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AU / OTHER / hist / What happened in The Dual Revolution?

What happened in The Dual Revolution?

What happened in The Dual Revolution?


School: Auburn University
Department: OTHER
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: exam and 2
Cost: 50
Name: History 1020 Exam 2 Study Guide
Description: Exam 2
Uploaded: 02/25/2019
16 Pages 4 Views 22 Unlocks

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History 1020 Exam 2 Study Guide

What happened in The Dual Revolution?

• Primary Source

o Produced at or near the era under investigation

• Secondary Source

o Things that appear after the fact

• The Dual Revolution

o The Atlantic and Industrial revolutions: one was economic and the  other political

• Energy Revolution

o Intensification and redirection of Human Labor

o Takes the manufacturing of something and break it into subtasks to  make people more productive

• Haitian Declaration of Independence

o 1804

o Jean Jacques Dessalines wrote it based on the Declaration of  Independence and the Declaration of the Rights of Man

o Haiti became the second independent state in the western  hemisphere

o Revolutionary because it was for people who had previously not  been free

• Toussaint LOverture

o 1803

o Led slave rebellion which took control of Haiti

who is the founder of Energy Revolution?

o The most important island of France’s Caribbean possessions o The Napoleon Bonaparte of the Haitian revolution

• The Third Republic

o 1870 – 1871

o The republic that was established in France after the downfall of  Napoleon III and survived until the invasion of the German Third  Reich

o Longest regime from after the French Revolution

o Saw themselves as having completed the Enlightenment project ▪ Begun by ancestors in 1792

• Free Trade/Labor

o European Justifications for Imperial Expansion

o This becomes abstract

o Military intervention

o End of mercantilism

o Rise of free market and free labor

• The Household/Family Economy

o How economies manufactured the majority of goods before the  industrial revolution

o Families in the home = main workers

• Separate Spheres

When is Haitian Declaration of Independence?

o Public – male dominated, work and workplace

o Private – female dominated, home and family

• The Division of Labor

o Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by  different workers

o Huge transformation of manufacturing

o Did not require extensive training If you want to learn more check out What is the capital city of sudan?

o Some never see technological advances rather there is a division of  labor which allows many more goods to be made

• Task-Orientation

o IR destroys this

o Tasks dependent on sun If you want to learn more check out when did Presidential Reconstruction occur?

• Industrious Revolution

o Intensification and Redirection of Human Labor

• Enclosure

o Agricultural production in which you break fields into subfields in  order to organize laborers to grow more efficiently and move crops  around so depletion doesn’t happen as quickly

o Can also conduct experiments

• Organic Economy

o Dependent on plant photosynthesis/agriculture

• Inorganic Economy

o World based on fossil fuels

• Accidents of Geography

o What contributed to Great Britain’s Industrial Revolution o Coastlines, ports, river systems

▪ Allows for easy movement of goods

▪ Extensive coal deposits

• The Deserted Village

o Oliver Goldsmith 1770

o Sweet auburn, loveliest village on the plain

o He is talking about the enclosure farmland

o The tyrant has stepped in and divided the land of the village and the  villages have to leave

o Process of capitalism drives the population to the cities

o Critique of the industrial revolution

o Anti-capitalist

o Anti-consumerism

o Anti-urban

o Tells us that from the beginning of the industrial revolution there are  people who are very ambivalent about the changes happening  around them

• Laissez Faire

o To let be

o The idea that gov’t should play as small a role as possible in economic  affairs and protect private property

• The Economy of Self-Interest

o Where economic and political revolutions intersect

• Adam Smith

o Created the idea of Laissez Faire

o The state protecting property so there was freedom to pursue  fortune Don't forget about the age old question of what are the Four Main Receptor Types?

o Argued slaves should be free bc unfree labor will work against  economic development (only working to avoid punishment)

• Practical Enlightenment

o Improving elites We also discuss several other topics like What is the Bering Strait?

