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UCR / OTHER / LNST 015 / Where was the tango born?

Where was the tango born?

Where was the tango born?


School: University of California Riverside
Department: OTHER
Course: Latin American Folk and Popular Styles
Professor: Xochitl chavez
Term: Winter 2019
Tags: Guatemala, venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Argentina, Tango, marimba, joropo, sikuri, bandola, arpa, and sistema
Cost: 50
Name: LNST Study Guide 2
Description: This study guide will cover material from weeks 4-7
Uploaded: 02/24/2019
5 Pages 10 Views 8 Unlocks

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Quiz #2 Study Guide 

Where was the tango born?

Argentina and Rioplatense Region

● Tango

○ Origins in brothels

○ Shifting gender roles

■ Masculine women ( sex workers, artists)

■ Feminine tango pimp (depends on support of a woman

● 1880 Tango born in Arrabal (outskirts) of Buenos Aires, Argentina

○ Guitar, violin, and flute

○ Two main origin stories

■ Afro Diasporic (not as popular)

● Comes from analyzing the word “tango”

● Candombe­ Commonly identified as an Afro­ Uruguayan parade  Don't forget about the age old question of How did the world wars impact gender roles?

song played by percussion ensemble

● Tamboril­ single headed membranophone

● Llamada­used in candomble: each instrument has its own 

independent beat pattern

What does vallenato mean in english?

■ Spanish  Don't forget about the age old question of How does the cell know which proteins to send to the lysosome?

● Looks to make the tango a european product 

● Milonga

○ Dance

○ Place to dance tango

● Gaucho: south american cowboy

● Pampas: plain regions of argentina, brazil, uruguay

● decima : tel­line poetic form ABBAACCDDC

● Orquesta Tipica

○ Standard ensemble of tango

■ First appears in 1910s

● Guitar, violin, and flute, and bandoneon (german accordion)

■ 1920s

● Piano bass, 2 violins, 2 bandoneons

● Tango cancion

○ Carlos Gardel “ Por una cabeza” 1935

● Contemporary Tango in Argentina

○ Main tourist attractions in Buenos Aires

Most mayan instruments are gendered, musical performance is for what gender?

○ Mixes broadway with folk features

● Queer Tango

○ Aims to change the way society views tango and how it’s socially “allowed” to be  practiced

○ Open environment for everyone

○ Rules of traditional tango are not strictly followed

Central America 

● Central america shares flora and fauna from both south and north america  ● Contains narrowest land division between the atlantic and pacific ocean ○ Made it a focus of outside economic and political interest  Don't forget about the age old question of Does the upper extremities are not a part of the axial skeleton?

● Lack of easily exploitable natural resources 

○ Worked against intensive Spanish development

● Musical performances and native documents were prohibited/burned  ○ To eliminate cultural resistance to European rule 

● Mestizo ethnicity in South Guatemala

○ Due to a widespread process process of racial and cultural mixture along the  pacific coast region

Traditional Music 

● Mayan beliefs do not adhere to a division between religious and non religious aspects of  life 

○ Believe all things have some sacred significance 

○ Musical example

■ Linkage of the sun deity with the tun( 2 note instrument)

● Music plays a central role in Mayan life

○ Song cycles/ dance dramas that recount origin myths 

○ Songs of healing, invoke spirits of the dead 

● Most mayan instruments are gendered

○ Musical performance is for men only  

The Marimba

○ Symbol of musical unity and a prism into the wide cultural diversity on the  isthmus 

● Marimba de Tecomates  Don't forget about the age old question of When was the coca cola company started?

○ Spanish name comes from the term used for  the resonators under each key  ○ Has a hoop of wood attached on each end of the frame 

○ 28 keys that are diatonic 

○ Music at rituals 

■ Blessing of seeds before planting 

○ Recreational dancing 


● Plains,coast, valley 

● Magdalena River

○ Diverse terrain

○ Mineral extractions ­ emerald, gold 

■ Depletion of natural resources 

● Indigenous cultures, African Diaspora, mestizo population 

● Peter Waide

○ Mestizaje as nation building project 

■ Does Not take into consideration the lived experiences 

○ Racial and cultural mixture 

■ Musical changes ­ how they get performed by the body 

■ Religious practices ­ impacts how we interact, think, and speak

■ Family relationships­ how do we think about marriage, sex? 

● Joropo llanero­ music/dance from plains

○ Main instruments 

■ Arpa, maracas, cuarto, bandola 

○ Music expresses an energetic rhythm, cowboy style 

○ Golpe­ fast

○ Paisaje­slow

○ Dance form­ intricate in footwork 

○ How did it become popular 1940­70s Don't forget about the age old question of Which sex is heterogametic in humans?

■ Through films, tv, and radio 

○ Singing­ predominantly men who sing 

■ Hermes Romero 

● Vallenato­ “born in the valley”

○ Started with farmers who moved with their livestock to villages 

■ Brought with them stories and history 

■ Instead of telling they sang them 

○ Often played with a caja, Guacharaca, diatonic accordion(most important), gaita  flutes 

○ Songs of personal life, news, and history 

○ Uplifting and humorous way  Don't forget about the age old question of What is effective strategy?

○ Four main rhythms: son, paseo,merengue, puya 

● Gaita­ music/dance from coast  

Chapter 8: Peru

● 3 distinct regions

○ Coast,andes mountains, rainforest 

● Chavin culture­ andes c.1400 BCE

● moche ­ c.100 BCE

● 1430­1530­ Inca Empire(Tawantinsuyo)

○ Around city of cuzco

○ Developed warlike culture and conquered other tribes 

○ tawa= four ntin=together syo=region/country

● Charango: tiny guitar

● Demographic shift as people in rural areas move to cities for better work  Traditional and Popular Music

● Mostly aerophones+idiophones+membranophones

● Ensembles do not mix (except for added percussion)

● Preference for high pitches and thick heterophonic textures

○ Simultaneous performance of variations of 2 or more of the same melody  ● The Sikuri → siku= panpipes 

○ Use of wind instruments

■ Tarkas:block duct­flutes

○ Derives from the association made between instrument types and the season in  which they are played

■ Ex: panpipes are a “dry season” instrument

● Folklorization 

○ Process in which music and other cultural traditions are removed from their  original context and displayed in new ones 

○ Turned into a “staged production” 

● Ayawaska: vine of the dead

● Chacruna: contains (DMT)

● Ayahuasca vine: contains harmine

○ Used primarily for hunting

○ Healing

○ Sexual abstinence 

● Ikaro→ Icaro  

○ Ikaray:to blow smoke 

○ Learned from plant spirits, master shamans 

○ Acapella or with chacapa (leaf rattle)


● Population of Venezuela

○ Natives, africans, and euros 

● Economy 

○ Beginning of 20th century 

○ Spain took things from venezuela 

● Simón Bolívar “el libertador”

● 1998 Hugo Chavez’s Era 

○ Presented a powerful social program 

● Instruments

○ Arpa,bandola,maracas,cuatro

○ Tambora 

○ Mina­ hollow cylinder(membranophone and idiophone) 

○ Culo’e puya (membranophone and idiophone)

■ Set of 3

● El  canto Necessario 

○ Ali Primera 

○ Tin Marin 

● Western Art Music 

○ Teresa Carreno 

○ Alirio Diaz (guitarist)


○ Use music for the protection of children  ○ Social impact 

■ Receive benefits (such as education) 

■ No freedom 

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