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who is Genghis Khan?

who is Genghis Khan?

Description

School: George Washington University
Department: History
Course: World History, 1500-Present
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: history and World History
Cost: 50
Name: Midterm Study Guide
Description: This study guide covers the material that will be on the upcoming midterm for this class on Wednesday, March 6th.
Uploaded: 03/02/2019
34 Pages 13 Views 20 Unlocks
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History 1011.11: The World since 1500


who is Genghis Khan?



Midterm Study Guide

Wednesday, March 6, 2019

PART 1: Identification Questions 

Given a list of terms (people, events, trends, etc.) with which you will write brief identifications of a subset of them, and then explain their historical significance. Use the structure Who, What, When, Where, Why to fully answer identification questions.

Pastoral Societies

● Who: Societies who took care of flocks of animals, settling in different places each season ● What: Economies focused on the food base of livestock 

○ Dependent on livestock for transportation, food, fuel, shelter 

○ Not heavily populated 

○ Dynamic lifestyle: no settled home, small clans etc. 

● When: 1200s

● Where: Grasslands of Eurasia, Sub Saharan Africa and Arabia

● Why: Pastoral peoples made their marks in third-wave civilizations: Arabs, Berbers, Turks, Mongols ○ Made way for emergence of Mongol Empire


what happened in Black death?



○ Islam derived from pastoral peoples + their extensive empire

○ Paved the way for the development of more mature/powerful societies

Mongol Peace

● Who: Mongols were the greatest land empire in human history

● What:

○ Welcomed all religions as long as they did not propose political opposition 

○ Had no interest in spreading Mongol culture on conquered peoples

○ Joined alliances with the pastoral peoples + agricultural people If you want to learn more check out When was Greece first inhabited?

○ Promoted diplomatic relationships from one end of Eurasia to the other 

○ economic and political relationships exchanged 

■ Transferred skilled craftsmen + educated people from homelands to distant parts of empire Don't forget about the age old question of Determining Errors

■ Movement of people = exchange of ideas and techniques actively encouraged by Mongol authorities 

● When: 1200-1450

● Where: Stretched from Pacific Coast of Asia to Eastern Europe


what is Council of Trent?



● Why: We also discuss several other topics like What does bipolar means?
If you want to learn more check out Rules and regulations governing a place and may need to be changed to improve performance.

○ First Empire to gain power through individuality of conquered peoples

○ Brought China, Europe and the Islamic World into direct contact

○ Built networks of exchange and communication

■ International commerce for taxation

■ Secure trading routes

■ Standardized currency

Yuan Dynasty (China)

● Who: Mongols, Kubilai Khan: Genghis Khan's grandson who ruled the Yuan Dynasty ● What: Mongol Dynasty

○ Never completely lost Mongol qualities, though adopted aspects of Chinese culture and government

○ Introduced Mongols and Muslims into the Chinese government 

○ Mongol rule was harsh, exploitative, foreign and resented in China 

● When: 1271-1368

● Where: China

○ Created new capital at Beijing

● Why: (attempted) fusion of cultures between Chinese and Mongols

Il-Khan Empire (Persia)

● Who: Persians, Khan, Helegu

● What: came from two abrupt invasions by Khan and then Helegu

○ Made use of bureaucracy leaving some of it in Persian hands

○ Became Muslims and converted

■ Religious conflicts in the Mongol Empire We also discuss several other topics like what is Biopsychosocial approach?

○ Attempted interference by the West

● When: 1260s - 1300s

● Where: Persia

● Why: Brought new people to power- rise of Turkic dominance in the Muslim-World ○ Mongol victory shocked people who thought history was an expansion of Islam ○ Led to Islamization of East Africa

Black Death

● Who: People across Eurasia (Asia and Europe)

● What: One of the most devastating pandemics in human history

○ Little Ice Age: cooling trend around the world, possibly played a role in the plague ○ Silk Road and trade routes could have been a cause in spreading disease

○ Unclear what exactly it was, though likely that a “cocktail” of diseases were involved ○ Millions all around the world died- massive population loss

● When: Early 14th century (1330s-1350s)

● Where: Everywhere except Sub-Saharan Africa

● Why:

○ Stimulated medical inquiry

○ Leveling effect: everyone suffered no matter social status

○ Moral Impact: brought out the good/bad in people

○ Shift in balance of forces in the Eurasian world

■ Weakened previously dominating global forces

■ Muslim World slower to recover than Asia/Europe- long lasting effects

Syncretism If you want to learn more check out what are the different types of value that drive consumer choice?

