HDFS 201 Study Guide 1
Ch. 7, 9, 12, 13
Ch. 7 Cohabitation and Marriage
1. How has the process by which young adults find intimate partners changed? Choosing a mate started largely by the female’s choosing or if the parents had wealth and land, they had a large voice in the decision. By the 1800s, young adults would find marriage partners through courtship, a process developed in Europe. In this way, the role of community and importance of parental roles are emphasized as couples were often seen in social activities. This soon faded after the 1900s as social and economic changes occurred due to large migration from rural and oversea areas to cities. In the same era, the view of teenagers become increasingly more distinct from the adult world as teenagers yearned to find their personalities and capabilities separate from pressures of the adult world. The term dating is relevantly new since the 1920s and the expectation of a man taking a woman on a date also entails spending money while this economic trend began to grow. Control was now given to the man so he could impress a female outside of the home as parent influences were decreasing. It was more common to see couples who live apart than together as ever before.
2. How has marriage changed over the past century?
Marriage began with the dynamics of the husband breadwinner and head of the household while the wife was the homemaker and caretaker, also known as institutional marriage. In the 1950s evolved the companionate marriage where relationships were focusing more on affection, love,
and friendship between a married couple. The new trend transcended along with the rise of industrialization and urbanization. The shift to individualistic marriage was due to the increased importance of education for women and rising standards of living. 3. What is marriage like today?
The choices and opportunities for marriage have increased greatly over the centuries allowing a greater definition of the term marriage and the lifestyles of. The rewards of marriage tailor to personal growth and deeper intimacy and remains an important symbol of status and prestige, as demonstrated by wedding preparation and executions. Weddings and their ceremonies are seen as a requirement for marriage, giving couples the opportunity to showcase their personal achievements through displays of selfdevelopment. More often now are couples waiting to marry until their career develops or buying a home as marriage provides longterm investment in order to purchase a home or raise children.
Don't forget about the age old question of What are the 3 angles to philosophy?
4. What is the role of cohabitation in the American family system?
Cohabitating is rapidly growing along with the diverse living arrangement for individuals. Most couples who cohabitate result in longterm marriage or dissolution of the relationship within a few years. Living together is more common among the less educated and poor communities to gain more financial and emotional support. Studies show that the more education a couple receives is more likely they will end up marrying. Studies also compared gay and heterosexual relationship have no significant differences between love and relationship satisfaction. 5. How does the marriage market work? Don't forget about the age old question of Huntington disease affects what parts of the brain?
A widely used model consisting of single individuals who are in search to find a partner who has a set of preferences in order to raise a child while that person has skills and personality attributes
to give in return. The specialization (out dated) model is the search of women who make good child care and household roles while the man would work outside the home and act as the financial leader. A more modern marriage model is the incomepooling model where a both spouses work outside the home and pool their income together.
6. Is a stable, genderegalitarian style of marriage emerging?
Yes, a genderegalitarian model of marriage is emerging, mainly among the collegeeducated young adults. In this model marriages are more harmonious and less likely to divorce because household duties are distributed equally and both incomes are shared. Studies show this model is likely to succeed if the man has steady earnings, which is why couples with less education or employment problems may be restricted.
When do sexual
Often only after engagement or marriage
Years before a union is
What happens when unplanned premarital pregnancies occur?
Often leads to marriage because having children outside of
marriage was socially frowned upon
Less likely to marry because having children outside of marriage was socially
Commonly among the poor while seen as disrespectable among wealthier communities
Most young adults before marriage as it has become part of the process of
Who marries and
Over 90% of white and blacks marry, average of young adults (20yr)
About 80% of whites and 50% blacks marry later on in age
What is the economic bargain?
Men exchange financial earnings for women’s housework and child care efforts. Most lowerclass women worked outside the home compared to higher class
Both spouses share incomes and economic
educated women are likely to marry
What is the cultural expectation?
Companionship and satisfaction through gendered roles
Continuous selfdevelopment, communication, and intimacy
We also discuss several other topics like What is an example of reductio ad absurdum?
Cohabitation An unmarried couple who share the same household
Companionate marriage A marriage based on affection, love, friendship, and sexual gratification Don't forget about the age old question of What is the greenhouse effect and what causes it?
