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william myers csuf

william myers csuf

Description

School: California State University - Fullerton
Department: History
Course: World Civilization to 16th Century
Professor: Stefan chrissanthos
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Study Guide, history, world civilization, and Midterm Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: History 110A MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE
Description: Midterm study guide for Professor William Myers' History 110A class. There are two documents: The first one (titled HIST 110A MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE) is the overall study guide, and the second one (titled HIST 110A Ancient Chinese Civilization Midterm Notes) is detailed notes on Ancient China for the essay portion of the midterm. *NOTE* I just reuploaded an updated version of the overall study g
Uploaded: 03/05/2019
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HISTORY 110A - MIDTERM STUDY GUIDE


What are the 7 building blocks of civilization?



Prof. William Myers

Study guide by Hana Bermejo

The midterm will be divided into two parts:

1. Essay

a. Know the 7 building blocks of civilization and their relationship with each other b. Provide examples from the Chinese civilization from around the time of the Warring States period to the Han Dynasty (and no other civilization)

2. Identification of some people

a. Choose five out of the seven names...

i. Enheduanna

ii. Hammurabi

iii. Abharam

iv. Tutankhamen

v. Qin Shi Huang (the first emperor of China)

vi. Confucious

vii. Siddhartha

b. ...and tell who they are, approximately when they lived, which civilization they were from, what do they do that made them famous at the time, and how is their achievement or activity significant both then and now. If you want to learn more check out ucr caps

The Seven Building Blocks of Civilization


What does Hammurabi contributed to chinese civilization?



The Blocks

Definition

1. Innovative

agricultural

technology

Signs of the civilization coming up with new ideas on how to grow food or continuing the use of a method that already existed

2. Demographic density

Population growth when there is sufficient food supply, improving health and life expectancy

3. Habitation in

towns or cities

The presence of people settling in nomadic settings

4. Complex

commercial

networks

Signs of sophisticated trade, cross-cultural exchange, the introduction of new ideas

5. Hierarchically organized social and political

(next page)

Social/political pyramid - from peasants to the rulers

system

6. Erections of

complex or

monumental

architectures

Ex: pyramid (monumental) and irrigation (complex)


Who is the first emperor of China?



7. Development of literate culture

The existence of literate communication, not just oral

*Note: reference my notes on the Chinese civilization (titled HIST 110A Ancient Chinese Civilization Midterm Notes (uploaded on StudySoup) for detailed notes on the Chinese civilization from Week 5 and 6

Notes on the seven names (more details can be found in my lecture notes):

1. Enheduanna

a. Alive 2285 BC ~ 2250 BC

b. From the Egyptian civilization

c. Daughter of Sargon

d. She was in charge (chief priestess) of the goddess Ishtar (goddess of fertility) that everyone worshipped We also discuss several other topics like which of the following gestalt laws is correctly defined?

e. She wrote hymns and prayers of worship for the goddess

f. Wrote on clay tablets

g. Her significance then and now: she is the earliest known poet whose name is recorded

2. Hammurabi

a. Alive 1811 BC ~ 1750 BC

b. Most famous ruler/king of Babylon

c. Believed that strength and unification of the empire would be strengthened by making the king a religious figure, not only making himself an important ruler i. “Worship me as a god”

ii. Believed that the prestige of the king would be carried out through laws and justice

d. Merged the laws of the people that he had conquered as well as his own Babylonian laws

e. The most famous law code of the time: Code of Hammurabi Don't forget about the age old question of rpi iea

i. Gathered info about people’s beliefs from all over the empire

ii. The concept of an eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth was born here iii. Punishments should be carried out through some kind of bodily removal iv. Code of law was spread out everywhere through the empire and

established one set of standards that everyone had to follow

v. Ordered stone monuments with the words of the code of law inscribed onto them and sent them out at the plaza of every large city in his empire f. Hammurabi built a huge palace built for himself with a temple in it so that people can worship him

g. Babylonians and Hammurabi’s rule contributed to the concept of governance i. The concept of using the rule of law as a tool to organize people is repeated over and over again throughout history

3. Abharam

a. Alive around 1850 BCE/2nd millennium BCE

b. Hebrew civilization

c. Spoken to by God and told to gather his people and bring them out of Ur and head to a new land called Canaan

d. Viewed as the ancestral “father” of a great number of people mentioned in the Bible We also discuss several other topics like alfredo sanchez cal poly

