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USC / Microbiology / BIOL / What is a karyotype?

What is a karyotype?

What is a karyotype?

Description

1


What is a karyotype?



Contents

1. Questions pg 1-3

2. Answers pg 4-7

Study guide

1. Questions

a. Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes Slideshow Notes i. Slide 1

1. What is a karyotype?

ii. Slide 2

1. X and Y chromosomes are __________________ but are  

still __________________ chromosomes.

iii. Slide 3

1. Which sex is the homogametic sex in humans?

2. Which sex is heterogametic in humans?

iv. Slide 4: Sexual dimorphism

1. Define and give examples of sexual dimorphism

2. True or false: reproductive organs are included in  

sexual dimorphism

3. Which happens first: sex differentiation or sex  


Which sex is the homogametic sex in humans?



determination?

v. Slide 5: how does Chlamydomonas reproduce?

vi. Slide 6

1. Question 1: Is this the correct order for the  

reproduction cycle in many plants? Sporophyte,  

gametophyte, spores.

2. Question 2: Sporophytes are diploid: true or false

3. Which ones are diploid, which ones are haploid?

4. How are spores born? Meiosis or mitosis?

5. Which gives birth to spores? Sporophytes or  

gametophytes?

vii. Slide 7

1. What is the chromosome formula for males in C.  

elegans?

2. What is the term for the XX gender in C. elegans that Don't forget about the age old question of What are the principles of strategic positioning?

doesn’t exist in humans (It’s not the same as human  


Which sex is heterogametic in humans?



females)?

3. What can the XX gender do in C elegans that the XX  

in humans can’t do?

viii. Slide 8

1. What is Aneuploidy?

2. Where does the extra chromosome usually come  

from?

2

3. In humans, if a gamete has an extra chromosome 21,

what is it called?

ix. Slide 11

1. Turner’s syndrome

a. What is the sex chromosome formula?

b. What traits are associated with this syndrome? Don't forget about the age old question of Define polyploidy.

2. Klinefelter’s syndrome

a. What is the sex chromosome formula?

b. What traits are associated with this syndrome?

x. Slide 14

1. What is the name of the process of attaching CH3 to  

DNA?

2. How does that process impact gene expression?

xi. Slide 18: define a Barr body

xii. Slide 19: What is an example of a trait that shows up in  patches?

xiii. Slide 21 True or false: Any animal with a Y chromosome is  male

xiv. Slide 24: Which of the following is not listed as an  

environmental factor in sex determination?

1. Temperature

2. Social status

3. Time of year

4. Male-female ratio

5. Age of population

b. Chromosome Mutations: Variation in Number and Arrangement i. Slide 3: describe aneuploidy, euploidy, and why they are  different from one another. If you want to learn more check out What are examples of common cellular responses to extracellular signals?

ii. Slide 8: Trisomy 13 leads to what syndrome?

iii. Slide 11

1. True or false: in females, the generation of eggs is  

more dedicated to quantity than quality

2. How does aging impact the quality of gametes?

iv. Slide 16 True or false: polyploidy almost always leads to  detrimental defects in organisms.

v. Slide 20

1. True or false: If a translocation occurs between  

nonhomologous chromosomes, it will likely have the  

same beneficial, diversifying effect as the crossover  

that happens between homologous chromosomes  

during Prophase I.

2. Give an example to support your answer

vi. Slide 23: What is the meaning of 5p-?

vii. Slide 24

3

1. The Fox P2 gene underwent (which form of  

chromosome alteration?) and could have caused  

___________________________________ If you want to learn more check out What was the title of the book that charles scott sherrington wrote?

2. (which form of chromosome alteration?) of the  

Hox/homeotic gene could have caused  

_____________________________

c. Chapter 9 Slideshow

i. Slide 3: what is the meaning of SCO, NCO, dicentric, and  acentric?

ii. Slide 15 True or false: fertilization happens the moment the sperm cell meets the egg cell

iii. Slide 17: which of the following groups of organs are most  likely to be affected by mutations in chloroplast and  

mitochondrial DNA?