o Committed to trying to advance their own interests

• Micro-Inventions

o Mass production of glass

o “ food and drink

o “ of pharmaceuticals

o Imitation vs artificiality

• Middle Class vs. Working Class

o New classes in society

▪ Middle class – managerial class, highly educated, do not work  with their hands, do not own land but have substantial capital ▪ Working class- work for someone else, employed by middle  class, work with hands

• Mud larking Don't forget about the age old question of what is the First Contradiction of Capitalism?

o Going along the banks of the thymes at low tide and collecting things  that wash up

o People would sell things they found

• Consumer Revolution

o Mass produced commodities

▪ Non-essential goods

▪ Mass advertising

▪ Fashion consciousness

▪ A culture of choice and variety

▪ Culture of empowered consumers

▪ A culture of perpetual change and spectacle

▪ Gives people a certain sense of empowerment

• Deep Time

o Concept of geologic time

o Archaeology, geology, science of evolution We also discuss several other topics like What are the 4 Parts of Music?

o Begin to excavate discovering artifacts of ancient civilization o Means that people learn that the world is older than they thought o Species of creatures that existed that are not extinct  

o Revolution of science

• Dependent Economy

o Economy dependent on human or animal muscles

o Wind, rain, peat

• Dark Vanishings

o Myth that there are some civilizations that are so behind others that they will never catch up and are doomed to die

• Orientalism/Orient and Occident

o Orient

▪ Whimsical, baths, market places

o Occident

▪ Sitting around a table

• Settler Colonialism

o They drove the indigenous populations out completely

o Australian Bark Shield

o Migration and Settlement of Europeans to Non-European Lands • Social Darwinism

o Natural selection

• Machines as the Measure of Man

o Technology as tool of empire

o European superiority

• Extraterritoriality

o Results of new ports opened to English trade

o This gave Christian Missionaries freedom

• The White Man’s Burden

o Political (formal) imperialism

o Colonial conquest  

o Justified by nationalism, social Darwinism and the idea of civilizing  mission

• Quinine

o Medicine to protect against malaria

o Allows Europeans to go to tropical environments and better chance  of surviving

o Mixed in gin and tonic

• Informal Imperialism

o Economic

o Never officially raised the british flag

o Hawaiian feather helmet

• Formal Imperialism

o Political

o Claim Nigeria as a colony but don’t settle a lot of their own people  there, leave the local gov’t in place and install British colonialism on  top of it

o Benin Plaque

• The Rule of Difference

o No creolization

• Neo-Europe’s

o New europes outside of europe

o Western US

o Western Canada

o South Africa

o Australia

o New Zealand

o Siberia

o Ex: Melbourne in Australia is so similar to London

• Gunboat Diplomacy

o Momentary meeting of economic and political imperialism o Two political outcomes: return to economic imperialism (British in  china)

o Transition to Political Imperialism (British in Egypt)

• The Opium Wars

o First 1839-1842

o Second 1856-1860

o British opium trade to china and Chinas attempt to outlaw this trade o British go to war with china because they tried to outlaw the trade of  opium in their country because the use of Opium was outlawed o Results of the first: new ports opened to European trade, British  acquire Hong Kong as a Colony, British merchants granted  


o Results of the second: British burn the emperor’s palace to the  ground, Chinese are forced to trade on British terms

• Sepoy/The Sepoy Rebellion

o Fighting for the British, realize that the guns they are using may be  greased with pig or beef fat, most of these people are Hindus  (therefore vegetarians) or Muslims (not supposed to eat pork)

o Sepoy Rebellion – abolish the East India Company and take over • Lui Gui/ A Journey to the East

o A new account of a trip around the globe

o Marks china’s first officially sanctioned eyewitness account of people  and places around the world

• Semi-Colonialism

o States/countries that were colonized/settled by Europeans but were  still able to preserve their independence

• Taiping Rebellion

o A revolt by the people of china against the Manchu Dynasty because  of their failure to deal effectively with opium problem and the  interference of foreigners

