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COLORADO / Engineering / PSYC / What is the humanitarian reform?

What is the humanitarian reform?

What is the humanitarian reform?

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School: University of Colorado at Boulder
Department: Engineering
Course: History of Psychology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: History of Psych - Exam TWO Study Guide
Description: This guide includes: a comprehensive list of all the terms gone over in class, a practice exam (with answers given at the end), and all of the people and things we were asked to read about in the textbook.
Uploaded: 03/05/2019
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EXAM TWO STUDY GUIDE


What is the humanitarian reform?



History of Psychology – PSYCH3511

Exam two covers 2/11/19 through 3/4/19

The layout of this exam is:

• A few matching questions at the beginning with one more option than there are questions. (Likely  ~six matching questions)

• Mostly multiple choice.  

• Two “essay” questions where you must give the three major contributions of the figure.  This study guide has four parts:

1) All terms covered in this unit with what Dr.King said would be on the exam marked. 2) A practice exam.  

3) Answers to the practice exam  

4) All terms/people we were asked to read about in the textbook with notes.

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup


Demonology and witchcraft are considered the first form of?



All terms covered in class

_____________________________________________________________________________________ multiple choice // essay // matching // no category given, just going to be on the exam. 

• S.P.E.R.M 

• Rationalism  

• Knowledge  

• Rene Descartes 

• Humanitarian reform  

• Demonology and witchcraft

• Trephination  

• Dance Manias  

• Biting Mania  

• Biting Mania  


What was the title of the book that charles scott sherrington wrote?



• Lycanthropy  

• Witches’ hammer 

• Pricking 

• Witchcraft hit peak in 17th century • Alienists  

• Bedlam  If you want to learn more check out What is the corpus callosum?

• Phillipe Pinel 

• Hospital reform  

• Custodialism  

• Moral Therapy  

• Franz Anton Mesmer  

• Franklin Commision’s findings  • Dorothea Dix  

• Conversations on Common Things  • Doctrine of the Skull  

• Faculty Psychology  

• Johann Spurzheim  

• Phrenology  We also discuss several other topics like What is the binomial formula?

Other given “freebies”: 

• Franz Joseph Gall  

• Pierre Fluorens  

• Extirpation  

• Action Commune  

• Recovery of Function  

• Phineas P. Gage  

• Pierre-Paul Broca  

• Expressive aphasia  

• Broca’s area  

• Carl Wernicke  

• Wernicke’s aphasia  

• Wenicke’s area  

• Camillo Golgi  

• Reticular theory  

• Santiago Ramon Y Cajal  

• Neuron theory  

• Charles Scott Sherrington  

• Integrative action of the nervous system • Hermann Ebbinghaus  

• Structuralism  

• Willheim Wundt  

• 1879  

• Edward Bradform Titchner  

• Edwin G. Boring  

• Emil Kraeplin  

• 1883 classification of disorder • Lightner Witner  

• Boulder model  Don't forget about the age old question of How does habituation help learning?

Which of the following is not a contribution of Gall? Phrenology  The answer to the first multiple choice question will be B

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

The Practice Exam

_____________________________________________________________________________________ Matching questions:

There is one more option than there are questions to match what will be on the exam.  

1. _______ is reason from an active mind but not experience  

2. Demonology and witchcraft are considered the first form of _________

3. The cure to Lycanthropy was ___________

4. The first people to treat mental illness/psychiatric disorders were called ___________ 5. Mesmer used _________ therapy and animal spirits to hypnotize his patients.  

