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UTSA / Chemistry / CHE 1113 / What is rate law?

What is rate law?

What is rate law?

Description

School: University of Texas at San Antonio
Department: Chemistry
Course: General Chemistry II
Professor: Raymond sadeghi
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Cost: 25
Name: Week 5 notes Chem 2 Sadeghi
Description: Wrapped up discussing Chapter 13 (Raoult’s Law, phase diagram of solutions, Colligative properties, electrolytes and van’t Hoff Factor) and began discussing Chapter 16- Kinetics
Uploaded: 02/13/2019
3 Pages 89 Views 2 Unlocks
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Review of Raoult's Law:

  • Lowering of the vapor pressure of a solution when a non-volatile solute is added to a substance.

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Raoult's Law: <

  • Solutions that obey Raoult’s law are called “ideal solution” when solute doesn’t turn into a gas.

Consequence of Raoult’s Law on Phase diagrams

  • For most substance phase diagrams the following features.

  • Plot them on top of each other

Tf° = Normal freezing temperature of a substance

Tf  = Normal freezing temperature of a solution

Tb° = Normal boiling temperature of the substance

Tb = Normal boiling temperature of solution  

H2O (1.0 atm = 100°C bp of H2O)

- By how much does Tb increase and Tf lowers?

  • Called Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties:

  • The raising of boiling temperature, freezing temperature and osmotic pressure.
  • Consequences of Raoult’s law
  • Depend on:

        a. Nature of solvent (what’s the solvent?)

                Ex. H2O, ethanol, benzophenone

        b. Amount of solute that’s added (concentration of solution)

        c. Nature of solute itself (what’s added to solvent?)

                Ex. H2O

a.) benzohpenone Kf = freezing constant = 1.86 °c/m

                       Kf = 8.52 °c/m

                        Kb = 0.512 °c/m for water

b.) concentration is measured in molality

        M=

c.) Nature of solute itself

        Adding solute to water that doesn’t turn into gas is a solution

Electrolytes vs. nonelectrolytes

  • Electrolytes are substances that, once dissolved in the solvent, break into ions in solution.

        Ex. NaCl(s) + H2O → NaCl(aq)  → Na(aq) + Cl(aq)

                MgCl(s) + H2O → Mg+ 2Cl(aq)

                C6H12O6(s) + H2O →   C6H12O6(aq)

Van't Hoff Correction (i)

- Nonelectrolytes →  i = 1

- Electrolytes  → i = no. of ions

- ideal → NaCl =  i=2

           NaCl2=  i=3  

⃤ Tf = Tf = Tf° = -i m Kf

⃤ Tb = Tb= Tb° = -i m Kb

Ex. 34g og sugar (C6H12O6) is added to 2.00g of water. Find the new freezing temperature of their solution. (Kf= 1.86°c/m)

⃤ Tf = Tf = Tf° = -i Kf . m

               = -i.m.Kf

i= 1(per nonelectrolyte)

Kf= 1.86°c/m (for water)

m= ? m= molality of solution

m=

Kg H2O = = 1 Kg = 0.200 Kg

Moles C6H12O6 =  = = 0.188 mol

Molality = m = = 0.94 mol/kg = 0.94m

⃤ Tf = Tf = Tf° = -i.m Kf

-(1) (1.86) (0.94) = -1.76 °C → -1.8°C

Ex. 34g NaCl is placed in 200g of water. Find the new freezing temperature solution.

⃤ Tf = Tf = Tf° = -i Kf . m        i=2, Kf= 1.86 °c/m, m=?

Molality = moles of NaCl/Kg H2O                                          Tf = -i Kf m

Mol NaCl = = = 0.58 mol                       = -(2) (1.86) (2.9) = -10.8 °C = -11°C

m= = = 2.9 mol/kg             * Salt is more effective at lower Tf

Solution and Colligative Properties

Colligative Properties

  • Freezing point depression

⃤ Tf = Tf = Tf° = -i Kf . m

Kf = Freezing constant for solvent

m= molality of solution =

Boiling point elevation

        ⃤ Tb = Tb= Tb° = +i Kb m

Kb = Boiling constant for solvent

m= molality of solution

* “i” is called Van’t Hoff factor

Def: a correction term for electrolytes solutes

  • It breaks into ions

Ex. For nonelectrolytes, such as Sugar (C6H12O6), i=1

      NaCl(aq)  → Na(aq) + Cl(aq)

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