Half the info on the exam wasn't in the study guide. Some bullet points weren't completed sentences.
This study guide will cover what will be on exam 2: chapters 5, 6, and 8. You will not need to know about motor development from chapter 5, nonlinguistic symbol and development from chapter 6, and acquisition of academic skills from chapter 8.
- What is the least developed sense at birth?
- Can babies see at birth?
o Yes, they can take in their environment
- At what age does the visual system of an infant reach an almost-adult level? o 6 months
- Is vision important for the learning processes of babies?
o Yes, since this is the main way they take in information when they’re
- What is the “preferential-looking technique”?
o The main way scientists study infant vision
- What happens during the preferential-looking technique?
o An infant is presented with two side-by-side stimuli
o If a baby looks longer at one than the other, then that’s presumed to
be a preference for the thing they’re looking at
Implies the baby can tell the difference between the stimuli
- Define “habituation”.
o When an infant is exposed to a stimulus for long enough that they can
get bored of it
- How does habituation help learning?
o Getting used to a stimulus allows us to focus more on new things, and
lets us learn from them
- How is habituation used in experimentation?
o Scientists let a baby habituate to a stimulus, then show them a new
If the baby can tell the difference between the two, they will look
at the new one because it’s more interesting
Shows that babies prefer new things short-term, but familiar
things long-term We also discuss several other topics like What comprises our linguistic knowledge?
- What is “contrast sensitivity”?
o The ability to tell the difference between things such as light vs dark - Do babies have good contrast sensitivity?
- Name one study that has to do with contrast sensitivity.
o The paddle test
Paddles with multiple different types of black and white patterns shown to babies
Let babies habituate, then showed them another paddle with a
∙ If the babies reacted, then they could tell the difference
- Why is newborns’ vision bad?
o The rods and cones of the eyes are not well developed yet o Irises cannot adapt to fast vision
- What can a newborn see most clearly before their vision develops? o The sight of their mother’s face
- How does a newborn’s vision compare to an adult’s?
o Newborns see at 26 feet what adults see at 600 feet
- Do babies have a preference for colors they see?
o Yes, they prefer bright colors
- At what age can babies track objects smoothly with their vision? o 4 months
- What is “visual scanning”?
o A way newborns take in the environment, which helps them be active
and play a role in their own development
o The idea that objects have a constant size, shape, color, etc., despite
physical differences in the retinal image
o We are born with this knowledge
- What is “object segregation”
o The idea that infants realize early in their lifetime when objects are
separated or unified
- What happens in Spelke’s moving bar study?
o A baby is shown a moving bar moving back and forth behind a block o Sometimes the bar was one bar, sometimes two
o The babies could tell the difference between the two Don't forget about the age old question of How technology is changing the world?
Was tested using habituation to one, then introducing the other - Can newborns see continuous movement?
o No, but infants a little older can
- How does culture affect the development of vision?
o Not a difference in physical development, but visual perception o Eg. Babies in Britain at 7 months will focus on mouths, but babies of
the same age
- How do infants react to depth perception?
o At 1 month old, they blink rapidly in response to things moving closer Don't forget about the age old question of What characteristics define an animal?
or further away from the retina
Called optical expansion
- What causes optical expansion? What is the evidence of this? o Maturation of the visual system
o Babies who are born pre-term develop optical expansion later than
- What is “stereopsis”?
o When the brain uses the information coming from both the left and right retinas to make one whole image
- What is “strabismus”?
o When one eye is a little more inward or outward, making the images
the retina sees uneven
o Can disrupt stereopsis
- At what age do babies use monocular cues?
o 5-7 months
o Also called pictorial cues
- What is “relative size”?
o The idea that if something is larger, we think it’s closer to us, and if it’s
smaller we think it’s further away
- What is “perceptual narrowing”?
o The ability of newborns to discriminate between all the
phonics/phonemes of their languages and all the other ones they hear - Do babies retain this forever?
o No, over time they can only discriminate the phonemes of the Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of fossils?
language they hear the most
- What types of “music” do babies prefer?
o Like hearing the tones/sounds of talk directed at them (baby
o Like consonant intervals over dissonant ones
- What tastes and smells do babies prefer?
o Sweet flavors
o The smell of breast milk
o The smell of the mother’s body odor
- What is the most developed sense at birth?
