonmetals and have properties in between them

➢ Specific Heat of Common Substances

○ Water = 4.18

➢ Cation

○ Positively charged ion

➢ Anion

○ Negatively charged ion

➢ Atomic Energy

○ A beam of light contains photons, particles with energy

➢ Bohr model

○ First model of atom, incorrect

➢ Visible spectrum of light

○ Does not comprise all known wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation ➢ Quantum mechanics

○ New theory, accurate

○ Describes properties of atoms, molecules, subatomic particles

○ Describes how electrons are organized

➢ Principle quantum #

○ Relationship between levels of organization depends on the energy state of atom ➢ Noble elements (gas @ room temp)

○ Bc the things used to make liquids are too weak to overcome the tendency to be free at gas @ room temp

➢ Quantum Mechanics: Atom

○ Shell

■ Identified by princip. Quantum # (energy level) of shell.

● Higher quantum #, more energy and farther electrons are from

nucleus

○ Subshells

■ S, p, d, f

■ Electrons per subshell: 2, 6, 10, 14

○ Orbital

■ In subshell

■ Where electrons exists in an atom

■ Size and shape depend on atom’s energy state

● More energy, the larger the orbital

■ # or orbitals: 1, 3, 5, 7 (corresponds to subshells)

■ Electrons per orbital: 2 for all kinds

➢ Lewis Symbols

○ Atoms often surrounded by dots rep. Valence electrons (same as its group number except with He)

○ Non bonding electrons = pair of dots

○ Bonding electrons = lines

Chapter 3

➢ Noble gases

○ Represent a closed shell

➢ Nonpolar

○ No poles

■ No diff between ends of bonds

➢ Ionic bond

○ Strong attraction between a positive and negative ion

○ Determined if it will form by the ionization energy of metal atom ■ Energy needed to remove electron from atom

■ Increases when left→ right of periodic table

■ Decreases when top → bottom of periodic table

○ Will form if one has a much greater electron-attracting pwr than the other ○ Cross over approach to find ratios

➢ Covalent bond

○ Electrons shared

○ Usually in nonmetals

○ Forms when electron-attracting pwrs are similar in strength

○ Nonmetal + nonmetal

➢ Group 4 of periodic table

○ No ionic bonds

➢ Polyatomic Ions

○ 2+ atoms

○ Memorize!

○ Ex: OH- (hydroxide)

➢ Electrolytes

○ conduct electricity when dissolved in water

➢ Nonelectrolytes

○ Do not conduct electricity when dissolved in water

➢ Greek prefixes

○ Mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, octa, nona, deca

➢ Octet rule

○ Trying to reach 8

○ Duet rule for Hydrogen

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