1. Bones

2. Nerves and muscles

3. Digestive organs

4. Reproductive organs

iv. Slide 18: What is the phenotypic abnormality shown in this  slide?

d. Extra notes 2/25/19 game

i. The enzyme that makes DNA from DNA has a limit

1. What’s the limit?

2. Does the limit apply to the parent strand, the  

daughter strand, both, or neither?

ii. When Okazaki fragments are put together, what are they  called?

e. I clicker questions 2/27/19

i. What causes the bar eye trait in drosophila (chromosome  mutations slide 25)?

ii. What’s the chromosome formula for Turner syndrome?

iii. What type of bond occurs between adenine and thymine,  or guanine and cytosine in DNA, binding 2 opposite strands together? If you want to learn more check out What are the chemicals in the brain?

iv. If an abnormal cell has only 1 of 2 homologous  

chromosomes that are present in normal cells, and the 1  

chromosome has a recessive allele for a gene, what  

happens to the recessive allele?

1. It’s expressed

2. It’s hidden

3. It’s disintegrated

v. Define haploinsufficiency

vi. Which syndrome is trisomy 13?

f. DNA structure slideshow notes

i. Slide 4: What is transformation referring to?

4

5

2. Answers

a. Sex Determination and Sex Chromosomes Slideshow Notes i. Slide 1

1. Question: what is a karyotype? Answer: An ordered  

display of chromosomes

ii. Slide 2

1. X and Y chromosomes are __________________ but are  

still __________________ chromosomes. Answer:  

heteromorphic, homologous

iii. Slide 3

1. Which sex is the homogametic sex in humans?  

Answer: females

2. Which sex is heterogametic in humans? Answer:  

males

iv. Slide 4: Sexual dimorphism

1. Clear, distinct, sex-based differences between  If you want to learn more check out What is the additive rule of probability?

organisms of the same species

2. Examples

a. Males

i. Facial hair

ii. Adam’s apple (often but not always)

iii. Body hair

iv. Body size

b. Females

i. Hips

3. Sexual dimorphism applies only to secondary  

features, not including primary (reproductive)  

characteristics

4. Sex determination (cellular level) happens before sex

differentiation (reproductive organs)

v. Slide 5: how does Chlamydomonas reproduce? Usually  mitosis (asexual haploid phase) until a stimulus occurs  

encouraging sexual reproduction

vi. Slide 6

1. Process of reproduction in many plants

a. Sporophyte is diploid

b. Meiosis happens

c. Spores are haploid

d. Spores grow to become gametophytes

e. Gametophytes are haploid

f. Gametophytes bond to each other, fertilize,  

form zygote, mitosis makes zygote grow into a  

sporophyte

2. Answers

6

a. Question 1: Is this the correct order for the  

reproduction cycle in many plants? Sporophyte,

gametophyte, spores. Answer: No. Correct  

order is sporophytes, spores, gametophytes

b. Question 2: Sporophytes are diploid. Answer:  

True

c. Which ones are diploid, which ones are  

haploid? Diploid answer: sporophytes only.  

Haploid answer: spores and gametophytes.

d. How are spores born? Answer: Meiosis

e. Which gives birth to spores? Answer:  

Sporophytes

vii. Slide 7

1. Males are XO, Females are XX

2. Females are called hermaphrodites because they  

aren’t the same as in other male vs female species

3. They can reproduce themselves without males

viii. Slide 8

1. Aneuploidy: a gamete receiving an extra  

chromosome due to nondisjunction

2. Extra chromosome usually comes from the mother

3. In humans, if a gamete has extra chromosome 21,  

it’s called Down’s syndrome

ix. Slide 11

1. Turner’s syndrome

a. What is the sex chromosome formula? X

b. What traits are associated with this syndrome?  

Person is generally seen as female, but short  

stature, less developed breasts, less developed

ovaries, less feminine in general

2. Klinefelter’s syndrome

a. What is the sex chromosome formula? XXY

b. What traits are associated with this syndrome?  

