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Virginia Tech - Study Guide - Midterm

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EXAM 1 CHEAT SHEET

Ch 25 / 26 - Geometrical Optics

Ch 15 - Thermodynamics

Law of Reflection

Heat (Joules (Qc cnergy dissipated by work of non-conservative forces (F) Temperature (Kelvins) (T): Heat flows from a high T system to a low T system

Spood of light = 0 -3 x 10 m/s Reflection

• Diffuso reflection (rough sic)

Specular reflection (soath sfc) Law of Reflection If you want to learn more check out What is solubility, solubility rules, and electrolytes?

Soup

e = angle of incedence e = angle of reflection Normal to sto (all angles measured from normal,

Don't forget about the age old question of Why you should believe the law of demand?

not sic) Virtual image image formed by imagined extension of diverging

rays (cannot be put on a screen) concave converge mirrors convex diverge mirrors Geometrical Optics

Mimor Lenso Equation:

1 = 1 + 1 h = -d valid for all cases Sign convention: d, never neg. for us

d> Oif image is real m> 0 f image is upright (virtual) d 20 if image is virtual m<07 image is inverted (real) h> 0 if image is upright h if image is inverted f> 0 for converging mirrors / lenses We also discuss several other topics like How microbes uptake nutrients?

fc0 for divcrging mirrors / lenses Magnification

m-h/

h m = m.m.m....m,

• **If you put object on focal point - no image (d **** Smells LowIndex of Refraction s

n.sin(e) = n, sin(e) – nuoly =n21 air - vacuum, son..1 e. - arcsini n./n) He increases e, also increases Max value of e. = 90 We also discuss several other topics like How will you define divine command theory?

1st Law of Thermodynamics - Extension of E conservation theorem to include heat AU - Q.W

u "internal energy = totall energy (previously E) Q: heat that goes into system

> if heat anders system

Q20 if heat loaves system W: work done by a system

W> 0 system does work to environment

W207 environment does work to system Heal Gas La PV = nRT U = 32 RT P: pressure [p] = Pa = Nim If you want to learn more check out What is the act of obtaining a desired object by offering something in return?

PV Dizaram: V: volume M=m

Expansion: V. V W O T: temp IT = Kelvins Don't forget about the age old question of Where was the tango born?

Compression: V, V W<0 in: number of moles Rideal gas constant = 8.31 J/molk Constant Pressure Process ischaria) Constant Volure Process WE|F|| Arcase

W = 0 noarca under curve W= P.MAX AXEV

ist law: U = 0-W W-P AV

AU = 0 1st law: AU = 0 W=0 - PAV Constant Templeathermal

Adiabatic Process PV = nRT

O = 0 (no heat exchange b/w system & enviro) RT is a constant

Adiabatic compression: V.<V W 0 P = cors:/V

Adiabatic curves are siceger than isothermals W = nRT In(V/V)

PV = constant PVSP.V. AT = T.T- O for an isothermal AU - 32 nRAT 1st law: AU = Q - W = 0

Convex converging Concave divorging Con Lense Tracing: mirror lense eq is the same = real, inverted image Div LT: d <0,01 <hch - m 1 - virtual, upright image Simole Ostical Devices (Eye /Camcral Eye:

Image must be real = lens must be converging Mirror / lense equation applies, d, is variable & d is fixed

Is there a maxd,? d. - *, & all rey's become horizontal & fed

TV Molar Specific Heats We can only do this at const VIP

Cons! W =0

32 AT We want Q = CnAT

. = 32 R (true for ideal gases) , reminds us of constant volume 1st law: AU = 0-W

AU = Q = BECOMES = 3/2 RAT - QnAT But, W=0

So. AU = 0 Const : We want Q = c.AT

9 - 52 R

AU = PAV - BECOMES - 1st law: AU = Q-W

32 RAT + QR41 = NAT = 5/2 nRAT But, W = PAV

So AU = Q - PAV Heat Cycles

Hoa: Enaires Process whose PV Diagram is a closed curve heat work AU for an ideal gas in one cycle = ?