● Who: Spanish American Colonies (Catholics)

● What: Mixing of ideas, beliefs, practices from one source to another, often in religion ○ Religious “Columbian Exchange”

○ Catholicism as it developed in Spain's American colonies was distinct/unique

● When: Colonial America

● Where: The Americas

● Why: Major change/adaptation of religion and cultures

○ Beginning of American divergence from Europe: creation of a new identity in the New World Ecological Imperialism

● Who: Europeans interactions with Natives

● What: European settlers were successful in colonization of other regions because of their introduction of animals, plants, and disease into the New World 

○ Lead to major shifts in the ecology of the colonized areas 

○ Native populations collapsed 

● When: 16th and 17th centuries

● Where: The Americas/ “New World”

● Why:

○ Explains how Europeans became global power so quickly

○ Collapse of native populations led to labor shortages in the New World = beginning of the Slave Trade

Incas

● Who: Inca people in South America

● What: Western Hemisphere's largest Imperial state

○ Arrival of Spanish explorers triggered its collapse

■ Francisco Pizarro: Spanish conquistador that led attack on Incas

● When: 15th and early 16th centuries

● Where: Andes Mountains in South America

● Why:

○ Marked beginning of Spanish imperialism in the Americas

○ Economic foundation for Spanish empire- commercial agriculture

Aztecs

● Who: Semi-Nomadic Mexica who migrated into the region from the North

● What: Mesoamerica’s last great native civilization

○ Expanded across ecological zones

○ Tenochtitlan: Capital of Aztec Empire

○ Hernan Cortes: Spanish conquistador who overthrew Aztecs by force when captured Tenochtitlan

● When: 14th and 15th centuries

● Where: Mexico

● Why:

○ Mesoamerica’s last great native civilization

○ Its fall signified beginning of Spanish imperialism in the Americas

Zheng He

● Who: Chinese admiral

● What: Commanded huge fleet of ships/series of voyages in the Indian Ocean ○ Intended to bring people from distant lands into Chinese tribute system: institutions/norms of interaction with Non-Chinese world

○ Ended abruptly in 1433

● When: 1400s

● Where: China, Indian Ocean

● Why:

○ Represented Chinese attempts at exploration/imperial motives

○ China’s failure to create a lasting Chinese imperial presence

Songhay Empire

● Who: West African Muslims

● What: Major Islamic State of West Africa

○ Very powerful- conquered many neighboring states

○ Religion very important- Islamic rule of law

● When: Second half of 15th century

● Where: West Africa

● Why:

○ One of the Major Islamic stats in Africa- established Islam there

○ Religion and legal system blended together

Third Rome (Constantinople)

● Who: Muslims Ottoman Turks and Christians

● What: City that was “The beginning of Christian civilization” taken over by Muslim Ottoman Turks ● When: 1453

● Where: Constantinople, in between Europe and Turkey

● Why:

○ Islam and European renaissance came together during this time

Ottoman Empire

● Who: Ottoman Turks

● What: Eurasian Land Empire that created Turkic warrior groups

○ Tyrannical power: government severe, cruel, and violent

■ aggressively raided agricultural civilizations

○ After the Capture of Constantinople (1453), Muslim Ottoman Turks took over city that was the "beginning of Christian civilization"

● When: 14th and 15th centuries

● Where: Eurasia

● Why:

○ Beginning of conflict with Sunni and Shia Islamic thought

○ Reestablished earlier political unity of headland Islam 

○ became military/religious threat to European Christianity 

○ Blend of Islam and European renaissance 

Renaissance

● Who: Europeans

● What: European cultural, political, scientific and intellectual explosion 

● When: 15th and 16th centuries

● Where: Italy and later to the rest of Europe

● Why: Growth in human development

○ Blossoming of art, architecture, thought and religion

○ Expanded contact with other cultures and peoples challenges what is means to be human 

Trading-post Empires

● Who: Portuguese

● What: Portugal controlled commerce through force of arms instead of economic competition ○ Couldn’t compete with goods in Asian markets so used military advantage to establish bases at key locations within the Indian Ocean world 

● When: 1500s

● Where: Indian Ocean world 

● Why: First example of European powers using force to expand economic empire

British East India Company

● Who: English

● What: British Company that entered Indian Ocean commerce

○ Given monopolies in Indian Ocean Trade + power to start war and govern conquered people 

○ Excluded from spice Islands by Dutch monopoly

○ Not well financed and less sophisticated

○ Mainly focused on India

● When: 17th century (1600s)