Answer bank:

a) Abnormal psych

b) Magnet  

c) All limb amputation  

d) Phrenology  

e) Alienists  

f) Knowledge  

Multiple choice questions:

1. This is a question  

a. Answer one  

b. Answer two  

c. Answer three  

d. Answer four  

2. Who is considered the founder / inspiration for clinical psychology?

a. William James  We also discuss several other topics like What comprises our linguistic knowledge?

b. Lightner Witner  

c. Dorothea Dix

d. Freud  

3. What was the title of the book that Charles Scott Sherrington wrote? We also discuss several other topics like What is the justice for all act?

a. The Nervous System  

b. Neurons in the Brain  

c. Integrative action of the nervous system  

d. Transmissions and Action Potentials of the Brain

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

4. Which of the following is NOT a contribution of Franz Joseph Gall  

a. Brain localization  

b. Skull topography  

c. Faculty Psychology  

d. Phrenology  

5. What is the Doctrine of the Skull? Don't forget about the age old question of How do we classify organisms?

a. Certain parts of your personality and intelligence can be revealed by the topography of your  skull  

b. Releasing demons from your brain through small holes in the skull  

c. The practice that made Gall a lot of money  

d. A free will approach to medicine  

6. Mesmer is considered the first to use

a. Magnets  

b. Therapy animals  

c. Group Therapy  

d. Dialectical Behavior Therapy  

7. What were the findings of the Franklin Commision?  

a. Mesmer’s practice was fraudulent but they allowed him to continue practicing due to a large  bribe  

b. Mesmer’s practice was fraudulent and he no longer was able to practice  

c. Mesmer’s practice was legitimate and it grew even more popular

d. Mesmer’s practice was legitimate and everyone on the commission supported it  

8. When did witchcraft hit its peak?

a. 15th century  

b. 16th centyry  

c. 17th century

d. 18th century  

9. At the peak of witchcraft there were three major scientific advances. The first was that planets have  elliptical orbits. The second was the 1sttelescope by Gallileo. The third was what? a. Pricking

b. The first vaccine

c. Running water  

d. The first idea to treat drinking water

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

10. What was the title of the book that was used as a courtroom precedent against witchcraft written by  Heinrich Kramer and Jacob Springer

a. A Case Against a Witch  

b. The Witches Power  

c. The Witches Hammer  

d. The Witches Curse  

11. What was the name of the asylum William Tuke went to that inspired him to create the York Retreat? a. St. Mary’s Church

b. St. Mary’s of Bethelham  

c. St. Augustine’s Retreat  

d. St. Augustine’s Sanitorium  

12. The practice of drilling holes into one’s skull to release the demons was called what? a. Venting  

b. Exorcism  

c. Trephination  

d. Release  

13. What is the name of the weird acronym king brought up last unit?

a. F.L.O.R

b. E.E.L.S

c. S.P.E.R.M

d. C.H.A.I.R

14. Dorothea Dix wrote a book called  

a. Conversations about science  

b. Conversations on common things  

c. Conversations about your teenage years  

d. Conversations about school  

15. Dorothea Dix was considered the first _____________ in the united states

a. Psychological researcher  

b. Social worker  

c. Sociological researcher  

d. Both b and c are correct

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

16. Phineas P. Gage was a railroad worker who suffered extensive damage to his brain and survived. He  proved ____________’s hypothesis about the brain correct.  

a. Pierre Fluorens  

b. Pierre Paul-Broca  

c. Carl Wernicke  

d. Camillo Golgi  

17. By studying Leborgne, __________ was able to figure out that speech creation is a localized function  of the brain.  

a. Pierre-Paul Broca  

b. Pierre Fluorens  

c. Santiago Ramon Y Cajal  

d. Charles Scott Sherrington  

18. What is expressive aphasia?

a. Loss of willing movement in body language  

b. Loss of all speech leading to muteness  

c. Loss of articulate speech with some sounds/words still able to be said

d. Loss of understanding of speech but still being able to create your own speech

19. Being able to form articulate speech without meaning is known as

a. Broca’s area  

b. Wernicke’s aphasia  

c. Broca’s aphasia  

d. Expressive aphasia  

20. What year was psychology officially deemed a science?

a. 1800  

b. 1888

c. 1879  

d. 1899

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

Essay questions:  

Rene Descartes  

Phillipe Pinel  

As always, feel free to reply to my message on canvas if you would like to study together and we can set  up a time to meet!