- How does the way babies learn about things through touch change as they
o At first they explore using their mouths
o Manual exploration starts around 4 months, then gradually takes over - How does usage of habituation affect learning outcomes later in life? o Babies who habituate quicker tend to have higher IQ scores - What is “perceptual learning”?
o The idea that through perceptual experiences, babies can learn more
about the world
- Define “differentiation”.
o Extracting/perceiving relationships that remain constant in a world that
- Define “affordances”.
o What the environment offers a person, which is discovered through
perceptual learning of situations and objects
- How do babies learn classical conditioning?
o They learn to pair unconditioned stimuli/responses with the appropriate
- Describe Carolyn Rovee-Collier’s work with infant memory.
o Attached a ribbon to a baby’s foot which controlled the shaking of a
The baby would kick that foot more often to make the mobile
o Tested the babies’ memories of this after time passed
At 3 months old the babies remembered it for 1 week
At 6 months old the babies remember it for 2 weeks
- What is observational learning/imitation regarding infants? o Babies will mimic the actions of others
Babies will stick their tongues out if they see someone else
o Mirror neurons are likely the reason why they do this
o Infants also mirror people’s intentions
- Can babies visualize objects they can’t see?
- What is the case of Genie Wiley?
o A girl who was found at 13 years old who was severely abused her
Couldn’t speak properly, only could make noises
o Could learn beyond the critical period of language, but could never
learn to develop sentences or learn grammar
o Shows the importance of language development/stimulation in the
- Does one gender develop language faster than the other?
o Yes, girls develop language skills faster
- At what age do kids more-or-less master their language?
o 5 years old
o Still not as complex as adults, but close to it
- Can kids speak language as well as they can comprehend?
o No, usually the opposite
o Comprehension of language develops before speaking does - Define “generativity”.
o The idea that from a finite amount of words and grammatical
structures we can produce an infinite amount of ideas
- What is a phoneme?
o The smallest sound in a language that changes the meaning of a word - How do phonemes relate to language development?
o Learning/developing them is the first step to overall language
- What are morphemes?
o The smallest unit of language that can change the meaning of a word - Define “syntax”.
o The way words are combined
- Define “pragmatics”.
o The customs surrounding language
- What are the requirements for learning language?
o A human brain and a human environment
o Exposure to language
- Can other animals learn some sort of language?
o Not really language, but can learn communication
- Where is language localized in the brain?
o In the left hemisphere
o Sometimes it’s in the right hemisphere for people who are left handed - Why is language localized in the left hemisphere?
o It just seems to be better at handling the timing and tempo of events The right hemisphere handles pitch, however
- What is the critical period for language development?
o A period during which language must be practiced, or it will be very
hard/impossible to learn language afterward
- When is the critical period for language development?
o Between 5 years old and the onset of poverty
- Give an example of a study dealing with the critical period of language
o A study of Chinese and Korean immigrants
Had immigrants of all ages who didn’t know English when they
came to the US take an English proficiency test
The older you were when you came to the US and started to
learn English, the worse you did on it
- What is prosody?
o The characteristic rhythm and intonation of a language
- Can babies tell the difference between speech sounds?
o Yes, they can put them into discrete categories
- What is “word segmentation”?
o The ability to pick apart where word ends, and one begins o It’s hard to do this if you don’t have exposure to “speech streams” - When do babies learn to do this?
o Before they can speak fluently
- What speech regularities do babies use to identify word boundaries? o Stress patterns
o Distribution patterns
o The sound of their own name
- What are the stages of pre-linguistic development? What ages do they occur
at and what do they mean?
Happens at birth
Around 1 month old
Vowel sounds that happen during social interactions with a
Just a string of consonants and vowels
o Patterned speech
End of the first year
Strings of babbles and pseudo-words, made up of phonemes in
the native language
- What is one way to facilitate communicative competence? o Give-and-take games and interactions
- Define “joint-attention”.
o When a baby and the person they’re interacting with are focused on
the same thing
- Define “intersubjectivity”.
o A mutual understanding between the baby and the person they’re
interacting with on what they’re looking at/interacting with
- What do babies’ first words tend to be?
o Mom, dad, or sound effects.
