Monday, February 18, 2019
Test 2 Review
● White Flight
○ Affluent groups leave city in favor of suburbs
○ Increased concentration of lowerincome groups in central cities pressures for more services, less revenue to fund
○ When white people leave they take the nice things with them so it leaves the area they were in run down again.
○ Leave the city to go to the suburbs
○ Opposite of white flight
○ Affluent groups moving back to inner city, pricing out other groups
○ Leave suburbs to go to the city
● Members in the House of Rep?
○ They run for 2 years
○ A lot more open
○ Have to be a qualified voter
Don't forget about the age old question of What is the manipulated variable?
○ Have to be 21 years old
○ Have to be a TX resident for 2 years
○ Have to be a resident of the district you want to represent for at least 1 year ● Qualifications to run for Senate?
○ 31 members
○ They run for 4 years
○ Have to be a qualified voter
○ Have to be 26 years old
○ Have to be a TX resident for 5 years
○ Have to be a resident of the district you want to represent for at least 1 year ○ More exclusive then House of Rep
○ Deals with a lot more things.
○ “VIP area in a club”
● Importance of the incumbency? We also discuss several other topics like What is a video discovery ad?
○ More trusted We also discuss several other topics like What is the dual innervation?
○ Are people who are in the office or have already been in office.
○ People who are most likely to be reelected because they are popular and people know of them.
○ Wendy Davis
■ Got the government to pass an abortion law after filibustering
■ Lawmaking powers can only meet every two years or every 140 days ■ Governor called for a special session to overturn the abortion law.
■ Her filibustering only worked for one day
○ Tricking the system because you’re able to argue your point for as long as you want.
○ Speaking for a long time (10 hours) and wearing your opponent out until they give in.
● Standing Committee
○ Specializes in bills by subject matter
○ Plays a procedural role in the lawmaking process If you want to learn more check out What is a vertical temperature structure?
○ Oversees the bill and adding things to it
○ They talk about big topics such as abortion
○ They are a part of the inner workings of the lawmaking process
● San Antonio has a weak mayor
● Regressive Tax
○ Takes more from lower income families
○ Greg Abbott doesn’t like patchwork because the laws are not unified and are too different.
○ The laws are different from city to city instead of having one law that rules over the whole state.
○ Patchwork is like a quilt because they are so many different laws.
● Presiding Officers
○ House of Rep
■ Speaker of the house
■ Paul Ryan
■ Nancy Pelosi
■ Lieutenant Governor
● Important because they have the power to break a tie vote
■ Dan Patrick
Friday February 22, 2019
Test Review Session
● What is the base salary?
○ Senate & House of Rep
■ $7,200 per year
○ Per Diem
○ Base salary is so low because we only want people who actually want to do this job and not people who are money hungry.
● Who can call special sessions?
○ Can be overridden by ⅔
● Types of Committees
○ Standing Committee
■ Specializes in bills by subject matter/plays procedural role in lawmaking process
■ First committee to see bill
○ Calendars Committee
■ Procedural committee in House of Reps that schedules bills for floor debate
■ Schedules bills for floor debate
● Where filibustering occurs
■ 3rd committee for the bill to pass through
○ Conference Committee
■ Panel of House members and senators appointed to work on a compromise between if legislation between 2 chambers is different
■ A temporary joint committee created to reconcile any differences between the two houses' versions of a bill.
■ Last committee for the bill to pass through
○ Select Committee
■ Usually appointed by the gov, lt. gov, or speaker that studies a specific issue and makes recommendations to legislature.
■ Panel usually includes private citizens
● Just regular citizens
○ Governor does not need to sign a bill for it to become a law.
○ If he does not sign it after 10 days it become a law by itself.