Person is generally seen as male, but tall  

stature, overdeveloped breasts, less hair on  

face and body, less functional testicles, less  

masculine in general

x. Slide 14

1. Attaching CH3 to DNA is DNA methylation

2. Methylation condenses genes that are unnecessary  

and shouldn’t be expressed, which will impact the  

transcription, translation, and protein making  

process. The proteins that are made will impact the  

phenotype in an organism

7

xi. Slide 18 Barr body: An X chromosome that does not  

express itself. It has been deactivated.

xii. Slide 19: sweat glands are an example of a trait that shows up in patches

xiii. Slide 21: False. The Y chromosome is not the sole  

determinant of maleness in many animals, especially in  

flies

xiv. Slide 24: Time of year

b. Chromosome Mutations: Variation in Number and Arrangement i. Slide 3: Aneuploidy is the loss or gain of one or a few  

chromosomes, while euploidy is the gain of one of a few  

entire haploid sets of chromosomes. In other words,  

aneuploidy=2n + or – 1, 2, 3, etc. Euploidy=3n, 4n, 5n,  

etc.

ii. Slide 8 iclicker question: Trisomy 13 leads to Patau  

syndrome

iii. Slide 11

1. False. In females, meiosis is more dedicated to  

quality than quantity

2. Aging reduces the effectiveness of microtubules,  

which affects the splitting of chromosomes in meiosis

iv. Slide 16: False. Polyploidy isn’t always problematic

v. Slide 20

1. False. If translocation occurs between  

nonhomologous chromosomes, it’s potentially much  

more dangerous than the normal crossover that  

happens between homologous chromosomes during  

prophase I of meiosis

2. Risk example: A translocation between  

nonhomologous chromosomes could end up  

separating epistatic genes that are supposed to be  

next to each other. This wouldn’t happen with  

crossover between homologous chromosomes that  

have alleles for the same genes.

vi. Slide 23 Answer: 5p- means the p arm on the 5th 

chromosome lost some DNA

vii. Slide 24

1. The Fox P2 gene underwent duplication and could  

have caused humans to have language. This may  

have also happened in chimpanzees and other  

primates

2. The duplication of the Hox/homeotic gene could have

caused backbones in vertebrates

c. Chapter 9 slideshow

8

i. Slide 3

1. SCO=single crossover

2. NCO=no crossover

3. Dicentric=2 centromeres

4. Acentric=no centromeres

ii. Slide 15: False. Fertilization happens not when sperm  

meets egg, but once the 23 + 23 chromosomes in their  

nuclei are combined into 46

iii. Slide 17 answer: nerves and muscles. Below are some  common disorders

1. Many muscle-related disorders

2. Cardio-myopathy

3. Deafness

4. Diabetes

5. Myopathy

iv. Slide 18: Notice that the snail on the right side of  

Generation II is “sinistral” as opposed to “dextral”. This  

offspring’s phenotype is being unusually influenced by one  parent’s recessive allele, even if that allele is genotypically  masked by the dominant allele of the other parent.

d. Extra notes 2/25/19 game

i. The enzyme that makes DNA from DNA has a limit

1. What’s the limit? DNA polymerase only goes in the  

5’-3’ direction.

2. Does the limit apply to the parent strand, the  

daughter strand, both, or neither? Answer:  

Polymerase reads the parent strand in the 3’-5’  

direction, and makes the daughter strand in the 5’-3’  

direction

ii. When Okazaki fragments are put together, what are they  called? A lagging strand

e. I clicker questions 2/27/19

i. What causes the bar eye trait in drosophila (chromosome  mutations slide 25)? Answer: Duplication of DNA

ii. What’s the chromosome formula for Turner syndrome?  Answer: X

iii. What type of bond occurs between adenine and thymine,  or guanine and cytosine in DNA, binding 2 opposite strands together? Hydrogen bonds

iv. If an abnormal cell has only 1 of 2 homologous  

chromosomes that are present in normal cells, and the 1  

chromosome has a recessive allele for a gene, the  

recessive allele is expressed instead of hidden or  

disintegrated

9

v. Haploinsufficiency: when the presence of only 1 allele isn’t  enough for the proper function of a gene

vi. Which syndrome is trisomy 13? Answer: Patau’s syndrome f. DNA structure slideshow notes

i. Slide 4: Transformation refers to DNA being recombined

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