- At what age can babies start to recognize words? At what age does it get to
the level of adults?
o 6 months
o 2 years
- What is the holophrastic period?
o When babies speak a single word, but have a lot more meaning in it
than just the word’s definition
o Eg. “cookie” could really mean “mom, where are the cookies?” - What are overextensions?
o When one word is used in many ways for things like the definition of
o Eg. Ball could really mean balloon, marble, apple, etc.
- How many words can babies produce at 18 months?
- Is the learning of words a growth spurt or continuous?
o Continuous, grows as we get older
- What are some factors that contribute to more rapid word learning? o The object being mentioned is centered in the visual field o The object being mentioned in a specific context
o The object should be presented in the same location every time it’s
- How do children contribute to their own learning?
o Fast mapping
o Pragmatic cues
o Use of the mental exclusivity and whole object assumptions - What is “fast mapping”?
o The idea that kids don’t need a lot of exposure to a word to understand
what it refers to
- What is an example of fast mapping used in an experiment? o The chromium experiment
Kids were told that the color “olive green” was called
They picked it up fast despite never hearing it before
- Define “pragmatic cues”.
o Social cues such as context clue and intentionality
o Generally, cues that pertain to the customs of language
- What happened in the Hart and Risley study? What were the effects of it? o Came up with the idea of the “30 million word gap”
Idea that there’s a gap of 30 million words between children who
grew up in a good socioeconomic status and a bad one
o Changed how we looked at development of people who grew up in
o Made us examine the struggles of how people adapt to the real world - What are issues with the Hard and Risley study?
o Critics think the numbers are exaggerated
o All the lower socioeconomic status families were African American o Replications of the experiment don’t produce the same results o Perpetuates the idea that kids from poorer families don’t have the
same mental capacities/aren’t as smart as kids that aren’t
o Lots of variables could’ve changed the outcomes of the original study - Why did the replications not produce the same results?
o The amount of language children experienced varied depending on
where they were located/their affluence
o The repeated experiment didn’t exactly follow the procedure of the
original, so results could be inaccurate
- At what age can children use grammar to infer what words mean? o 2 to 3 years old
- What is “shape bias”?
o Children understand words that apply to shapes more so than other
words that apply to objects
- Define “syntactic bootstrapping”.
o A way of saying that children use the grammatical structure of a whole
sentence to figure out what a word means
o Kids can use the way words are ordered to tell what words mean - What is “telegraphic speech”?
o Speech that involves more than one word, but unimportant words are
- What are examples of telegraphic speech?
o Missing words like “the”, “and”, “are”, and “is”
o Word endings are missing
- At what age do children really start to use telegraphic speech? o 2 years old
- Are children good at grammar?
o Yes, they learn the rules of grammar and can apply them to words and
expressions they’ve never heard before
- What is the wug test?
o A grammar test which uses made up animals to test kids’ grammar
o Eg. “this is a wug. Now there is another one. There are two of them.
There are two _____”
- Define overregulation.
o The idea that kids will use the rules of regular words on irregular words o Eg. “look at those mans” instead of “look at those men”
- Do caregivers need to fix children’s grammatical mistakes when they’re
o No, if they keep being exposed to language, they should learn to
correct it over time
- What was Vygotsky’s view on children’s language?
o It guides their behavior and helps their learning
o He called it “children’s private language”
- What was Piaget’s view on children’s language?
o Thought language was something that happened as a result of
o Called it “children’s monologues”
- Define “narrative”.
o Description of something that happened in the past
- How does using narratives help language development?
o Get better understandings of stories, which helps people describe their
- At what age can children start to produce narratives?
o Age 5
- How can children describe past events before the age of 5? o Adults can use scaffolding to help them
- What are some later developments of language?
o Increase in ability to sustain a conversation
o Development of meta-linguistic awareness
o Learning meanings of words just by hearing them defined - What are characteristics of Skinner’s theory of language development? o Thought that language didn’t have anything to do with mental
processes and environmental inputs
- What are characteristics of Chomsky’s theory of language development? o Believed language development is facilitated by mental processes o Thought there was a theoretical structure in the brain that gave rise to
all the grammar/language used in the world
- What are critiques of Chomsky’s theory?
o We don’t know if the structure in the brain exists
o Some people think the brain itself doesn’t make language, but the fact
that we all have similar social environments leads to language o Argument that brains are just equipped to learn, not that we have a
specific part to learn language
- When and where was the first IQ test developed?