4. Tutankhamen

a. Alive around 1330 BC (became king at around age 9 or 10 in 1333 BC) b. King in the 18th Dynasty of the Egyptian civilization

c. He was not a very important or famous king at the time of his reign, but became famous after the discovery of his tomb

5. Qin Shi Huang (the first emperor of China)

a. Alive 259 BC ~ 210 BC

b. First emperor of a unified China

c. Founder of the Qin dynasty

d. Despotic and tyrannical

e. Ruled his new empire with a form of totalitarianism called legalism f. Believed that government should rule every part of every citizen’s daily life; punishments were spelled out in the law code and were very brutal

i. Every aspect of private life was covered by the law

ii. Punishments were brutal, usually mutilation of death

iii. Eliminated unwanted ideas - burned libraries

1. Anyone who tried to keep the books from being burned was

branded on the face and was forced into brutal labor

2. Scholars were buried alive if they tried to protect their libraries

g. The Qin Shi Huang dreamed of immortality

i. Chinese alchemists believed that mercury had power that might prolong life, so they made a compound that emperor could digest

ii. The mercury slowly destroyed his nervous system and brain and died h. Left a legacy - unified nation with a single written language and a system of administration that is still in use today

i. He destroyed valuable records

j. Left behind a government that was so hated by the people that it was overthrown just three years after he died

6. Confucious

a. Alive 551 ~ 479 BCE)

b. Laid down a pattern of thinking that is extremely popular to this day c. Not a religious leader Don't forget about the age old question of everything orgo

d. Did not claim a divine status - he was a pretty ordinary person

e. The family came from the lesser aristocracy

f. Kung Fu-Tzu - means “master Kung” was his actual name

g. Fell out of favor very quickly most likely because of his philosophy h. Restore peace and order

i. The government tried to get rid of him

ii. Never returned to public life after that, and turned to teach

1. All of his students praised him for his teaching

i. Believed that…

i. The best way to improve a human being is through education If you want to learn more check out lossy compression throws away some of the original data during the compression process.

ii. Religious rituals are not absolutely necessary, but if people believe in gods and goddesses then it is relevant to them to attend to rituals

because it brings them a sense of peace

iii. Music and dance are beneficial to human beings - also brings peace and pleasure in a way that does not harm other people

j. Founded Confucianism, a system of philosophical and ethical teachings that is still popularly known to this day

7. Siddhartha

a. Alive 563 ~ 480 BCE

b. The Buddha

i. Born into a wealthy family

ii. Monasticism - a religious practice of giving up worldy pursuits and fully dedicate oneself to spiritual work

c. Founded Buddhism, which became immensely popular at the time and still is to this day

d. The goal is to pain for yourself and for others →

e. → All life is filled with suffering → suffering is caused by desire → suffering is eliminated by eliminating the desire → eliminate desire by following a noble path of moral practices

f. Ethical action

i. Doing something that is honest and not harmful to others

ii. Lead to freedom of desire → a better life

g. Believed in a somewhat Hinduistic cycle of reincarnation

i. Humans will be reincarnated depending on how well you lived your life h. Achieving nirvana

i. Expanded across Asia

j. As it became in contact with other cultures, Buddhism modified

k. You don’t worship the Buddha - you believe in what he taught

l. Can adapt to other philosophical ideas

m. “Won Buddhism”

i. A philosophy willing to support other beliefs as long as they follow some kind of moral compass

ii. Applicable to regular life

iii. A modern form of Buddhism

● Ancient China (I)

○ Neolithic cultures

■ Started where there was a lot of water

■ Yellow river - where the first Chinese civilization started

● The river makes an S bend around the mountains

● A strong wind near the river blowing from west to east, picking up

dust

● The land in the area was soft and powdery - easy to work in

without sophisticated tools

○ Loess fields

● Isolated from anything else in the area

● The farming culture was able to develop without a lot of

interruption

● The area has a lot of flooding - had to learn flood control

○ Archaeologists believe that civilizations that had to deal

with flooding were the most advanced because they had to

deal with irrigation and other complex structures to control

difficult, unavoidable and natural disasters

■ Referred to their country as ___ meaning “middle kingdom” - this kingdom is the middle/center of the world

● Led to a cultural belief that they were the most important place

and had the most advanced civilization and technology

● Even in the 1800s when the Europeans came into China, the

Chinese called them the “hairy barbarians” - because they thought

that the Europeans weren’t civilized and that they were the only

people that were civilized

■ Archaeologists believe that farming happened independently in China because there was no contact with other countries

● Millet

● Wheat

■ Yang Shao (500-2500 BCE)

● In the process of being hunters and gatherers to farmers

● Famous for the pottery they made

○ Used red and black colors - rare

● Used a type of farming that was very inefficient

○ The soil was so powdery and it doesn’t hold the nutrients

○ Went into an area that had a lot of brush and then set it on

fire - used the ash and nitrogen to put into the soil

○ After several years, the nutrients would wash out of the soil

and farming wasn’t successful

○ Deforested the whole area of the fields, changing the

weather by drying out the area etc.

