CFD 375C Study Guide: MIDTERM #1
Overview of adolescence:
NO OTHER PERIOD IN THE LIFE SPAN THAT INVOLVES SUCH RAPID AND RADICAL CHANGE EXCEPT THE FIRST THREE YEARS OF LIFE.
Neurological: brain development
*Distinct period in life that bridges childhood and adulthood*
Adolescence is typically an 810year period (we can also have extending adolescence)
Although the onset of puberty is often seen as the beginning of adolescence: THERE IS NO CLEAR BIOLOGICAL MARKER OF THE END OF ADOLESCENCE. (the end of adolescence is very vague.) We also discuss several other topics like What is the additive rule of probability?
The end of adolescence can be seen as the beginning of becoming independent: The capacity to live relatively independently is often seen as signaling the end of adolescence and the beginning of emerging adulthood.
Physical Development :
Involves maturation, height and weight.
The body is preparing the young adolescent for procreation, even though it will be some time before the emotional maturity is in the place necessary to become a parent.
~ 1013 male to impregnate and female to be pregnant.
The Male Body: PEAK AT 13 ½ YEARS OLD
o Increase in penis/testicle size
o Appearance of pubic hair
o Voice Change
o First ejaculation (during sleep, dream aka wet dream,
o Growth Spurt (1113) MAJOR GROWTH SPURT: beginning of puberty to the end . Typically make grows about a foot and puts on about 50 pounds of weight.
o Hair in armpits
o More voice change: 1416 deeper, sometimes does not complete until 17 or 18.
o Growth of facial and chest hair (might see the beginning but all through adolescence to complete the growth.)
FEMALES PEAK ABOUT TWO YEARS BEFORE MALES! We also discuss several other topics like What is the least developed sense at birth?
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The Female Body: PEAK IS EARLIER THAN MALES!
o Around 11 ½ is the height of changes.
o Breasts enlarge OR pubic hair emerges
o Later hair in armpits
o Growth spurt and widening of hips: 9 11 years old
(In order to prepare body for birth)
o Menarche (first period) irregular at first and doesn’t become regular until years later. (~1013)
o Breast fully round later 13/14/15/16/17 before fully
GIRLS THESE DAYS NOT UNUSUAL TO SHOW SIGNS OF PUBERTY AROUND 9.
(unusual at 8)
A FLOOD OF HORMONES TRIGGERS PHYSICAL CHANGES!
Testosterone in males: growth, sexual and aggressive.
*Males also have an increase in estrogen but more in testosterone*
Estradial in females: A type of estrogen associated with breast, uterine and skeletal development.
*Females also have an increase in testosterone but more in estrogen* Stress, eating patterns, family characteristics, weight, exercise, sexual activity, depression can activate or suppress various aspects of hormonal development. Don't forget about the age old question of What punishment can come with a class c misdemeanor?
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∙ Your environment can have an impact on when puberty begins. ∙ Intense exercise can suppress the onset of adolescence, also eating disorders.
∙ Stress can suppress or activate puberty earlier or inhibit it.
Timing and Variations in Puberty:
Children in the US mature up to a year earlier than European children. Onset of puberty in boys can range from 10 13 ½, may end as early as 13 or as late as 17.
915 years is normal for menarche(first period) in girls.
Onset of puberty ~911 girls begin puberty about 2 years earlier than boys. An increasing number of girls are beginning puberty at 8 or 9 years of age.
We don’t know exactly why BUT:
o Obesity is linked to early puberty in girls.
o Fatherlessness is linked to early puberty.
Body Image: (body feels out of control)
Changes more welcomes in boys than girls. If you want to learn more check out How technology is changing the world?
Due to rapid, radical changes adolescents are preoccupied with bodies, can cause anxiety.
In general girls are less happy with changes and have more negative body images than boys do.
Adolescents girls place higher aesthetic value on body image. (for example, to be thin) but have lower satisfaction. Because what our culture promotes as beautiful does NOT correspond to who we are.
Boys associate changes with strength and empowerment.
Higher value on beauty and appearance in becoming a man, Early and Late Maturation:
o DON’T SEEM AND/ OR VERY MANLY
o STAND OUT
o HAVEN’T STARTED PUBERTY
Early maturing boys: perceive themselves more positively and have more positive peer relations than late maturing boys.
Lower on the social hierarchy.
Late maturing boys more at risk for anxiety, depression BUT by their 30s have stronger sense of identity than early maturing boys.
Early maturing girls: are at risk for negative body image.
o Also, at risk for early sexual behavior, substance use, depression (linked to negative body image), delinquency, eating disorder, earlier struggles for independence with parents.
More likely to be teased by boys (links to a negative body image.) Girls who mature late don’t tend to have the negatives that late maturing boys have.
Boys maturing early has a lot of POSITIVES.
Girls maturing early has a lot of NEGATIVES.
1. Blossoming: At around 911 the brain rapidly develops synaptic connections all this new growth happens in brain cells.
2. Pruning: Over the course of adolescence the # of synaptic connections will be greatly reduced. The connections that remain will be based on the adolescence experience.
VULNERABILITY IF NEGATIVE ADOLESCENCE.
3. By the end of adolescence, there will be fewer and more selective neuronal connections, resulting in a more efficient brain.
The emotional center of the brain (LIMBIC SYSTEM) begins to mature early in adolescence as hormones and brain chemicals are activated in puberty.
The result is that more intense, and in some cases, new emotions are experienced (ex. sexual feelings). The amygdala is a core part of the limbic system and is where our strongest emotions originate.
Thinking Brain: (behind eyes and forehead ABOVE limbic system= PREFRONTAL CORTEX): matures later in adolescence and doesn’t fully mature until 2530 years. It allows us to pause, reflect, make thoughtful decisions.
So, during early and middle adolescence there is a limited and inconsistent capacity to regulate emotions, pause, reflect, and make thoughtful decisions. This is especially true when strong emotions are activated. Emotionally based actions
Corpus Callosum: Doesn’t fully develop until age 25.
The connecting fibers between the two hemispheres of the brain thickens during adolescence.
o The result is more efficient processing between the left and right. ∙ LEFT HEMISPHERE: specializes in logic, language,
∙ RIGHT HEMISPHERE: is largely nonverbal,
emotional, holistic, intuitive, creative.
WHEN FIBERS THICKEN, TWO HEMISPHERES
CONNECT BETTER AND CAN FUNCTION BETTER.
Use words to better express emotional experiences which then help regulate emotions better.
Chemicals in the brain:
o Example: Hormones increase and flood brain which activates part of brain especially emotional side of brain. ~1014/15 intense emotions.
Front part of brain matures slower.
EXAMPLE: In a car:
o ENGINE: Emotional brain
o STERRING WHEEL AND BRAKES: Thinking Brain.