- Why were IQ tests created?
o It’s an objective way to identify kids that wouldn’t benefit from
standard education (special needs kids)
- What are Charles Spearman’s ideas about intelligence?
o Thought intelligence was just one thing
o Called it “g”
- What are Raymond Cattell’s ideas about intelligence?
o Thought that “g” could be divided into crystallized intelligence and
- What is crystallized intelligence?
o Things you learn as you get older
- What is fluid intelligence?
o Intelligence that has to do with your problem-solving ability - Are crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence the same? o No, they take different paths of development
o Crystallized intelligence grows as you get older, for the rest of your life o Fluid intelligence peaks at 20 years old, then declines
- What are Louis Thurstone’s ideas about intelligence?
o Thought intelligence was split into 7 different abilities
- What is John Carrell’s three-stratum theory of intelligence? o General intelligence gives rise to many different categories of
intelligence, including fluid and crystallized
o These categories of intelligence split into even more specific
- What is Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?
o Three intelligences that are all connected to each other
Creative intelligence: imaginative and innovative problem
Analytical intelligence: academic problem solving and
Practical intelligence: street smarts and common sense
- What is an example of practical intelligence?
o Brazilian orphans who sell things on the street have really good mental math skills, but when doing math on paper using “traditional” methods
they often get the answer wrong
- What Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences?
o Proposes 8-9 different types of intelligence
o Argues against the idea of “g”
o Argues that there are individual parts in the brain that are responsible
for each of these
- What are problems with this theory?
o There isn’t a lot of evidence that specialized parts of the brain exist for
each of these types of intelligence
- Why is Gardner’s theory still liked?
o It draws attention to children’s competency and talents
- What do IQ scores predict?
o Academic achievement
o Job performance
- Why do some people think IQ tests are biased?
o They were developed for and by middle-class white people - What is an argument on why we should continue to use it, despite potential
o People still claim the question of the IQ tests can still account for all
- What are predictors of success besides IQ?
o Practical intelligence
o Role models
- What is “grit”?
o Passion and perseverance for very long-term goals
- Who are especially important role models for children? Why? o Their parents
o Provide an example of how success in certain fields is attainable o “you can’t be it if you can’t see it”
- How does a child’s genetics affect them as they grow?
o The influence of genes happens over time
o The environments you experience as you get older are different than
the one you grew up in, making changes
- What are ways a genotype interacts with the environment? o Passive effects
o Evocative effects
o Active effects
- What is an example of a passive effect?
o Parents who have a particular trait (eg. Love of reading) may read to their child more as a kid because they believe the child will also like
This may cause the child to like reading, reinforcing potential
Only applies to children being raise by their biological parents in
a singular household
- What is the HOME (home observation measurement of environment) scale? o Measure the quality of a child’s home environment
o Used to explain children’s characteristics and behaviors as an outcome
of their environment
- Can a bad environment cause a low IQ?
o Not necessarily
o Parents with a particular genetic inheritance are more likely to make a certain environment due to it, making a lower IQ genetic
- How does schooling relate to IQ?
o The grade you’re in influences IQ
o IQ jumps between grades, but not between ages necessarily o It helps IQ, but isn’t everything
- What societal influences affect IQ?
o The Flynn effect
The name for the fact that IQ scores over the years has
This most likely due to societal pressure to have higher IQs/be
smarter, rather than a genetic change
How many years you spend in poverty affects how your IQ
Countries that have a better safety net for people who make less money don’t have a big correlation between IQ and poverty