• Boxer Rebellion

o 1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese  who opposed the “foreign devils”

o The rebellion was ended by British troops

• The Opening of Japan

o Forced to open up to the world following the arrival of US  Commodore Matthew Perry

o US wanted to find new markets following industrialization and japan  offered new economic opportunities

o Treaty of Kanagawa opened Japan trade, ending isolation • The Young Turks

o Young rebellious people in the Ottoman Empire who forced the Sulta  to reform

• The Young Ottomans

o Group of would-be reformers in the mid-19th century ottoman  empire

o Included lower-level officials

o Military officers and writers

o Urged the extension of westernizing reforms to the political system • Mass Transfer

o Large amounts of migration

o US West Canada, Siberia – the railway

o Australia and new Zealand – the steamship

• The Meiji Restoration

o Political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa  Shogunate in 1868

o A collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of  

industrialization and imperialism

• The Tanzimat

o Series of gov’t reforms that sought to centralize and rationalize  ottoman rule and capture more tax revenues for military defense

• The Abolition of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

o Who opposed slavery, and why?

▪ Religious groups

• they felt it was a sin

▪ enlightenment thinkers

• it went against all ideals argued that slaves must be free  because they only work hard enough to evade  


• unfree labor will work against economic development

o What factors contributed to the anti-slavery movement’s eventual  success?

▪ The new ideals of enlightenment and economy

▪ The rejection of mercantilism and need for protection of  private property

▪ Britain’s Empire of Freedom

o What were the consequences of abolishing the slave trade? ▪ Changes in the African economy

• Don’t know what to do without the income of selling  

slaves and being able to have whatever they wanted

▪ New communities of lower caste impoverished citizens

• Abolishing slavery gives slvaves nothing but freedom  

(not jobs)

▪ Increased european influence in africa

o Why was the abolition of slavery both a political and economic  event?

▪ Political revolution leading up to abolishing slavery which  turned into an economic revolution because slaves were now  free but not provided with jobs

▪ The people selling slaves now don’t know what to do for  income

o Why was it surprising that GB took the lead in abolition? ▪ Slave trade is Britain’s most lucrative business, no one makes  more money than them

o What was the relationship between anti-slavery and European  imperialism?

▪ Anti-slavery led to the colonization of the African continent  because Great Britain and other European countries felt the  need to end slavery everywhere

• Be able to explain the multiple meanings of the Wedgwood Anti-Slavery  Medallion (“Am I Not a Man and a Brother?”)

o Question calls for pity

o Demands a review of his place in the world as a fellow human being  rather than separate species

o Kneels in chains = not a threat

• Industrial Revolution

o What was it?

▪ Economic and technical change

o Where did it take place?

▪ Began in Britain in 1770s

▪ After 1815, spreads to western Europe, USA (new England aka  north east)

▪ After 1870 spreads globally

o What kinds of factors facilitated industrialization?

▪ Increased consumption of non-essential goods

▪ Need to have enough people locally to purchase nonessential  goods

▪ Increased agriculture production

• Need to have a surplus of food and no risk of famine

▪ Access to fossil fuels

▪ Access to transport networks

▪ Access to customers and consumer demand

▪ Underdog status

• Feeling behind in economics means you were willing to  

take risks because don’t have as much to lose

• Luck  

o Why did GB industrialize first?

▪ Coastlines, ports, river systems

• Allows for easy movement of goods and extensive coal  


▪ Stable, reliable gov’t since 1688

▪ Protection of private property

▪ If people are going to consume nonessential goods they need  to know the state will protect their goods nor will they take  them away  

▪ Banking and credit

• They have national bank tied to the gov’t responsible for  paying off gov’t debt but also can give out loans

• Development of bills so business is conducted on larger  

scale and people will invest in others

• Improving elites

o Practical enlightenment

o British aristocracy is actively trying to figure out  

how to maximize their own wealth by investing in  

other inventions

• Britain’s practical enlightenment

o Focusing on growing more food efficiently

• Increased agriculture production: drainage, enclosure,  

scientific farming, fertilizer

o People don’t need to farm for a living

• Slave trade and colonial profits

o Gun making, lock making, all make a ton of money

• Increased consumer demand, increased domestic  


• Rise of fashion consciousness and mass consumerism

o How did agricultural production change?

