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UMB / Psychology / PSYC 100 / What is behaviorism theory?

What is behaviorism theory?

What is behaviorism theory?

Description

School: University of Maryland
Department: Psychology
Course: Introduction to Psychology
Professor: Curtis
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Psyc100, Psychology, cognition, theories, Perspectives, research methods, scientific method, behavior, and behaviorism
Cost: 50
Name: Exam 1 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover the information that will be on the exam which includes theories, cognition, methods, and behaviorism.
Uploaded: 03/02/2019
8 Pages 88 Views 9 Unlocks
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Psyc100 Study Guide 


What is behaviorism theory?



Theories

❖ Behaviorism

● observable

● Environment is the main influence

● Blank slate when born (Tabula Rasa)

● Rough draft

○ Innate ≠ fixed

○ Innate = organized in advance of experience

❖ Freudian

● Deeper, subconscious meaning

○ Freudian Slip- error in speech/ memory

● Early, childhood experiences shape adult lives

● Superego, ego, and Id

❖ Evolutionary

● Natural selection

● Repro. fitness, adaptation

○ thoughts/behavior can be acquired

● Info from

○ Cross-cultural similarities We also discuss several other topics like What is rent subsidy?

○ Fossil record


What is a freudian theory?



○ Animal behavior

○ Infant behavior

● Drunken Monkey hypothesis

○ Fruit good, but hard to find fresh in the jungle

○ Solution: enzyme ADH4 -> consumes partially rotten/ fermented fruit ❖ Learning Bias

● Templates through milestones

○ Guides learning

○ Flexibility to diff, social environments

○ Contrast to “fixed action patterns” (imprinting)

❖ Personality Perspective

● Experience -> stable traits

● Personalities = individual differences

● biological/ acquired

❖ Situational Perspective

● Environmental cues & norms

❖ Sociocultural Theory

● Groups develop norms


What is evolutionary theory?



Don't forget about the age old question of The plus end directed on cytoplasmic microtubules is what?

○ Conformity, obedience

❖ Cognitive Psychology

● Information processing

● Mind = computer

❖ Social Cognitive Theory

● Schemas: determine activities

○ Beliefs, knowledge, memories

○ Attitudes

❖ Positive Psych

● Contrast 2 Disease model

○ Emotions

○ Behaviors

○ Outcomes

Cognition

● Metacognition- thinking about thinking

● Conjunction Fallacy

○ Probability of A + B is less than probability of A or B alone

● Stroop Test

○ Congruent: faster, more accurate (“RED” in red ink)

○ Incongruent: slower, need to think (“RED” in blue ink)

○ Reading is an automatic process

● Cognitive load- brain occupied with an effortful task

● Limited cognitive resource = memory determines allocation

● Cocktail Party Effect - you hear something about you -> you focus only on that ● Schemas

○ Cognitive structure representing ideas

■ Concept (topics)

■ Specific person

■ Group (stereotypes)

■ Self-concept

■ Events

○ Think 2 quick & shallowly If you want to learn more check out What is the formula of mirror equation?

○ Heuristics & bias - mental shortcut for making decisions

■ Availability - hear about it more -> easily accessible

■ Representativeness - judgments about categories

■ Expensive = Better: evaluating products & Placebo effect

■ Halo Effect: pos. traits influence the impression of a person

■ Beautiful = Good: physical attractiveness -> good qualities

■ Hot Hand Fallacy: athlete keeps making shots in a game

■ Gambler’s Fallacy: chance events will “even out”

■ Bias - Statistics doesn’t matter, fueled by anecdotes & imagery ● Confirmation - notice & remember info related to our beliefs Don't forget about the age old question of What is interactive dualism?

○ Information Processing

■ Unable to disregard prior information even if it wrong

● IQ test measures g -> g is the overall intellectual ability

○ Gardner’s Theory - multiple intelligences (*hard to limit)

● Memory

○ Short term can hold 5-9 items (Miller’s magic number)

■ Increase by chunking

○ Processes of long term:

■ Encode -> store -> retrieve

○ State-Dependent - environment influences memory

■ Drunk remembers drunk memories, study in the classroom where you take the exam, learn & recall on land or in water

■ Contextual information becomes part of your schema

○ Memory issues:

■ Disorganization- somewhere in storage but can’t recall

■ Interference- never encoded right due to cognitive load

■ Decay- encoded but no longer in storage

■ Insufficient priming- not enough activation to recall

■ Retrograde amnesia- can’t remember prior to memory loss

■ Anterograde amnesia- can’t produce new memories

○ Elaborative rehearsal -connecting schemas through associations Methods

● Scientific

○ Hypothesis - specific prediction for variables in a study

● Operationalization

○ Convergence - conceptual replications (same construct, different method) ● Meta-Analysis

○ Compare published and unpublished data If you want to learn more check out Who are the members of a construction team?

● Validity - construct, internal, external, statistical conclusion

● Research Design

○ Correlation - correlation ≠ causation

● Experiments Don't forget about the age old question of What is the chemical symbol?

○ Random assignment is key

○ Sampling = selection of participants

○ Assignment = experimental conditions

○ Need at least 1 control group (not affected by the stimulus)

● Why study might fail:

○ Original study wrong

○ Replication study wrong

● Psychological science

○ Probabilistic not deterministic

Behaviorism

● Classical Conditioning

○ Pavlov - conditioned dogs to salivate

■ Used metronome -> bell

○ Garcia Effect - only for Taste

■ Eat something -> get sick -> aversion to that food

○ Placebo Effect

■ biological conditioning - association b/w drug and physical effect

○ Stimulus generalization

■ Little Albert generalized small animals & white object

○ Stimulus Discrimination

■ Differentiating b/w stimulus

● Eliminating Associations

○ Habituation - repeated exposure; flooding

■ Ex: someone goes on a plane who is scared of heights

○ Systematic desensitization - exposure to a range of related stimuli ■ Ex: slowly exposing lady to clown objects

○ Counter-conditioning - replace undesired response by replacing stimulus ■ Ex: getting a dog to like the vacuum

■ Aversion does opposite

● Operant Conditioning

○ Punishers (discourages) & Reinforcers (encourages)

■ Primary- naturally want/ avoid

■ Secondary- learned to avoid

■ Positive- adding a new stimulus

■ Negative- removes a stimulus

● Schedule of Reinforcement

○ Continuous- every single time behavior occurs

th

○ Fixed ratio- every n occurrence (after 3 crimes)

○ Fixed interval- exact time frame (after 5 years)

○ Variable ratio- an unpredicted number of occurrences (slots) ○ Variable interval- an unpredicted amount of time (pop quiz)

● Other Types of Learning

○ Insight: sudden understanding of a solution to a problem

■ Trial & error -> pause & reflect -> sudden inspiration

● Latent learning

○ Observational learning

■ Mimicry, role models, Bandura’s doll study

● Doll study = kids more aggressive when adults aggressive

● Motivation

○ Extrinsic ->Reinforcements & punishments

○ Intrinsic -> value in the activity

○ Overjustification

■ Less interested when you have to do it in order to reach a goal ○ Self-determination

■ Intrinsic motivation

■ Interests that one grows in knowledge and skills

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