○ Lawmaking Process
■ 1) Bill introduced, numbered, referred to committee by Speaker/Lt. Governor
■ 2) Committee approves/denies bill, is scheduled for floor debate ● Calendar Committee
■ 3) Bill is debated on floor by legislators. Approved or sent back to committee. Bill can be amended by 2/3 vote
● Calendar Committee
■ 4) Conference action. If necessary, differences between House/Senate bills will be ironed out in conference committee
● Conference Committee
■ 5) Bill is sent to Governor to sign into law or veto. Governor veto can be overridden with 2/3 vote in both houses
○ Legislative Obstacles
■ Gov. must accept or reject bills in their entirety, except for general appropriations bill
■ Gov can lineitem veto certain sections of state budget, without killing the entire bill
■ Twothirds rule: requires 21 out of the 31 senators to agree to debate bill on floor. Weakened in 2015 to require threefifths
■ Tag: senators can postpone committee hearing on bill for 48 hours
■ Filibuster: allows a senator to speak against a bill for as long as he or she can stand and talk
Friday, March 1, 2019
● Regressive Tax
● Who is the primary tax administrator, accounting office and revenue estimator ○ Comptroller of Public Accounts
● Who controls the oil, natural gas product, and mining
○ Texas Railroad and Commission
● Edgewood vs Kirby
○ Against discrimination of poor schools
○ SCOTX unanimously ordered major changes in school district funding ○ Goal of providing more equity between rich/poor districts
○ Poor districts brought the suit after legislative inaction on a system which produced huge disparities in school quality, resources
● Edwards Aquifer Authority and State of Texas v Burrell Day and Joe McDaniel ○ 2012
○ The government needed the water on the farmer's property land but the farmers wouldn’t give it to them so the government placed restrictions on the water.
○ SCOTX rules in favor of farmers Day and McDaniel
○ Edwards Aquifer Authority imposed restrictions on the amount of water the farmers could pump from their own wells, citing water scarcity issues
○ Supreme Court stated that these restrictions violated constitutional property rights and that the owner of the property above the aquifer also owns the groundwater
● Operation vs Planned Parenthood
○ Protecting planned parenthood from violent protests
○ People can still protest against planned parenthood but they have to do it from a distance
● Merit employment system (Law or job in Senate)
○ Back in the day, you were chosen on political patronage which is basically how much money you have and who you knew.
○ Now we are on a merit employment system which is basically your qualifications (honest)
● Miranda vs Arizona
● Court of Appeals
○ Determines if all procedures were properly followed in the trial court and whether the defense adequately defended the person charged.
○ Appellate Courts jurisdictions
● Highest Ranking court in Texas?
○ Court of criminal appeals
■ Murder cases
■ They hear cases passed on from the lower courts of appeals
● Lowest Ranking Courts in Texas
○ Municipal Courts ( City courts)
■ Misdemeanor cases
■ Petty Stuff (running a red light, getting a ticket)
■ Where 75 to 90% of citizens fall
● Sunset Legislation
○ Despite decentralized review authority, Texas was one of first states to require formal reviews of agency performance
○ Created agencies have ‘Sunset Reviews’ baked in
■ Periodic review and reauthorization by the legislature or be automatically eliminated
■ An agency is created then a sunset review for that agency is created 9 or 10 years from then. The review has to support the continuation of that agency or the agency gets canceled.
○ Sunset Advisory Commission
■ 5 state reps, 5 senators, 2 members of public
○ Commission employs a staff which studies each agency up for review during the next legislative session
○ Reports findings to panel, which makes recommendations to legislature
○ Sunset Advisory Commission will occasionally recommend that an agency be terminated or merged
■ DADS was terminated and the things they provided were to be merged into HHSC
○ In most cases, the sunset advisory will recommend continuation and propose changes in organization/operations
○ Sunset process has not reduced the size of state bureaucracy
○ However, process has helped purge obsolete agencies
○ Modernized state laws
○ Updated procedures
○ Made agencies more responsive to public
○ “Sun goes up when an agency is created and it goes down when an agency is terminated”
○ Formal review agency performance
○ Periodic reviews
○ Happens over 2 years
○ Studies each agency up for review