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Where tabacco began?

Where tabacco began?

Description

School: University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa
Department: OTHER
Course: History of American Civilization to 1865
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: american and history
Cost: 50
Name: History Midterm Study Guide
Description: All the terms laid out are taken from the notes I have posted so you can go back for reference. For the essay questions I put topics that will formulate your essay; the only one I didn't answer was the first one because it didn't make any sense.
Uploaded: 02/21/2019
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History Midterm Study Guide


Where tabacco began?



Terms:

● St. Augustine

- original spanish fort built in 1589

● Atlantic World

- integrated system of settlement & trade around the Atlantic

● Elizabeth 1

- ruled from 1533-1603 who Spain tried to overthrow because of religious differences

● Roanoke Island

- first settlement that was an island off the coast of Virginia

- a complete disaster

- the second time the tried to colonize they lost contact with this island and when they got back there was no trace of anyone

- England defeated the spanish armada during a war that broke out to keep Roanoke

● “factories”

- small outposts along the coast of west and central Africa

● plantation

- farms to grow sugar cane originally

● Virginia Company

- formed in 1606 by aristocrats & merchants

- from the crown they were told to go make colonies


Who is Nathaniel Bacon?



- they don’t know what they are doing

- they started raiding Powhatan Indian land & Jamestown is over and over again almost wiped off the map

● Jamestown

- Start fort in honor of the King

- this was the first fort in America

- it was a gross town: on a swamp, men from the upper class who aren't used to doing manual work, drink and use the bathroom in the same river, etc.

- sits in the middle of 20,000 Indians

● Powhatan Indians

- Started raiding their land & over & over again Jamestown was wiped off the map ● tobacco

- first crop

- this began to spread around England and everyone was using it

- the King didn’t like smoking, but because his people liked it he made Jamestown keep producing

● indentured servants

- willing to come to America to work for free if they get passage to America


Who is Quakers?



- service was typically 7 years

- some were prisoners, but most could establish new lives if they got to America - between 1630-1700 most of the population was these servants

● headrights

- (50 acres) of land

- the more servants they brought the more land they got If you want to learn more check out macromolecules study guide

● “golden age”

- Villages & families started to form

● Chesapeake farmers

- 1670s different classes would be in full on war & Africans would pay the price - in the early 1700s masses of Africans exclusively did the work

- Villages & families started forming

● House of Burgesses

- supposed to represent the colonists to the crown, but they were mostly landowning upper class so there was no representation of the lower and middle class

● William Berkeley

- Governor made a law to forbid colonists from interacting with Indians without official government permission

● Nathaniel Bacon

- newcomer arrives rich & buys plantations

- he despises Indians & believed they were enemies with British & wanted to take take them on

● First Families of Virginia

- they were well off families that arrived in the 60s & 70s

- Berkeley gave them everything

● Puritans

- found first New England churches Don't forget about the age old question of chem 333

- everyone who followed John Calvin thought church should be purified from Catholic roots

- no need for church hierarchy if you start a holy community (the individual can ruin it all)

- every Puritan congregation was self governed came in family groups who were interested in communities

- by 1640 there are more than 10,000 Puritians

● Massachusetts Bay Colony

- started flooding in by the thousands

- when this colony became overpopulated they found Connecticut

- King Charles founded this colony

● “City Upon a Hill”

- Massachusetts Bay Colony was to be this because everyone was watching them (this phrase was used in a sermon; from the bible)

● Roger Williams

- minister who arrived in 1681

- believed church & state had to be completely separate

- got kicked out because they thought his preaching was rationally wrong/dangerous

● Rhode Island

- Roger WIlliams founded this

- you could believe anything you wanted here

● Anne Hutchinson

- started gathering people in her house

- preached having a inner state of grace was more important than following crazy laws

- stepping far beyond acceptable role as a women

- took to court & she said God revealed himself; she was thrown out & her & her family were killed by Indians Don't forget about the age old question of ccj nau

● wonder tales

- witchcraft, lightning striking, people who heard voices, beasts, phenomenon, the devil

- they shared these beliefs if they were educated or not

- told a story of a world held together by divine power

- showed there was purpose & justice in the world

- tales showed that God punished who deviated from the Puritan belief ● Quakers

- radical Christians

- pushed hierarchy so far

- rejected ministers & basic rituals (ex. baptism) We also discuss several other topics like econ 420 uiuc

- believed God communicated with them directly

- God filled them to preach no matter who you were

- started to convert & got banished, arrested, tortured, but they kept coming back ● Metacom

- (leader of the Indian tribes in the war) who is killed & his head was in the middle of the Puritan town for 4 years

