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TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY-CORPUS CHRISTI / Political Science / POLS 2306 / What makes kate bailey hutchinson an important figure in 1993?

What makes kate bailey hutchinson an important figure in 1993?

What makes kate bailey hutchinson an important figure in 1993?


POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

What makes kate bailey hutchinson an important figure in 1993?


CH. 4 

1.What criteria must independent candidates satisfy in order to get their name on the ballot for a statewide office in Texas?

a. They must collect signatures equal to one percent of the total vote received by all  candidates for governor in the most recent gubernatorial general election. b. They must get a signed letter of candidacy endorsement from the current governor. c. They must gain the approval of one representative of the Democratic Party and one  representative of the Republican Party.

d. They must collect signatures from ten percent of the total vote received by all  candidates for governor in the most recent gubernatorial general election.

2.American political parties are organized in a

What is the label for candidates who are affiliated with no party?

a. Stratarchy.

b. Pyramid.

c. Linear form.

d. Hierarchy.

3.Elizabeth advocates minimizing government involvement at all levels while  maximizing individual freedom and rights. Elizabeth is most likely a member of  the ______ Party.

4.The Tea Party can best be described as which of the following? a. A successor to the Progressive Party

b. A faction of the Democratic Party

c. A strong and growing third party

d. A faction of the Republican Party

5.What term is used to describe internal feuding among a political party? a. Factionalism

b. Dealignment

c. Realignment

d. Stratarchy

What do the conservatives advocate?

6.In 1993, Kay Bailey Hutchison was the first ______ to represent Texas in the U.S.  Senate.

7.Timothy is associated with the Christian Coalition. He believes in the importance of family values and opposes abortion and homosexuality. Timothy is most likely a a. Social conservative We also discuss several other topics like How do enolate anions become more stable?
Don't forget about the age old question of Where is chief cell located?

b. Neoliberal

c. Fiscal conservative

d. Libertarian.

8.In Texas, state law stipulates that all political conventions must be a. Closed to the media

b. Fully open to opposite political parties, including voting rights.

c. Open to the media.

d. Closed at least six months prior to an election.

9.What political party dominated Texas politics during the Reconstruction period  that followed the Civil War?

a. The Republican Party

b. The pro-Houston Party

c. The Democratic Party

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

d. The anti-Houston Party

10.What term does the text use to describe candidates who have no party  affiliation?

a. Third-party

b. Liberal If you want to learn more check out Who was the proponent of stimulus-response theory?

c. Independent

d. Rouge


1.The Voting Rights Act of 1965 expanded and encouraged voting and has been  renewed and amended by Congress four times. Which of the following does the  law (together with federal court rulings) now do?

a. Require states to eliminate segregation

b. Require states to provide absentee or early voting

c. Require states to use literacy tests in voter registrations

d. Require residency requirements of more than 30 days for voting in presidential  elections

2.Although __________ played an important role in South Texas politics throughout  the 20th century, not until the 1960s and early 1970s did they begin to have a  major political impact at the state level.

3.Voter turnout in Texas tends to be

a. Higher in presidential elections than in nonpresidential elections.

b. The same in both presidential and nonpresidential elections. Don't forget about the age old question of What does power mean in politics?

c. Lower in presidential elections than in nonpresidential elections.

d. Highest in gubernatorial elections.

4.Which socioeconomic factor most influences voter turnout?

a. Race

b. Age

c. Income

d. Education

5.In 2010, when Annise Parker was sworn in as mayor of Houston, she made  history as the first __________ mayor of a major U.S. city.

6.Laws with a __________ clause provided that persons who could exercise the right  to vote before 1867, or their descendants, would be exempt from educational,  property, or tax requirements for voting.

7.Terry is running for Governor of Texas, and she decides to air a commercial that  focuses on portraying her opponent in a negative light, rather than on the issues.  Some might say Terry’s campaign is a(n) __________ campaign.

8.According to the text, __________ allow candidates to structure their messages  carefully and avoid the risk of a possible misstatement that might occur in a  political debate.

9.When did universal suffrage become a reality in Texas?

a. After the Civil War

b. In the early 1990s

c. In the mid-1960s

d. In the late 1940s

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6 If you want to learn more check out What does authoritarian mean in government?