● Don’t have seven building blocks yet

● Built things with mud and woven sticks - wattle and daub

● Had pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs

○ Ate dogs

● Used hunting to supplement the food supply

○ Shows that farming is still inefficient

○ Still the stone age, and used tools that are made out of

stone. But the tools were very well-made

■ Long Shan (2500-1500 BCE)

● Unknown if they have anything to do with Yang Shao

● Pottery that was black

● Used pottery wheels - the walls of their vessels were very thin and well-made

● Grew out of the yellow river valley and moved eastward towards the Pacific ocean (learned to fish), and central and southern China ○ Learned how to use nutrients and became efficient

○ Buildings using rammed turf - complex and strong

■ Resist rainfall better than Adobe

○ Built walls around their villages

■ Indicates that there was warfare with other

civilizations

● Archaeologists have discovered that there are lots of burial sites for people that died young from wounds

● Came to the Red River

○ Learned how to grow rice

○ First to use both rice and wheat for food

● Worshipped their ancestors

● Earliest Chinese culture to practice scapulimancy

○ Wrote questions on a scapula bone and the priests would

come up with an answer

○ Predicting the future

○ The priest would take a hot poker and put it on the bone -

the bone would crack and the priest would come up with

the answer and write it down

○ This gives us a close look at the day to day lives of the

people of this civilization

■ 2000 BC - Chinese civilization emerges with all the seven building blocks ○ Early Dynasties

■ Xia (2005-1787 BCE)

● Developed how to make bronze

● Still used some stone

● Dragon motif appeared in their artwork

○ Symbol of the power of the ruler and the culture that he

ruled

● Developed the earliest generation of the writing system

■ Shang (1784-1050 BCE)

● Earliest Chinese period that there is archaeological and written evidence

● First “historic” period that is provable

● Urban culture

○ Towns were united by a government and a king

○ Had a social structure

○ Had class ranking

○ Farmers lived in small farmlands

○ Others of more importance lived in larger cities, protected

by walls

○ Patrilineal

■ Inheritance ran through the father to the son only

■ Women had little to no rights

● War-like culture

● Advanced in their ability to make bronze

● Worshipped a god called Shang Ti

○ Meaning lord on high

● Worshipped and sacrificed to their ancestors

○ The path between the living and the gods

● Used both animal and human sacrifice - they were pretty

blood-thirsty

● When a king died, royal family members had as many as 300 human sacrifices

○ The sacrificed humans may have been prisoners of war

○ Decapitation

○ Or by dismemberment - yanking limbs off

○ Buried alive

● Shang nobility spent time hunting or in war

○ No organized wars - it was more raiding

○ The nobility were the officers and leaders of the army

○ Footsoldiers may have been slaves

● Most famous for three things

○ 1. Sericulture - manufacture of silk cloth from silkworms

■ A legend that a mythological woman invented the

production of silk from silkworms

○ 2. The use of scapulimancy

○ 3. Development for Chinese style of writing

■ Pictographic - symbol was a picture of something,

giving an idea/indication of what the letter might

mean

○ “Mandate of Heaven” (Chou Dynasty)

■ Attacked multiple times

■ Divided into smaller cities and fought with each other

■ The era of the warring states

■ There can be events that will prove that the gods will take away the mandate of heaven, resulting in disaster among the people

● Rulers will lose the mandate of heaven - in that case, the people

can overthrow the rulers and appoint a new ruler

● Ancient China (II)

○ Split into city-states

○ Sun Tzu (ca. 544-496 BCE)

■ Military strategist

■ Philosopher

■ Author of very famous “Art of War”

■ Thought to be as a legendary - but he really existed

■ His real name is unknown

■ Sun Tzu means “master son”

■ Art of war

● Philosophy and strategy of war

● Tactic: how you win a battle

● Strategy: how you win a war

● How to administer a country

● How to care for your soldiers and the people you fight for

● How to govern and get along with your neighbors

○ First emperor burned a lot of books but the Art of War survived, creating a foundation for orthodox military methods