● praying towns

- Villages where Indians were forced to live

● Dominion of New England We also discuss several other topics like dq2 guide

- ruled by a hierarchy

- in 1689 it disappears and there is no rule for 2 years

- in 1691 the negotiate a new charter where the governor would be appointed by the King, mandated freedom of religion, voting would be based on land ownership not church attendance

- made a more materialistic community

● “spectral evidence”

- would say they discovered misfortune after a heated conversation with the person, apparitions would come to them to tell them who it was, or the apparition would be the person in question

● Salem Village/Salem Town If you want to learn more check out english 2201

- Salem became the 2nd biggest town in New England

- Salem town is by the water is bringing in tobacco, rum & other products - Salem Village was agricultural

● Samuel Parris

- starts preaching God & Satan were in a war

- said people were in coerts with Satan

- weeks later after this sermon the accusations started

● Quebec

- France founded this & it remained a trading post

● Huron Indians

- 1609 French tried to establish trade

- Hurons used French to win against their rivals

● Dutch West India Company

- 1626 permanent HQ is Manhattan Island

● New Amsterdam

- Capital of New Netherlands

- New Amsterdam was the tip of Manhattan Island

- The Dutch West India Company gets all the profits of the colony

- any colonist were just employees

● English Civil War

- between parliament & King Charles 1

- 1648 the King was overthrown & beheaded; during the years after this the British were paying close attention to the colonists

- 1660s monarchy was restored under King Charles 2 (King Charles son) ● Navigation acts

- most valuable colonial products in the world were transported on English ships & had to be sold on British tadeposts first

- now England is challenging the Dutch power over world trade

● William Penn

- one of the most outspoken Quakers

- he was rich, but his money didn’t save him from being a criminal in the eye of the state

- one of the men the King owes; he realizes he won’t be getting money so he asks for a land grant & a charter

- 1681 he gets it and he forms the colony of Pennsylvania

● “Holy Experiment”

- a colony that is a haven for religious freedom

- didn’t have to pay taxes to a church

● patroonships

- anyone who could bring 50 people over to work in the US

● 1712 slave revolt

- takes place in New York City

- 9 white colonist die

- 18 slaves were killed in response; they were tortured & killed in public ● Barbados

- Where the English had sugar plantations

● CharlesTown

- first colony in the Carolinas

- small farmers from Virginia are coming over

● spanish sanctuary policy

- any slave that could get to Florida they would be free

- the Spanish do this to create discord with British

● Stono Rebellion

- two dozen whites are killed

- rebellion slaves are caught & killed, their heads chopped off & put on sticks - whites responded by realizing the proportion of whites & blacks were bad, so they passed new slave laws

● Negro Act of 1740

- 1 white person had to be on the plantation at all times, they couldn’t have guns, couldn’t meet more than 7 slaves unsupervised

● James Oglethorpe

- conditions in England debtors prison inspired him

- wanted to start a colony that was a social experiment, populated by debt prisoners & the poor, could serve as a military buffer

- named colony of Georgia

- did not want the colony to be like South Carolina

- wanted a humanitarian utopia

● Fort Mose

- first black community for the runaway slaves that ran to the Spanish - was a lookout for Florida, but it doesn’t last long because the fort is evacuated, captured, & destroyed

- in 1763 the colony was lost to the British

● Louisiana

- Claim made by the British and named after King Louie

● Natachee Uprising (1729)

- Natchez Indians & slaves rise up

- they kill 10% of the French population

- French crush the uprising, but almost wipe out the Natchez Indians ● scots-irish

- Largest immigrant population

- scottish presbyterian who moved to Northern Ireland to get away from famine & have been there a few generations before moving to America

● Atlantic Slave Trade

- 18th century was the peak for this

- labor demand explodes when the immigrants come to the South

- the American slave trade becomes the main trade with Africa

- it becomes systemic; Europe (goods) → Africa (slaves) → America (crops) → Europe (goods)

● Middle Passage

- goes from the 15th century to when the slave trade ends in the 19th century - over 6 million people are bought in the 18th century alone

- people die every step of the way

● gentility

- what the rich bought & how they behaved was the way to show everything to define what was proper & good

● Enlightenment

- Late 1600s &1700s

- challenge traditional notions

- insists that the universe was subject to scientific principles

- God made man a rationale being; this inspired people to see this as more than science, but philosophy

● Great Awakening

- preached that immediate repentance was necessary not to burn in hell; it depicted emptiness in the material things

- this message travelled fast

● New Lights

- Preachers & followers that adopted the ideas of the Great Awakening were called this

● George Whitfield

- America's first celebrity

- he was 24 and absolutely hypnotic; crowds of 20,000 people would gather at a time