10.In 2012, the percentage of African Americans who voted in Texas a. Remained the same as in past elections

b. Exceeded the state average among all racial and ethnic groups.

c. Equaled the percentage of Hispanic voters

d. Declined compared to the 2008 election.


1.It is well established by research that over the last 30 years, reporters have  tended to be more __________ than the general population, while news media  management has tended to be more __________.

2.Talk radio has long been dominated by __________ at both the local and national  level. We also discuss several other topics like What is meant by the term ‘genome injustice’ and the likely reasons for biased representation in genomic databases?

3.What city in Texas has a television station that is owned by an African  American?

a. Odessa

b. Lubbock

c. San Angelo

d. Houston

4.When it comes to supporting political candidates, Texas’s newspapers, with  some exceptions, generally supported __________ candidates.

5.What is the largest Spanish language network in the United States, beginning in San Antonio in 1962?

a. Univision

b. Telemundo

c. La Voz de Houston

d. Texas Monthly

6.According to the text, the proliferation of channels on satellite television and  blogs on the Internet has led to

a. Decreased revenue for media conglomerates

b. Increased niche journalism or narrowcasting

c. Decreased partisanship in news reporting

d. Increased yellow journalism and slander

7.U.S. courts have been particularly suspicious of prior restraint or __________  before information can be made available to the public.

8.Studies have consistently shown that Texans tend to be __________ in civic  engagement compared to the rest of the nation.

9.Within Texas, the two major political parties, most statewide candidates, and a  multitude of interest groups all maintain

a. Television talk shows

b. Newspaper columns

c. Blogs

d. Radio talk shows

10.One important role of the media is to influence which issues are dealt with by  government. This is known as

a. Professionalism

b. Agenda setting

c. Open record reporting

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

d. Adversarial journalism


Chapter 4 Vocabulary 

political party: an organization with the purpose of controlling government by recruiting,  nominating, and electing candidates to public office. People have different beliefs and values about the role of government and the nature of society. Those who share the same beliefs  and values often identify with a specific political party.

Conservatives: a person who advocates minimal intervention by government in economic  matters and who gives a high priority to reducing taxes and curbing public spending, while  supporting a more active role for government in traditional social issues libertarians: a person who advocates minimal government intervention in both economic  and social issues.

Liberals: a person who advocates government support in social and economic matters and  who favors political reforms that extend democracy, achieve a more equitable distribution of wealth, and protect individual freedoms and rights. Liberals tend to favor less government  regulation in the private lives of individuals.

neoliberal: a political ideology that advocates less government regulation of business and  supports governmental involvement in social programs.

realignment: Occurs when there is a major change in the support of political parties. dealignment: occurs when citizens have no allegiance to a political party and become  independent voters.

Straight-ticket voting: voting for all the candidates of one party.

third party: A party other than the Democratic Party or the Republican Party. Sometimes  called a “minor party” because of the limited membership and voter support. independent: A candidate who runs in a general election without party endorsement or  selection.

stratarchy: a political system in which power is diffused among and within levels of party  organization

temporary party organization: primaries and conventions that function briefly to  nominate candidates, pass resolutions, adopt a party platform, and select delegates to a  party conventions at higher levels.

platform: A document that sets forth a political party’s position on public policy issues,  such as income tax, school vouchers, or the environment.

Precinct conventions: A convention, held at the voting precinct level, to adopt resolutions  and to select delegates and alternates to the party’s county o.

county conventions: A party meeting of delegates held in even-numbered years on a date and at a time and place prescribed by the party’s state executive committee to adopt  resolutions and to select delegates and alternates to the party’s state convention senatorial district conventions: held in even-numbered years on a date and at a time  and place prescribed by the party’s state executive committee in countries that have more  than one state senatorial district. Participants select delegates and alternates to the party’s  state convention.

state convention: convenes every even-numbered year to make rules for a political party,  adopt a party platform and resolutions, and select members of the state executive  committee; in a presidential election year, it elects delegates to the national convention,  names members to serve on the national committee, and elects potential electors to vote if

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

the party’s presidential candidate receives a plurality of the popular vote in the general  election.

presidential preference primary: a primary in which the voters indicate their preference  for a person seeking nomination as the party’s presidential candidate. caucuses: a meeting at which members of a political party assemble to select delegates  and make other policy recommendations at the precinct, county, or state senatorial district,  and state levels.