○ Confucius (551-479 BCE)

■ Laid down a pattern of thinking that is extremely popular to this day ■ Not a religious leader

■ Did not claim a divine status - he was a pretty ordinary person

■ The family came from the lesser aristocracy

■ Kung Fu-Tzu - means “master Kung” was his actual name

■ Fell out of favor very quickly most likely because of his philosophy ■ Restore peace and order

● The government tried to get rid of him

● Never returned to public life after that, and turned to teach

○ All of his students praised him for his teaching

■ Did not write his books himself

● Students took notes and collected together in a book - analects

● Unwavering belief in the improvement and perfectibility of human beings by the process of learning

● The best way to improve a human being is through education

■ Religious rituals are not absolutely necessary, but if people believe in gods and goddesses then it is relevant to them to attend to rituals because it brings them a sense of peace

■ Music and dance are beneficial to human beings - also brings peace and pleasure in a way that does not harm other people

■ About 100 years after his death, one of his followers looked at the writing of his student’s notes and applied it to political theory - Mencius. But very unsuccessful

○ Mencius - Men Tzu (372-289 BCE)

■ Tried to apply Confucianism to political theories but was unsuccessful ■ Based his entire philosophy on the benevolence of humanness ■ Regarded as a potentially dangerous writer

● His writings were burned even though some survived

● Because his ideas were related to social contract - human beings as a society have a contract to work beneficially for and with each other

○ Lao Tzu (319-286 BCE)

■ Taoism

■ Taoist philosophers themselves tell you that Taoism cannot be spoken ■ Along with Confucianism, it is an early stage of Chinese philosophy ■ Looks at different aspects of human culture

■ No concerns for affairs of state of elaborate rituals - instead they said to avoid the public and community participation

■ Behind all material things, there is a process called the Tao or “the way” ● Governs everything

■ Fundamentally not structured / not orderly

■ The world you experience around you is Taoism - therefore it cannot be cataloged because it cannot be predicted in advance

● Taoism is a way to cope with this

■ Anti-authoritarian people often took on Taoism

○ Han Fei Zi (280-233 BCE)

■ Alive at the time of the first emperor

■ Legalism

■ People looked at his views as being evil

■ The first time rulers applied philosophy on their methods of ruling ■ “Fundamentally, humans are evil. They are subject to evil thoughts and desires”

● Completely opposed to the teachings of Confucius

■ “Therefore, the only way to make fundamentally evil human beings better is to create a code of laws that will dictate behavior. The code of law must be emphasized violently so that people will have to follow it”

○ A conflict between Confucianism and Legalism - it was completely opposite of one another

■ ...Human behavior should be based on moral decisions, not the

government telling you what to do

■ Legalism: creating a subculture of content for the law

○ Death of a thousand cuts

■ A convict was brutally mutilated until death

● China (III)

● 3rd century BCE

● China was divided into smaller states which constantly fought each other ● The period is known as the “warring states period”

● Bronze lasts longer than iron

● Qin Shih-Huang-di

○ Source of all life

○ Ordered standarzati9on of various systems of writing, weights and measures, currencies, and simplifications of the record-keeping methods ● The first version of the great wall

● Contour canal - Lingqu canal

○ Built along the level of a contour

● Qin Shih-Huang-di was despotic and tyrannical

● Ruled his new empire with a form of totalitarianism called legalism ○ Rules government every part of every citizen’s daily life; punishments were spelled out in the law code and were very brutal

○ Every aspect of private life was covered by the law

○ Punishments were brutal, usually mutilation of death

○ Eliminated unwanted ideas - burned libraries

■ Anyone who tried to keep the books from being burned was

branded on the face and was forced into brutal labor

■ Scholars were buried alive if they tried to protect their libraries

● First emperor dreamed of immortality

○ Chinese alchemists believed that mercury had power that might prolong life, so they made a compound that emperor could digest

○ The mercury slowly destroyed his nervous system and brain

○ Emperor became aggressive, argumentative and paranoid

○ Kidneys slowly failed

○ Late in his life, he sent a frantic expedition to search for “the elixir of life” to regain his failing health, but he died anyway in the year 210 BCE

○ Before he died, he commanded a construction of a mausoleum near his capital city of Xianyang (modern Xiang)

○ Over 700,000 workers worked to build it - pyramid-shaped earth mound, an underground palace, etc.