- he was a catalyst for the religious reawakening

- Methodist pastor

● “Country Party” authors

- radical British political writes

- scolded the british public for not demanding better conditions

- they said liberty would vanish

● British constitution

- into the 1750s the believed liberty's of Britain's were better protected than anywhere else because of this

- abstract ideas of government institutions, laws, & customs

- provided balance to power & divided authority

- as long as everyone who had power stayed in their realm & made sure no one was stepping out of bounds the citizens would be fine

- 2 problems with this: one: it was not written so it was up to interpretation & two: it is well designed for a country & a government, but it

- doesn’t have any reliable principles on how to rule an empire

● Seven Years War

- colossal struggle between French & England (colonists) to control over Louisiana - it wasn’t going well for England, but 1758 England started pouring resources into war & reshuffles region of North America

- in 1760 Britain takes takes control

- in 1763 the French agree to abandon the land

● Pontiac's Rebellion

- violence rages over a sizeable frontier for months

- 2,000 American colonists & 400 Britain soldiers are killed

- we don’t know how many Indians are killed

- this rebellion is a draw, but it does change the British government thinking ● Proclamation Line of 1763

- the government thought that Indians & Americans couldn’t live together - Americans were not allowed to cross the Appalachians anymore

- British puts 7,000 soldiers across the mountains

● Stamp Act

- 1765 Parliament passes this

- Was a low tax

- there had to be a certain paper for everything

- an internal taxes that are almost impossible to escape

- both elites & commoners rebelled against this

● Townshend Act

- 1767 they passed this

- named after Charles Townshend the Chancellor of the Exchequer - this was an import tax

- at first glance it was fine, but that's what made it so sneaky; it increased the size, use the money to pay salaries of the royal governors directly instead of the colonists paying them of customs

● Writs of Assistance

- allowed customs to search businesses for smuggled goods

- they didn’t need probable cause & when they got their hands on one they could search anywhere at anytime

- many people worked out of their homes so they could ransake people homes ● Boston Massacre

- a kid starts taunting a soldier so he hits him with his gun & people start to yell and throw things so the after awhile the soldiers open fire killing 5 people

- solidified that they were there to force them into submission

- soldiers get taken out of America & colonists start to coordinate resistance

● Tea Act

- 1773 parliament passes this

- this lowers the price of tea, but includes a new tax on tea

- on December 16th 1773 colonists throw the Boston Tea Party; colonists disguise themselves as Indians & dump hundreds of pounds of tea in the Boston harbor, the Boston Harbor gets shut down till they pay for all the tea they dumped ● Coercive Acts

- 1774 this is passed

- the charter changes to be able to put soldiers in peoples houses

- these acts are meant to smash the rebellion, but it only unifies people ● Continental Congress

- in the fall of 1774 delegates from the different colonies came together in Philadelphia

- they suspended trade with Britain & they create committees to create militia ● Olive Branch Petition

- Send this to the King in the summer of 1775

- the King wouldn’t look at it & the people delivering it were told to turn around because there would be no reply

● “Common Sense”

- Author is Thomas Paine

- this was influential in how Americans would respond to negotiation - pamphlets were scholarly, but Thomas Paine did it different: he directed his arguments at common people, aroused people's emotions, this entirely reconstructed the American republic, said that being British was a burden not a benefit, challenged people to meet their fears head on

- the brilliance of Paine is to shift terms of political debate

- the question was not “should we or should we not declare Independence”, it was now “what do we do after we declare Independence”

● Loyalists

- this is what ⅓ of the population considered themselves

- most of them were in Georgia, the Carolinas & cities

● Continental Army

- gives all kinds of reasons to wonder if they will be ok

- they started strong; learned how to walk & do drills, they learned quickly - patriotism & vigor helped them stride

- going into 1776 the weaknesses started to show

- when George Washington arrives he gets an apology from legislature cause the men were not disciplined; men shoot randomly, swear, drink

● Battle of Saratoga

- 1777 America achieved their 1st major victory

- this boosts moral & convinced France to ally with America

● Dunmore's Proclamation

- promised freedom for anyone (really only well-bodied men) who would leave & fight for the British & nearly 1,000 people responded

- in 1799 this gets extended beyond Virginia to many colonies

● “republican motherhood”

- 1780s seen as creating critical roles of raising men

- encouraged to train their children (sons) to have strong morals & leadership - a good republican mother would have a good republican man

● companionate marriage

- men & women should be more like partners instead of man & servant - government gave women divorces for abusive & cheating relationships ● Elizabeth Freeman/Mum Bett

- started in the end of slavery in Massachusetts 1780

- she leaves & files lawsuits after fight with her owner; fought on the fact “all men are equal”