● Where: Britain, Indian Ocean

● Why: European expansion into the global market

Dutch East India Company

● Who: Dutch

● What: Private trading company that entered Indian Ocean commerce

○ Given monopoly on Indian Ocean trade + power to start war and govern conquered people ○ Controlled the shipping of most spices

○ Well financed and commercially sophisticated

○ "trade by warfare"

○ Focused mainly on Indonesia

● When: 17th century (1600s)

● Where: Indian Ocean and the Netherlands

● Why: European expansion into the global market

Czars (Tsars)

● Who: Rulers who established the Russian state

● What: Transition from Mongols to Russian state and Russian imperial expansion ○ Ivan III: first Tsar, Moscow able to control Mongols, took over Russia and tried to become emperor

○ Ivan IV “The Terrible”: worked to control trade and production of Siberian furs ● When: 16th century

● Where: Russia

● Why:

○ Tsars ruled Russian for hundreds of years

○ Established the Russian state/creation of a dominant global power

Safavids

● Who: Turkish

● What: Major Turkic Empire that was notable in its efforts to convert people to Shia Islam ● When: early 16th century

● Where: Persia

● Why:

○ Religious conflict in Islam: Shia vs. Sunni

Hispaniola

● Who: Spanish

● What: Island that Christopher Columbus landed on in 1492

● When: late 15th and 16th centuries

● Where: West Indies (now Haiti/Dominican Republic)

● Why:

○ Beginning location for Spanish expansion into the Americas

○ Gained access to immense amount of food, land, productive labor and wealth ○ The "poor relations" (Europeans) now had control of material wealth to allow them to challenge the rich and powerful such as India and China

Columbian (Ecological) Exchange

● Who: Generated by European colonial empires in the Americas

● What: enormous network of communication, migration, trade, disease, and the transfer of plants + animals

● When: began in 1492 with Columbus’ voyage to the New World, lasting impacts today ● Where: Europe, Africa, and the Americas

● Why:

○ Western Europeans become global powers

○ Europeans and enslaved Africans brought germs, people, and resources (plants/animals) to the Americas = cultural and biological transformations

Military Revolution

● Who: Europe Armies

● What: Modernization of European military forces

○ Increasing importance in military and warfare

○ Sophistication of military strategy and leadership

● When: 16th and 17th centuries

● Where: Early Modern Europe

● Why: Transformed military in Europe- became global power because of military advancements

Songhai Empire

● Who: Songhai ethnic group

● What: Large African trading empire

● When: 15th and 16th centuries

● Where: West Africa along banks of Niger River

● Why:

○ Largest and last major pre-colonial African empires

○ Political and cultural ties with the rest of the Muslim World

East India Trade

● Who: British

● What: English company formed for the exploitation of trade with East Asia, Southeast Asia, and India

● When: 17th century

● Where: Britain, East Asia, Southeast Asia, and India

● Why: company became involved in politics and became agent for British imperialism in India

Mughal Empire (India)

● Who: Muslim Turkic speaking peoples

● What: State of Muslim/Turkic-speaking peoples that invaded India and provided period of political unity

○ Interaction between Islamic and Hindu cultures in South Asia

● When: 1526-1701

● Where: India

● Why: Efforts to create partnership between Hindus and Muslims

○ Akbar: Indian emperor who recognized division of religion and imposed policies of toleration/blending of cultures

Council of Trent

● Who: Catholic Church

● What: Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and out a new emphasis on education/accountability in the Church

○ Popular religion too concerned with survival in this world and not salvation of the soul - should be focused on eternal life, not worldly/selfish motives 

○ Aimed to cleanse ritual practice: relics, local saints, festival behavior

● When: 1545- 1563

● Where: Rome, Italy

● Why:

○ Represented major religious changes in the Catholic Church and around Europe ○ Period of assimilation: threat of religious/cultural differences

○ ising sense of mission, sought to recover dynamism of early Christianity, desire to ensure inward not just outward in practice

Inquisition

● Who: Spanish

● What: Mass conversions to Christianity by the Spanish towards Jews and Muslims ○ Aimed to consolidate power in the old Spanish Kingdom

○ Used brutal methods of conversion

● When: 1478

● Where: Spain

● Why:

○ Millions died because of religious persecution

○ Showed power of the Spanish Kingdom/importance of religion

Reformation (Protestant Reformation)

● Who: German Priest Martin Luther, Protestants

● What: Movement by Martin Luther to radically innovate Christianity

○ Challenged authority of the Roman Catholic Church

○ Endorse salvation alone

○ Expression of political/economic/social tensions

● When: 1500s

● Where: Europe

● Why:

○ End to Catholic Church as hegemon: leading world power

○ Challenged the Church/Christianity - time of great religious change

Counter-Reformation/ Catholic Reformation

● Who: Catholic Church

● What: Internal reform of the Catholic Church which criticized the Renaissance attitudes of many of the popes and clergy

○ Stimulated by opposition to the Protestant Reformation 

○ Council of Trent: Catholic leaders clarified doctrine, corrected abuses and corruption, and out a new emphasis on education/accountability in the Church

● When: 16th Century

● Where: Rome, Italy

● Why:

○ Focus on defining belief, purity, and intellectual rigor

○ Bring back Church authority and respect

○ Religious conflicts spread around Europe - time of great change

Jesuits

● Who: Catholics

● What: Religious order of the Catholic Church 

○ Played role in Counter-Reformation 

○ Missionary work in China- assimilated with Chinese culture as part of efforts to convert Chinese elite (though limited success) 

● When: 16th and 17th centuries

● Where: Europe and China (missionary work)

● Why:

○ Played an important role in the Counter-Reformation

○ Converted millions around the world to Catholicism

○ Interaction of religion and culture with China

Orthodox Catholic Church

● Who: Religious order of the Catholic Church

● What: Disputes over doctrine with Roman Catholic Church

○ Got support from some Protestants

○ Rejection of papal supremacy

○ Apostolic succession

● When: 16th and 17th centuries

● Where: Eastern Europe

● Why:

○ Separate order of the Catholic Church represented religious divergence

Dalai Lama

● Who: Head Monk of Buddhist religion

● What: Leader of Buddhism

○ Altan Khan: Mongol emperor who used Buddhism/the Dalai Lama to unify his Kingdom ● When: 1500s

● Where: Tibet

● Why:

○ Helped spread Buddhism

Confraternities

● Who: Black Catholic laypeople brought to the Americas

● What: Communities of Black Catholic people that was distinct from white Catholicism ○ Served as focus for identity, coherence, belonging for Africans brought into the new world ○ Selected black patron saints whose statues were paraded on festival occasions ● When: 17th and 18th centuries

● Where: The Americas

● Why:

○ Black slaves created unique identity and form of religion in the New World

Millenarianism

● Who: White colonists

● What: Belief in a future golden age of peace, justice, and prosperity 

○ Religion Matters- enthusiasm and divine inspiration 

○ Prophetic/charismatic leaders that proclaim expected end of time and the coming of a perfect world 

● When: 16th and 17th centuries

● Where: Spanish America

● Why:

○ New religious belief in the Americas

Sikhism

● Who: founded by Guru Nanak

● What: Religious tradition that combined elements of Hinduism and Islam, proclaiming brotherhood of all humans and the equality of men and women

○ “No Hindu, No Muslim- only God”

● When: 1469-1539

● Where: Northern India

● Why:

○ Brought Hindus and Muslims together in religious expression

○ Social and cultural changes

Copernican Revolution

● Who: Copernicus: Polish mathematician and astronomer

● What: Revolution that first argued for the existence of a sun-centered universe ● When: 1473-1543

● Where: Poland and rest of Europe

● Why:

○ Before this the bible/most ancient writers had assumed that the earth was a fixed point at the center of the universe

○ The world is not the center of the universe anymore

○ Sparked the Scientific Revolution- less focus on Religion/God

Inductive Method

● Who: Francis Bacon

● What: Reasoning of coming to a conclusion based on evidence/experiment

○ Looking at details to generalize

○ Focus on experimentation, not authority

● When: 1562-1626

● Where: Europe

● Why: How to think science/ looking at the world differently and challenging authority and religion ○ Led the way to Isaac Newton’s view of the world

■ Empiricism: reality may be observed and verified by our senses

Epistemology

● Who: founded by Isaac Newton

● What: Philosophy regarding the theory of knowledge, justification, and rationality of belief ○ Synthesizes approaches of Bacon and Descartes (inductive/deductive reasoning) ○ Study of “how we know what we know”

○ Mathematics to describe the observed patterns

○ Mechanistic explanations for "natural laws" with predictive effectiveness- seemed to affirm validity ('if _____ than ____")

● When: 1643-1727

● Where: England

● Why:

○ Growth in human thought and science

Chinese Board of Astronomy

● Who: Chinese and Jesuits

● What: Chinese board made up of Jesuit missionaries that were skilled in different technical areas, specifically astronomy

○ Jesuits equipped the board with Jesuit-designed astronomy instruments

● When: late 1600s

● Where: China

● Why:

○ Chinese used Jesuits for scientific advancements- thought West was ahead in mathematics and physics

○ Advancement of science spreading around the world

○ Cultural interaction/contribution by Europeans to China

Holy Roman Empire

● Who: regional states across Europe

● What: Confederation headed by an emperor, though regional states were affected in limiting his power

● When: early 9th century

● Where: Europe

● Why:

○ In order to control their large empire Romans developed important ideas about law and government 

○ Developed best army in the world at that time, and ruled by force 

Realpolitik

● Who: Niccolo Machiavelli, author of The Prince 

● What: Political philosophy that the state serves only itself and is not subject to moral law- based on practical objectives rather than moral ideals

○ Ruler's sole guide was his own interest, maintaining his power

○ Should pretend to be virtuous, but really should keep faith only when advantageous to him + the state

○ No-nonsense, disregard for ethics

● When: 1513

● Where: Italy

● Why:

○ As states grew more powerful and effective, thinking about them changed

○ Reversed classical thinking insisting that sovereignty and the state had to serve a moral purpose, virtue/happiness

○ Sparked international law by sovereign states conducting politics along Machiavelli’s ideas

Law of Nations/ Twelve Tables

● Who: Roman government

● What: Set of laws that established by the government regarding the rights of all citizens + wrongs that were communicated to everyone

● When: (450 BCE)

● Where: Ancient Rome

● Why:

○ beginning of a new approach to laws established by the government and written down so that all citizens could be treated equally 

○ Roman approach to law would soon become model for many other civilizations, still seen today

Ming Dynasty

● Who: Chinese Emperor

● What: Ruling Dynasty of China, leadership came in between Mongol and Manchu rule ○ Emperor had unlimited powers in theory

● When: 1368-1644

● Where: China

● Why: Expanded China like never before

○ Population doubled, world's wealthiest state at the time

○ Trade expansion to the outside world 

○ Established cultural ties with the West 

○ Development of art and literature 

Manchus

● Who: Ethnic minority from Manchuria region of China

● What: Group that conquered China and ruled for hundreds of years

○ Regarded as “non-Chinese”

○ Did not impose manners/customs on the Chinese

● When: 17th century

● Where: Northeast China

● Why:

○ Minority that gained power in China

○ People from this group founded the Qing Dynasty

Qing Dynasty

● Who: Chinese

● What: Chinese Dynasty that grew into a central Asian Empire

● When: 17th and 18th centuries

● Where: China

● Why:

○ Integration/conflict: Added minority of non-Chinese people to Empire’s population ○ Created borders of contemporary China

Samurai

● Who: conducted by the Daimyo

● What: Private army of aristocratic warriors in pre-modern Japan

○ became the highest ranking military class

○ Made efforts to freeze social order and stabilize society

● When: 1600-1850

● Where: Japan

● Why:

○ Had lots of power in Japan during this time period

○ Developed disciplined culture not seen before from earlier, refined imperial courts

Daimyo

● Who: Powerful Japanese feudal lords social class in Japan

● What: Social class in Japan

● When: Tokugawa period (1600-1850)

● Where: Japan

● Why:

○ Commanded the private army of Samurai

Tokugawa

● Who: Japanese, Tokugawa family

● What: Period of peace in Japan led by military rulers from the Tokugawa family ○ Prevented civil war (though did not fully unify country)

○ Established “closed door” policy toward European encroachments

● When: 1600-1850

● Where: Japan

● Why:

○ Period of internal peace in Japan

○ Closing off of European influences

PART 2: Essay Question 

look for the major issues and themes we have dealt with in the course, and answer the prompt with an analysis of one of these common, recurring themes throughout world history:

Contact and exchanges between peoples and cultures

● Trade and economic relations

● Exchange of ideas, germs, foods

● Conflict and warfare, exchange of military methods and technologies

● Exchanges or migrations of populations (voluntary and involuntary)

Political institutions, their challenges and developments

● Organizing states over large distances

● Relationships between “one” or “few” and “many” – rulers and ruled

● The nature of the body politic (subjects of the Emperor? Members of the nation? Citizens of the Republic?)

Economic links and changes

● Shaping of the global system of economic exchange

● Imperialism, Globalization

● Industrial revolution, manufacturing, mechanization, their impact on society ● Global “haves” and “have-nots” at various periods in history, their relations

Culture, religion, arts and society

● Contact and exchanges between societies in thought and religion

● “Western” science and technology and their challenges and acceptances in other societies ● Enlightenment globally, Socialism globally, Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism globally ● Challenges to the dominant rational Enlightenment paradigm from East and West

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