Efficiency: c = Wi AU -0 = 3/2 ARAT

0, +2, + W AT - T.-T=0 1st law: AU = 0 - W=0

Cara

Must have a real image converging lens Lens must be able to move

Constraint: fis fixed

• dis variable, d must be variable Multiple Lenses / Mirrors

1) Form image of object using only firs: lens / mirror. Ignore the rest. 2) Use this image as object of second lens / mirror Ignore the rest. 3) Repeat as needed. For Lenses Image forms on same side as observer real image

Converging lensa Image forms on opposite sido as observer - virtual image

Diverging lense Far Mirrors Image forms on same side as observer real image

Concave mirror Image forms on opposite side as observer - virtual image

Convex mirror

EXAM 1 CHEAT SHEET

Ch 18 - Electric Forces & Fields

Free Space!

Electric charge - new force/indetinable quantity (+ / .)

- q: typical symbol for charge

SI:[] = C (Coulomb] |F..I - 19.9.1 | F | - 11 Coulomb's low

F = FMI = (4., 11 ) | F. 1 = k[19.4 ) k: Coulomb's constant Sl: k = 8.99x10 Nm/c Electric Fields

. LF, I = k (|Q9|77)

Fal=k(|Q4|17) Red part depends only on Q and r Tako k(01) Ed

o Magnitude of E dua to Q at distancer Definition: F-qE

0

0 is a test charge that is small and positive E due to a point.chside

0 . E: radially outward 0 ) E: radially inward E[P) = ?

. F. = E(P) Pi

• E[P) = E. + E, + E, Gauss's Lave

is in Nmc How much E is interrupted by A?

O of Ethrough A Definition: 0.-IELA

0 El = 1 Ecoste)

. : angle blw E and nomal to sfa, no

contribution to through A Definition: 0. - 1E Acos(e) How much of E, is intercepted by S?

1.

Study Sou

o fqis outside, : = 0

o lqis inside: 0-10 Gauss's Law

0 - 9in /

E = constant = 8.85x10-11 CNm Vaing G: Law to find E due to sufficierry mctric charge distributions

Use symmetry to estimate (roughly) force of clectric field (E) Choose a convenient closed sfo

0 Gaussian sto Apply Gauss's law: 0.- 9 in /& 4. Solve for E to an infinite sheet of charge uniformly charged

E(P) = ? g=QIA E, is first estimace, but E, is a better estimate At most, E depends ond

through side wall = 0 = 2 E Aa=9in /

0 By Gauss's law 20 E 4a = Sin/ & = oda /

• So,E /2€, is constant Parald Plate Capacitor

• E. | = E| = c/20,

• El = a/E

Points from # to biw plates is constant 2 EL = 9in/e, = c /e

o E= 0 /2€, is constant

EXAM 1 CHEAT SHEET

Ch 25/26 Formulas / Constants

Speed of light = C -3x 10 m/s (large but finite)

= e = angle of incedence @ = angle of reflection Normal to sfc (all angles measured from normal, not sfc)

| 1

=

1

+

1

m = h/h. Snell's Law

o n

0

, sin(e)= n,sin(e)

= arcsiná n./n)

Ch 15 Formulas / Constants

AU = Q - W

• Ideal gases: PV = nRT U = 3/2 nRT

o R: ideal gas constant = 8.31 J/ molik

o n number of moles Constant Pressure: W = PAV

1 st law: AU = Q-W=Q - PAV Constant Volume: W = 0

1st law: AU = 0 Isothermal: W = nRT In(V/V)

Q = W Adiabatic: WSO AU = -W

PV*= constant PV = P.7, Molar Specific Heats:

o Constant Volume

. We want Q = CnAT

. = 3/2 R W = 0 + AU = Q

3/2 RAT = C NAT Constant Pressure

We want an expression of the type: Q = C NAT

*

= 5/2 R

AU = Q - PAV

312 RAT + RAT = c AT = 5/2 RAT Heat Cycles

Q = W Heat Engines

0 Efficiency: e = WIQ.

Definition: Q,+Qc+W e = (Q.-Q.)/Q. or e = 1 - Q./Q..

o

Ch 18 Formulas / Constants

. [F] = k (19.911)

• k: Coulomb's constant

O SI: k = 8.99x10Nm,c? Definition: F. = qE

E = F/9

qis a test charge that is small and positive Definition: 0= E A

0 E = E + E, O TEI= Ecos(e)

- O: angle bw E and normal to sfo, no contribution to è through A Definition: $ = | E | Acos(0)

= 4,/E

o e = constant = 8.85x10-12 c m ? g=QIA . E|= 0/2€, is constant