▪ Drainage

▪ Enclosure (enclose fields)

▪ Scientific farming (agronomy)

▪ Using fertilizer and other inventions

• What types of new ideas about the economy were introduced during the  Industrial Revolution, and why were some of these ideas controversial? • What was the relationship between industrialization, gender, and the  family?


• What was the relationship between industrialization and the imitation of  Asian commodities?

o Britain needed a way to compete with the Chinese so Wedgewood  hired a large number of people to do one small part of making  porcelain in order to make more quantities of porcelain without  extensive training

o Britain figures out how to use American cotton to produces their own  cotton textiles to compete with Indian and makes more of it through  the spinning gin and then powering looms with water

o Steam is then used as a form of energy

• What was the relationship between industrialization and urbanization? o Industrialization = development of industries, technology o Urbanization = growth of cities, factories warehouses, housing for  people, banks

• How do historians explain the origins (and spread) of industrialization? o Increased agricultural production

▪ Access to fossil fuels, transport networks, capital, consumers,  and consumer demands

• How do the Valentine’s Day card and Britain’s new Palace of Westminster  (especially Big Ben) exemplify different elements in the history of the  Industrial Revolution?

o Creation of a new palace with clock – a world based on deep time o Valentine’s card – energy revolution – assembly line work ▪ Women and children constructing the cards

• Why did the Industrial Revolution produce anxiety and resistance? o Because it was a change of life, not all people will agree with changes • How did the IR help to create an era of European Dominance? o NOT modern era

o Modern era still happening

o World encounters of european ideas, institutions and industries by  force and choice

• How did concepts of time change during the 19th century and what was  the relationship between these changes and the era of European  dominance in world history?

o What matters now is hours, minutes and seconds and time is money • How did Europeans justify imperial expansion in Asia, Africa, the  Americas, and Australia/New Zealand?

o What was the relationship between European imperialism and early  theories of evolution?

o What was the relationship between nationalism and European  empire building during the 19th century?

• How did different technological inventions help Europeans to conquer  parts of Asia and Africa during the 19th century? (be sure to know  examples of these technologies and how they specifically aided European  colonization)

o Restructured the global economy

▪ Industrial manufacturers

• Large quantities

• Steam boats, etc

▪ Traditional manufacturers

• Finding difficulty to compete in markets with industrial  


• China

▪ Producers of raw materials and food

• People growing raw cotton for industrial textile mills

o Allowed Europeans to dominate trade

o Provided new technologies used in empire-building

▪ Marine chronometer

▪ Short-lived technological edge

▪ Much easier for them to build empires

▪ Once they conquer other parts of world with technology, over  places that are exposed to them start to adopt them too

• How did possessing superior technology shape European perceptions of  themselves and their relationships with non-European peoples? o European Dominance

o Eurocentrism

• What role did native collaborators and local conflicts in Asia and Africa  play in the growth of 19th century European Empires?

o Indirect rule

o Social elites from Asian and African locals

o Asian and African ethnic or religious minorities

o Why collaborate with Europeans

▪ Gain access to European knowledge/technologies,  

protect/advance the interests of one’s own family, religious or  ethnic groups, and to maintain or acquire positions of  


• What was the relationship between European imperialism and  archaeology?

o Rosetta stone

▪ Property of two empires

• Egypt and europe (ancient and modern)

o Knowledge of the past

▪ Power in present

▪ They can talk about past history of ancient egyptions

o Imperial inheritance

• What is the difference between Economic/Business/Informal imperialism,  Political/Formal Imperialism, Semi-Colonialism, and Settler Colonialism? o Economic/Informal Imperialism- never officially raised the British flag  (The Hawaiian Feather Helmet)  

o Settler Colonialism- they drove the indigenous populations out  completely (Australian Bark Shield)  

▪ Migration and Settlement of Europeans to Non-European lands  ▪ Large numbers of European descent arriving in these placing  pushing out these peoples  

▪ Do not have creolization  

▪ The Creations of “Neo-Europes” or new Europes outside of  Europe  

• - Western U.S.  