superdelegates: an unpledged party official or elected official who serves as a delegate to  a party’s national convention.

permanent party organization: In Texas, the precinct chairs, county and senatorial  district executive committees, and the state executive committee form the permanent  organization of a political party.

precinct chair: the party official responsible for the interests and activities of a political  party in a voting district; typical duties include encouraging voter registration, distributing  campaign literature, operating phone banks, and getting out the vote on Election Day county executive committee: composed of a party’s precinct chairs and the elected  county chair, the county executive committee conducts primaries and makes arrangements  for holding county conventions

county chair: elected by county party members in the primaries, this key party official  heads the county executive committee.

senatorial district executive committee: composed of a party’s precinct chairs who  reside within a senatorial district, the senatorial district executive committee fills districtwide vacancies in nominations for office and performs other statutory and party duties. state executive committee: composed of a chair, vice chair, and two members from each senatorial district, this body is part of a party’s permanent organization Chapter 5 Vocabulary 

Independent candidate: A candidate who runs in a general election without party  endorsement or selection

Sound bite: a brief statement intended to be easily quotable by the news media that is  designed to convey a specific message that a campaign wishes to make. Political action committees (PACs): an organization created to collect and distribute  contributions to pollical campaigns.

Texas Ethics Commission: a state agency that enforces state standards for lobbyists and  public officials, including registration of lobbyists and reporting of political campaign  contributions.

Campaign Reform Act: Enacted by the U.S. Congress and signed by President George W.  Bush in 2002, this law restricts donations of soft money and hard money for election  campaigns, but its effect has been limited by federal court decisions.

Soft money: unregulated political donations made to national political parties or  independent expenditures on behalf of a candidate that is used to fund election activities  but are not directly donated to a political campaign.  

Hard money: campaign money donated directly to candidates or political parties and  restricted in amount by federal law

Independent expenditures: expenditures that pay for political campaign communications and expressly advocate the nomination, election, or defeat of a clearly identified candidate  but are not given to, or made at the request of, the candidate’s campaign. Super PACs: independent expenditure- only committees that may raise unlimited sums of  money from corporations, unions, nonprofit organizations, and individuals. Universal suffrage: voting is open for virtually all persons 18 years of age or older. Poll tax: a tax levies in Texas from 1902 until voters amended the Texas Constitution in  1966 to eliminate it; failure to pay the annual tax (usually $1.75) made a citizen ineligible to  vote in party primaries or in special and general elections.

White primary: A nominating system designed to prevent African Americans and some  Latinos from participating in Democratic primaries from 1923 to 1944.

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

Literacy tests: although not used in Texas as a prerequisite for voter registration, the test  was designed and administered in ways intended to prevent African Americans and Latinos  from voting

Grandfather clause: although not used in Texas, the law exempted people from  educational, property, or tax requirements for voting if they were qualified to vote before  1867 or were descendants of such persons.

Gerrymandering: drawing the boundaries of a district, such as a state senatorial or  representative district, to include or exclude certain groups of voters and thus affect election outcomes.

Affirmative racial gerrymandering: drawing the boundaries of a district designed to  favor representation by a member of a historical minority group (for example, African  Americans) in a legislative chamber city council, commissioners court, or other  representative body.

At-large districts: elected representatives who are elected from an entire entity, and not a single- member district.

Early voting: conducted at the county courthouse and selected polling places before the  designated primary, special, or general election day.

Motor-voter law: legislation requiring certain government offices (for example, motor  vehicle licensing agencies) to offer voter registration applications to clients Voter turnout: the percentage of voters (either voting age population, voting eligible  population, or registered voters) casting a ballot in an election

Texas Election Code: the body of state law concerning parties, primaries, and elections Voting precinct: the basic geographic area for conducting primaries and elections; Texas is divided into more than 8,500 voting precincts

Voting centers: a countywide voting system that allows voters to vote, after being  electronically verified, at any voting center in a county.

Elections administrator: person appointed to supervise voter registration and voting for a county

Election judge: official appointed by the county commissioners court to administer an  election in a voting precinct

Primaries: an election conducted within the party to nominate candidates who will run for  public office in a subsequent general election

General elections: held in November of even-numbered years to elect county, state, and  federal officials from among candidates nominated in primaries or (for minor parties) in  nominating conventions

Direct primary: a nominating system that allows voters to participate directly in the  selection of candidates for public office.