○ Buried in his unfinished tomb

○ Left a legacy - unified nation with a single written language and a system of administration that is still in use today

○ Destroyed valuable records

○ Left behind a government that was so hated by the people that it was overthrown just three years after he died

○ Shortest dynasty in all of Chinese history

○ The people destroyed portions of the terracotta army

○ The tomb is contaminated with mercury

● Found 8,000 Terracotta warriors

○ Every face was different

○ Different kinds of soldiers

○ In great detail, from the plates of armor made from jade carefully tied together with wires

○ Found more pits containing terracotta statues of civilian bureaucrats, acrobats, and exotic animals, intended to assist or entertain the first

emperor

● Terracotta warriors represent a government that repressed its people, crushed their ability to be human, and destroyed their access to knowledge

China (IV)

● Han Dynasty (206 BCE-220 CE)

○ The golden age of China

○ Technological advances

○ Became unified after the evils of the ___ Dynasty

○ Overlaps the time of the Roman empire

■ Evidence that they each knew about each other

○ Founded by a peasant Liu Pang who led a rebellion against the Chin Dynasty ■ Became the emperor Gaozu Han

■ Rewarded his followers with gifts of land

○ Returned to the old style of government

■ Around the ideas of Confucius

■ Used it as a way to relate to the people

○ New empirical bureaucracy

■ Upward mobility among the people

■ Anyone who could get an education could pass the exam to get into the bureaucracy

■ Women could get an education - Confucianism believes that women are equal to men

○ Considered to be at its greatest to 140-185 BC

■ Under the rule of the emperor Wu

■ Believed that using Confucianism would bring a good government and a unified and peaceful nation

■ Confucianist law code: there are only a few laws that encouraged people to follow a certain moral code, and did not necessarily dictate or force

them to. (If someone was a Confucianist, they would naturally have

Confucianist characteristics without being forced into it)

○ Government service became important - if you were low on the social pyramid, you wanted to climb it through being of service to the government ○ According to the teaching of Confucianists, merchants were not important because they used money to exchange goods

■ They tended to be looked down by the people in higher rankings ■ Often became rich because China was now maintaining an extensive trade system outside China as well as within their own country

○ Important factors of Chinese economy in this time period:

■ 1. Production of salt - used for food preservation

■ 2. Manufacture of iron - used to make weapons and tools

■ 3. Hard liquor

■ 4. Manufacture of silk

○ First to undertake a census in China

■ Had slightly more than 60 million people

■ 4 cities in China that had a population of a quarter of a million people in each

■ Able to calculate tax income

■ Restructured the local governments

■ Used to unify the people of China into a single coherent system both culturally and ethically

○ Referred to themselves as Han Chinese

○ Set up a new government office that was controlled by The Grand Historian ○ History was better recorded than any other civilization in ancient times ○ Dealing with the nomadic people - pastoralists - was a problem ■ An area that makes up central Asia

■ Violent people and were raiders

■ Caused so much trouble for the Han government under the rule of Wu they started to push the pastoralists far away from China

■ Mongols

■ The Turks

■ Xiong Nu - terribly vicious raiders and fought with great violence ● One of the standards for what makes a soldier good was if they could shoot a center of a target from horseback

■ ...These tribes were all pushed out of China into central Asia ■ Wu organized an army to guard the Western frontier along the great wall and to push the barbarians far away from China as much as possible ■ Like a domino effect, all the barbarians kept going further and further away (westward)

○ The government built a military access road

■ Paved with stone

■ Every few miles there would be a fortress

■ Extended far into the west

■ Connected to other roads and trails

■ Later became the famous Silk Road

● The one route that connects China and the west for a good 1500

years

● Silk was traded for spice and gold/silver with the West

○ The most important metal was silver, not gold

● Opened around 100 BC

● Used to supply military forces and extended Chinese control

● Caravans could stop at the fortresses

● Became a major artery of commerce

● Europeans came to China through the silk road

● Marco Polo - walked all the way across Asia through China, and

stayed for about 20 years and learned about the culture before he

walked back to Italy

○ A brief period of civil war for in the Han period around 10 AD for about 20 years ■ Government was weak

■ People were able to invest in their own armies because the government was not so strong in terms of controlling the country

■ Only blemish in the golden age of China

○ The aristocrats that own the largest amount of land in China became more powerful as the central government became more powerful

■ Had the money to fund their own private army

■ China was destabilized during this period

○ The Han dynasty ended in year 20 AD

■ There would only be a short period of civil war and a new dynasty would arise

● Social pyramid

○ Based on physical labor and mental effort

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