- she got freed because the court agreed with her

- more slaves took her lead & filed freedom lawsuits

● Haitian Revolution

- This was the 1st slave rebellion

- this scared whites because this was the first (& only) slave rebellion ● Gabriel’s Rebellion

- this rebellion is inspired by revolutions & they start recruiting to overthrow slavery; the plan was to march on Richmond, get into artillery, kill the whites, & take the governor hostage

- whites discover this plot in Richmond & it ends before it starts

- people were put on trial said they weren’t sorry because it was the right thing to do

● Daniel Shays

- he leads 2,000 mean & closes courts so they couldn’t get foreclosed on - he was the officer in the revolutionary army & his followers were soldiers - the private American army comes in & opens fire everyone in this rebellion is either caught or killed

- he led people to see they needed a better government

- this rebellion contributes directly to the US constitution

● Pennsylvania Abolition Society

- Pennsylvania becomes the 1st of the 13 colonies to make slavery illegal - after the law passes any African Americans that were born to slave mothers had to be freed by 28 years old

- the society expands & they build black schools

● Articles of Confederation

- gave them legitimate legislative power, foreign affairs, war & peace, dealing with Indians

- this gave no judicial branch or to levy taxes & no authority to or maintain an army - fulfilled its purpose when they signed the Treaty of Paris

● James Madison

- Federalist who helps write the Federalist Papers

● Virginia Plan

- represented the US as a whole

- there would be 3 branches

- in congress there would be 2 houses with strong powers over the states; in one house the people vote for the representatives & in the other house the government picks

● New Jersey Plan

- there would be 3 branches

- legislature has new powers; have one house & every state would get one vote ● “Great Compromise”

- this was monumental; lays out the structural features of US

- melds the Virginia & New Jersey Plan; there would be 3 branches, the national government would be laid out by the states, there would be 2 houses, one house would have representation by popular vote & the other house would have 2 senators per state

● ⅗ compromise

- slaves would count as ⅗ of a free person

- his recognized slavery as a legitimate form of property & solidifying that slavery would perpetuate

● Federalist Papers

- argued the constitution created government that balanced authority - it strengthened the government but it had to be able to speak over one voice; some realms of national government had power & in other realms the state government had power & it would be protected

● Antifederalists

- they were against the Federalists for 3 reasons

- believed proposed constitution that protected individual rights, it didn’t protect people

- believed didn’t buy government couldn’t keep themselves in check, the government needed to be close to its people it governs

- believed the government that properted to be a democracy, the people had very little say over who would be in government

- constitution practically ensured the voice would always be elite

- if the Revolution was about people then men from all walks of life should be involved

- believed that Federalists were aristocrats that distinguished themselves as good citizens to get more power

● “natural aristocracy”

- The right kinds of people to be in government

- fine sensibilities, white, elite

- Federalists believed others couldn’t be trusted

● Bill of Rights

- it takes until 1791

- came up with 200 things, 12 got proposed & 10 passed

1. Every colony in North America had its own unique characteristics, but if you had to make an argument that one most typified colonial development, which would you choose and why? Which would you argue was the most atypical?

2. In the decades after 1700, the British mainland colonies of North American became more populous, more prosperous, and arguably more intellectually sophisticated than they had ever been before. Discuss how these trends manifested themselves. To what extent were they products of internal colonial development, and to what extent did they emerge from abroad?

● Ideas on why/how it manifested

- Atlantic Slave Trade (emerged from abroad)

- Rice crop (both)

- Enlightenment/Great Awakening (colonial development)

- Religious morals (both)

- Striving for gentility (colonial development)

- Framing of the colonists mindset (1-5) (colonial development)

- Paranoia (both)

3. Discuss the Seven Years War (aka French and Indian War) and how and why its outcome created conflict between the British government and its mainland North American colonies.

● How it created conflict

- Colonists started pushing on Indian lands & Britain stopped them

- Britain started passing taxes to control the colonists

- Colonists conspiracy theories

● Why it created conflict

- Colonists were fed up with Britain because they wanted to go where they wanted to go & Britain won’t let them & it’s coating Britain money to keep the colonists at bay

- Colonists are used to governing themselves

- History taught colonists that soldiers coming to keep them in line meant a take away of their freedom

4. The argument has sometimes been made that the colonists of mainland British North America did not so much win the Revolutionary War as they managed not to lose it. What were the major obstacles that stood in the way of military success and unity among the colonial population between 1775 and 1783?

● The military itself

● The British Army

● Colonists differences in thinking across class lines ● Mens dedication to freedom

● Division in the colonies of loyalists & rebels

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