Runoff primary: held after the first primary to allow party members to choose a candidate  from the first primary’s top two vote-getters if no candidate received a majority vote Closed primary: A primary in which voters must declare their support for a party before  they are permitted to participate in the selection of its candidates

Open primary: a primary in which voters are not required to declare party affiliation Jungle primary: a nominating process in which voters indicate their preferences by using a  single ballot on which are printed the names and respective party labels of all persons  seeking nomination. A candidate who receives more than 50 percent of the vote is elected;  otherwise, a runoff between the top two candidates must be held

Crossover voting: a practice whereby a person participates in the primary of one party,  then votes for one or more candidates of another party in the general election Canvasses: to scrutinize the results of an election and then confirm and certify the vote  tally for each candidate

Off-year or midterm elections: a general election held in the even-numbered year  following a presidential election

Special elections: an election called by the governor to fill a vacancy (for example, U.S.  congressional or state legislative office) or to vote on a proposed state constitutional  amendment.

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

Chapter 6 Vocabulary 

Media: major means of mass communication

News websites: an internet site that provides news. These sites are often affiliated with a  newspaper or television station, but increasingly, many are independent Blogs: a website or web page on which a writer or group of writers record opinions,  information, and links to other sites on a regular basis

Soft news: news that is more entertaining, sensationalized, covers only the surface, and  has little connection to public policy

Hard news: news that focuses on the facts, provides more depth, and commonly has  implications for public policy

Yellow journalism: journalism that is based on sensationalism and exaggeration Professionalism: reporting that is objective, neutral, and accurate

Adversarial: reporting featuring opposition and a combative style. Also called attack  journalism.

open meetings: meetings of public entities that are required by law to be open to the  public

open records: government documents and records that are required by law to be available  to the public

agenda setting: affecting the importance given issues by government and public leaders attack ads: an advertisement means as a personal attack on an opposing candidate or  organization

Priming: the news media’s indicating how important an issue is or which part of a situation  is most important

Framing: providing meaning or defining the central theme of an issue Horserace journalism: news that focuses on who is ahead in the race (poll results and  public perceptions) rather than policy differences

Civic engagement: actions by citizens to address issues of public concern Prior restraint: suppression of material before it is published, commonly called censorship Net neutrality: a legal principle that Internet service providers and government officials  should treat all data on the Internet equally, not discriminating or charging differentially and  not blocking content they do not like

Shield law: a law protecting journalists from having to reveal confidential sources to police  or in court

Defamation: communicating something untrue that damages a person’s reputation  (defamation) may be subject to a civil lawsuit. If the comment is written, it is called libel; if  spoken, it is slander.

SLAPP: strategic lawsuits against public participation are suits filed primarily to silence  criticism and negative public discussion

Niche journalism: a news medium focusing on a narrow audience defined by concern  about a particular topic or area

Narrowcasting: a news medium focusing on a narrow audience defined by concern about a particular topic or area.

Homogenization of news: making news uniform regardless of differing locations and  cultures

Capitol press corps: reporters assigned to cover state-level news, commonly working in  Austin

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

Answer Key 


1. a. They must collect signatures equal to one percent of the total  vote received by all candidates for governor in the most recent  gubernatorial general election.

2. a. stratarchy.

3. Libertarian

4. d. a faction of the Republican Party

5. a. factionalism

6. woman

7. a. social conservative.

8. c. open to the media

9. a. the Republican Party

POLS 2306 Exam #2 Study Guide Covering Ch. 4-6

10. c. independent


1. b. require states to provide absentee or early voting 2. Mexican Americans

3. a. higher in presidential elections than in nonpresidential elections 4. d. education

5. openly gay

6. grandfather

7. mudslide

8. television advertisements

9. c. in the mid-1960s

10. b. exceeded the state average among all racial and ethnic  groups.


1. liberal and Democratic; conservative and Republican 2. conservatives

3. a. Odessa

4. conservative

5. a. Univision

6. b. increased niche journalism or narrowcasting

7. censorship

8. low

9. c. blogs

10. b. agenda setting

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