Courtship A publicly visible process in which a man or woman finds a partner by following specific rules and restrictions
Enforceable trust Ability to force an agreement with a partner
Genderegalitarian marriage A marriage where both spouses share household and child care responsibilities
Incomepooling model A model of marriage where both spouses work for pay and pool their incomes
Individualistic marriage A marriage that emphasizes individual development, flexible roles, and open communication Don't forget about the age old question of What is the theory of forms by plato?
Institutional marriage A marriage emphasizing the male power, control, and social norms Living apart relationships Two people who are a couple but live separately Marriage market An analogy to the labor market in which single people search for partners to marry or have children with We also discuss several other topics like What are reactants and products in a reaction?
Serial cohabitation Living with two or more partners without marrying them Specialization model A marriage model where women specializes in household duties and child care and the man works for pay
Union A stable intimate relationship who live together but may not be married Union formation The process of beginning to live with a partner
Ch. 9 Parents and Children
1. What are the main goals in socializing children and how do parents differ in the way they fulfill their role?
Socializing children will guide them properly on how to culturally behave in society. Parents also teach their child social norms and values. Parents are responsible for providing emotional support and control over time. One of three parenting styles is authoritative, having high levels of emotional support with consistent control of their child, said to be the best style. Permissive parenting style provides emotional support but little control over the child. And authoritarian parenting style combine low levels of emotional support with coercive attempts of control. 2. How does the socialization of children vary by ethnicity, class, gender, and the sexual orientation of parents?
African American parents are more likely to use physical punishments while Asian Americans are likely to use discipline and obedience. Studies have shown that the effects of physical punishments on black and Asian children are positive yet different if white or middleclass parents were to use these tactics. Middleclass parents’ emphasis autonomy and selfdirection so their child can focus on talents and activities. Workingclass parents teach their children obedience and conformity, preparing them for blue collar jobs because members of each social class prepare their children for the careers they hold. Parents tend to socialize genders differently, exaggerating girl and boy differences in childhood. Studies suggest gay parents are not as different with parenting styles than heterosexual couples.
3. What barriers must parents overcome in socializing their children? Poverty and unemployment may largely impact the ways parents behave with each other and their children. When a parent has low income or no job at all, it causes emotional stress and pressures that can create depressive or angry tensions in a household. American children, compared to any other Western country, experiences family instability by 3 times the amount by second up runner, Sweden. Instability may be a divorce, cohabitating relationship or single parenting. The mass incarceration rates in America often leave children with a parent behind bars, leaving them without a parent influence.
4. How has the wellbeing of American children changed over time?
The average child wellbeing has grown very differently over the past few decades depending on the type of child you ask. For upper class, the class size has grown about 10% since the 1980s while middleclass families have decreased slightly. Low, below poverty, and extreme poverty class standings have increased since the 1980s. The overall wellbeing for upper class children have been well, middleclass may be suffering moderately as lowerclass are doing the worse.
Androgynous behavior Behavior that is characteristic of both genders
Authoritarian style (of parenting) Parents give little emotional support and little control over their child
Authoritative style (of parenting) Parents give lots of emotional support and moderate control over their child
Donor insemination Insertion of donor semen into an ovulating woman
Mass incarceration High rates of incarnation, particularly of Black males Multipartner fertility Having children with more than one partner
Norm Widely accepted behaviors about how people should act
Permissive style (of parenting) Parents give emotional support and little control over their child Value A goal held in high esteem by society
Ch. 12 Union Dissolution and Partnering
1. What are the ways in which American children experience the end of their parents’ union?
The past 100 years, the most common way a child experiences the end of their parents’ union was the death of a parent. Another way that is common now is divorce, as the high was in 1980 and many children were living in single households. The third way a child experiences the end of a union is when the unmarried cohabitating couple breaks up.
2. What factors have influenced the level of union dissolution?
Society wide Factors
Divorce has become more acceptable as the individualist perspective has grown
Men’s employment opportunity
Employment has gone down since the 1970s and has caused stress in marriages, turning to cohabiting relationships instead of marriage
Women’s employment opportunity
Since employment has gone up, work has increased divorce according to the specialization model but has lowered according to the incomepooling model
Age at entry into union
Young married couples are likely to divorce compared to marrying older
Race and ethnicity
Low income rates, high unemployment, job
discrimination, housing markets, and a less emphasis on marriage all contribute to African Americans having the highest rate of union dissolution
Partners with parents who have divorced are more likely to divorce themselves due to behavioral modeling or a genetic tendency
Couples who have similar values and interests, such as religion, have lower rates of union dissolution
3. What happens to children in the aftermath of the dissolution of their parents’ marriage or cohabiting union?
Joint legal custody is common after a union dissolution while joint physical custody is uncommon but growing. Divorced fathers who don’t live with the child has spent more time with them than in the past while minority fathers are not involved. Incomes of divorced mothers tend to lower as only half of custodial mothers receive proper child support from the fathers. The rates of single fathers are rising.