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

All people from the textbook we were asked to read about:

_____________________________________________________________________________________ *anything covered extensively in class is left out

Spinoza and Leibniz  

o Spinoza  

o Said that god, nature, and the mind were inseparable

o Pantheism: the belief that god is everywhere  

o The mind and body were two aspects of the same things – the living human being. Like  two sides of a coin they are inseparable

o Said there is no such thing as free will  

o Leibniz  

o Rejected the idea that all ideas come from experience and said that no ideas come from  experience  

o He concluded that everything was living and that everything was created from a “monad” (a single unit of a living thing). All monads are active and conscious.  

o Thought of a scale of gradually increasing intelligence. Plants, microbes, insects, animals,  humans, and god.  

o Rejected the mind-body dualism  

o Proposed a psychophysical parallelism based on the notion of preestablished harmony  o What is actually experienced consciously is explained in terms of events beyond the  realm of conscious experience  

Goethe

o Believed that life consisted of opposing forces such as love v. hate, life v. death, etc.  o He was a writer about most things with no scientific value but he made many scientific  discoveries in autonomy and botony.  

o Employed a form of what is now called behavior therapy to alleviate a number of his own  personal problems and the problems of one of his students who was depressed  

o Had many influences on the development of psychology  

Nietzsche

o Said there are two aspects of human nature: the apollonian (our rational side) and the  Dionysian (our irrational side).  

o Viewed himself mainly as a psychologist

o Shared the goal of helping individuals gain control of their powerful and irrational  impulses  

o Said that people no longer could look to god for meaning to life due to science and  philosophy

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

o Thought instincts should not be repressed, but rather should be given expression  o The will to power is to gain control over one’s self and one’s destiny  

o People approaching their full potential are known as “supermen”

o The meaning of life is found within the individual  

Ladd-Franklin  

o Was not granted a doctoral degree because she was a woman  

o Gave her own theory on color vision  

o Lectured on logic and psychology at johns Hopkins until she moved back to new York where she  then lectured on her theory of color vision at Columbia

o Her theories were abandoned  

Chapter 15 notes

o Mental illness has existed for a long time, though not with that term. Mad, lunatic, and insane  have been used in the past.  

o What is mental illness?

o Harmful behavior such as hurting one’s self or others when it’s not socially acceptable  o Unrealistic thoughts or perceptions that are markedly different than what is considered normal in a certain time/place in history. False beliefs and false perceptions  

(hallucinations/delusions) fall under this category  

o Inappropriate emotions such as laughing at a funeral or crying during a happy time.  o Unpredictable behavior like sudden massive mood swings.  

o Early explanations of mental illness

o Biological:  

▪ All disease is caused by some aspect of the body, usually the brian

▪ Other things such as injuries, tumors, ingestions of toxins, polluted air, water or  food, disease, and excessive stress  

o Psychological explanations:

▪ Grief, disappointment, anxiety, fear, frustration, guilt, or conflict can cause  

mental illness.  

o Supernatural explanations  

▪ Anything that was not easily explained in primitive times was due to mysterious  forces. Disorders did not exist but rather they were the outcome of a mysterious  force.  

o Early treatments of mental illness  

o Psychotherapy: an attempt to help a person with a mental disturbance  

o Natural law (18th century): the belief that you get what you deserve in life  

o Supernatural approach: Removing a supernatural force from one’s body. Bleeding a  patient, trepanation, and exorcism were all ways that mysterious forces were removed  from one’s body.  

o Biological approach: During Hippocrates time, patients were treated humanely and  prescribed rest and work to help cure them.  

o The return of the supernatural approach: Witch hunts in the 1400s-1600s.  

o Improvement of the treatments for mental illness

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

o Pinel treated Paris’ poor people because of how angry he was at the state of their  treatment. He became the director of the bictre asylum and started to treat the patients  more humanely and watched as they got better.  