• - Western Canada  

• - South Africa  

• - Australia  

• - New Zealand  

• - Siberia  

o Ex. Melbourne in Australia is so similar to London  

o Political/Formal Imperialism- claim Nigeria as a colony but don’t  settle a lot of their own people there, leave the local government in  place and install British colonialism on top of it (The Benin Plaque)  

• The extent of European Empires during the 19th century: o What parts of the world were colonized and ruled by Europeans by  1900?

▪ Parts of the world : Africa, parts of Asia including India, china,  japan, east indies and the Americas

o What parts of the world were subject only to European colonization  or Economic Imperialism in 1900?

▪ China, pacific islands, some parts of Africa

o What parts of the world remained free from European colonization  or Economic Imperialism in 1900?

▪ Remote parts of the world to Europe, places without many  resources and inlands places

• What made 19th century empires different from the empires of the early modern era?

o Modern empires settled rather than taking over existing cultures and  reforming them to be like Europeans

• What were some of the Chinese visitor Lui Gui’s responses to late-19th- century London and how do these illuminate our understanding of  relationships between the East and the West during the era of European  dominance in world history?


• What happened to the Mughal Empire in the 19th century? o It continued to exist as a considerably reduced and increasingly  powerless entity until the mid-19th century

• Why did the Chinese and Ottoman Empires experience a period of  political and economic crisis decline during the 19th century? o Ottoman empire problem

▪ Way industrialization changes economy = less trade

▪ Not able to tax these goods as they go through

▪ Become nationalist empire

• Around Turks, unify ottoman empire

• Fail to solve problems and things get worse also Chinese  crisis

• How did Japan avoid European colonization or economic dependence and  instead build their own empire in Asia?

o They adapted to western military styles, and western way of living  and technologies

o Maintained economic independence

o Didn’t rely on foreign goods

o Didn’t fall into opium

o Japan had a really strong central gov’t

• Be sure to know the chronology and historical significance of the  following objects:

o Akan Drum

▪ A drum made in West Africa and was later found in the Colony  of Virginia in North America

▪ Oldest AA object in the British Museum

▪ Tool of oppression, survival, rebellion

▪ Reminder of the centrality of the slave trade and plantation  slavery

o Victorian Tea Set

▪ Beautiful tea set

▪ Imitation of Asian commodities to become accessible to the  British population

▪ Showed division of labor and separate spheres

o Brass Pins

▪ Make shift nail  

▪ Adam smith

▪ Division of labor

▪ Allowed women to wear elaborate gowns held together by  pins

o Mineral Water Bottle

▪ Schweppes “Torpedo Bottle”

▪ People had figured out how to carbonate water

▪ Discovered that if you design a bottle that cannot stand  upright, the carbonation will not leak out

▪ “micro-inventions”

o The Rosetta Stone

▪ Huge stone slab inscribe with hieroglyphics, Greek and later  form or Egyptian that allowed historians to understand  Egyptian writing and ancient history

o Ships Chronometer from HMS Beagle

▪ An improvement to navigation can show a ships longitude can  tract the time it takes to travel across the sea

o Hawaiian Feather Helmet

▪ An example of great Britain want for informal imperialism with  Hawaii and many places like it

o Benin Plaque

▪ Brought Benin and bronze to Europe and showed  

political/formal imperialism leading to the forced assimilation,  war and killing of indigenous people, creation of indigenous  minorities in own homeland

o Australian Bark Shield

▪ Settler colonialism

▪ Migration and settlement of Europeans to non european lands  to make their fortune elsewhere

o Hokusai’s The Great Wave

▪ The great wave off Kanagawa also known as the great wave or  simply the wave

▪ Is a woodblock print by the Japanese ukiyo-e artist, Hokusai

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