4. What are the forms of stepfamily life?
There are many forms of stepfamilies, such as a parent remarrying or cohabiting with a new partner. A stepfamily is defined as two married or cohabiting adults, or at least one adult has a child from a previous relationship. Stepfamilies may all cohabit together where the adult couple is not married but all live under the same with their children. Or a married stepfamily is when the partners are married.
5. How does the wellbeing of children in stepfamilies compare to the wellbeing of children in other kinds of families?
Advantages are that the household income usually rises and the addition of a stepparent adds support and a role model for a child of the same gender. Yet the wellbeing of children in stepfamilies show a decrease than twobiological parent families while singleparent families are roughly equivalent. The child goes through many transitions to adjust to the new family dynamic in which, typically girls, end up leaving the home at earlier ages.
6. How have the trends in union dissolution and repartnering altered family life? There has been an emphasis on personal fulfillment for economic and career success. The nature in creating kinship ties are vast now considering the different lifestyles such as the increase of divorce, cohabitating, remarriage and nonmarital childbearing. The increase of singleparent homes and stepfamilies have caused shortterm distress and longterm harm for children’s lives.
Cohabiting stepfamily A stepfamily with a cohabiting couple
Crisis period The first few years after parent dissolution where both spouses and the children experience difficulty in transitioning
Geneenvironment interaction When a change in the environment has a greater impact on people with genetic sensitivity to that change
Joint legal custody (of children after a dissolution) The legal right by both parents to make important decisions concerning their child
Joint physical custody (of children after a dissolution) When a child of divorced and non cohabiting parents spends equal amounts of time at each home
Legal custody (of children after a dissolution) The legal right by a parent to make important decisions for a child and legal responsibility for them
Married stepfamily A stepfamily with married partners
Physical custody (of children after a dissolution) Legal right by a divorced parent to have the child live with them
Stepfamily A couple who lives together or is married who have at least one child from a previous relationship
Union dissolution A legal ending of a married couple or informal ending of a cohabiting union Union repartnering New unions by cohabiting by remarriage
Ch. 13 International Family Change
1. What is the convergence thesis and has it proven to be true?
A theory that modernization of all countries would eventually occur as the poorest countries will transition like Western countries did following the conjugal family model. William J. Goode based this thought on the modernization theory that has been proven inaccurate. Though family life is similar around the world, global family patterns remain diverse.
2. How has parental control of children’s marriage choice s changed in the global south? Each year a child has had more say in who they marry, despite the traditional arrangement of marriage. The influence of parent control has lowered due to the increase of age of marriage and the authority women are achieving for their own marriages. Strict arranged marriages have declined but mainly been replaced with hybrid marriages where the spouse is chosen with the agreement of both the parents and child.
3. What is the companionate ideal and how has it spread?
The idea of companionate marriage has spread widely for its view on love rather than authority roles. Goode accurately predicted that companionate marriage would spread to the global south. Fertility, religion, and education all followed the companionate marriage perspective. 4. How has globalization altered family patterns in the Western world and the global south?
Both Western world and global south have been impacted positivity by the flow of goods, money, services, and migrants. The global south had more job opportunities, especially for women to make an income that could be a burden when taking care of children or as a blessing to be able to afford a better standard of living. Wealthier nations are capable of hiring female migrants to care for their children, who then become transactional families and send remittances to their families.
Arranged marriage When parents decide who their child married with little input from the child Developmental idealism Belief that Westernstyle families and economic development is most beneficial
Global south Less developed nations such as Asia, Africa, and South America Globalization of production Movement to the global south for the production of goods and services that Westerners consume
Hybrid marriage When a young adult and their parents find a partner together Love marriage When a couple freely chooses to be together based on love and companionship Modernization theory Idea that poor countries would eventually transition from third world to modern Western countries
Neotraditional A family lifestyle centered on marriage but may be led by cohabitation in which wives work outside the home
Remittances Cash that immigrants earn to send to back home to their families in their country of origin
Transnational families Families who maintain contact between members in the sending and receiving countries