o Benjamin Rush  

o Served as a surgeon general of the army under greorge Washington

o Referred to as the first U.S. Psychiatrist  

o Argued that the mentally ill should not be allowed to be looked at for public enjoyment  o Emil Kraeplin  

o A german psychiatrist  

o Published a list of disorders that was so thorough it was adopted by the world over and  has lasted until now  

o Was among the first to systematically study the effects of drugs on cognitive and  behavioral functions  

o Marquis de Puysegur  

o Continued on with mesmer’s work of hypnotism  

o Discovered most of the hypnotic knowledge known today  

o John Elliotson, James Esdaile, and James Braid

o Worked with using magnetism as an anesthetic  

o The Nancy School  

o A school in France that taught hypnotism as a form of medical practice  

o Charcot’s Explanation of hypnosis and hysteria  

o Thought that traumatic experiences (that didn’t cause physical damage) might have  caused ideas that could have caused hysteria  

o Said that hysteria and hypnosis were psychological in nature rather than organic  

Carl Stumpf  

o An experimental psychologist that worked in acoustic perception  

o Mental events should be studied as meaningful units just as they are to the individual and need  not to be broken down into further units  

o Inspired gestalt psychology  

o Clever Hans was a horse that could correctly solve arithmetic problems by tapping his hoof or  shaking his head the appropriate number of times  

o He found out how the horse was able to do this and called it the clever hans effect  Hermann Ebbinghaus  

o His study on learning and memory marked a turning point in psychology  

o Used nonsense syllables to test memory  

o Found that with any considerable number of repetitions anything can be memorized

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

Practice Exam Answers:

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Answers to the matching section:

F

A

C

E

B

Answers to the multiple choice:

1. B

2. B

3. C

4. D

5. A

6. C

7. B

8. C

9. A

10. C

11. B

12. C

13. C

14. B

15. D

16. A

17. A

18. C

19. B

20. C

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

Essay Answers:

Rene Descartes  

1. Used skepticism to arrive at rationalism  

a. Starts doubting everything from god to his own existence, but he couldn’t doubt that he  was doubting – I think therefor I am.  

b. Used Montaigne’s skepticism to justify rationalism  

2. Perspective on the mind-body problem  

a. Took a mechanistic perspective: believed that god designed the body as a machine  b. Cartesian interactionism: believed there were chemicals in the brain that caused us to do  everything we do, he called these animal spirits  

c. Search for the seat of the soul: he believed there was a special part of the brain that held  the psyche. He thought he found it in the pineal gland because animals didn’t have this  gland (or so he thought).  

3. Emotions or passions of the mind

a. Believed we had six emotions: wonder, love, hatred, joy, desire, sadness  

b. Any other emotions were secondary and were mixtures of the six primary  

c. This is very similar to the modern perspective on this  

Phillipe Pinel  

1. A treatise on insanity  

a. An early attempt at psychological classification  

b. 5 clinical species  

c. Helped clinicians understand what they’re dealing with  

i. Melancholia: depression and/or delusions  

ii. Mania without delirium: poor impulse control, close to what we call bipolar  today  

iii. Mania with delirium: nervous excitement and intellectual deterioration  

iv. Dementia: unconnected idea with a loss of reality  

v. Idiotisme: reduction of mental capacity  

2. Hospital reform  

a. “custodialism” – the practice of locking a patient up and throwing away the key was the  common practice at the time and he was strongly against that.  

b. He changed the way hospitals were run  

c. He was the first to maintain case records on his patients  

d. He was the first to maintain stats on how his patients were progressing  

3. Advanced progressive treatments  

a. “Moral therapy” – a healthy type of therapy  

b. Said the environment is the cause of disorders  

i. Etiology = environment/nurture  

c. Treatments: fresh air, sunlight, work  

d. “talk treatments”

e. Called the first complete clinician  

f. Had respect for the dignity of the patient – even though that idea didn’t catch on until the  1940s.

Psych3511 Exam Two Study Guide by Alex on StudySoup

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