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STUDY GUIDE PSY353
What is stress?
o Stress can and does makes us sick.
o Today’s medicine understands the role of stress in many diseases. o Examples of stress related illnesses or disorders:
High Blood Pressure
Stress is subjective for example one person can be stressed about work yet someone else might not be.
Stress: is the thing that throws us out of balance.
Balance is health and what we are hoping for.
∙ Stressor is the thing that throws us out of balance.
∙ Body works hard to get back to balance and that is the stress response.
Allostasis: balance of multiple systems.
Homeostasis: balance of one system.
Fight or Flight:
Run like hell or fight for your life.
Our wonderful nervous system:
Voluntary Nervous System: You decide to stand up and you do. Autonomic Nervous System: Not controlled by you. Major part of how you respond to stress.
TWO PARTS OF THE ANS:
∙ Sympathetic Nervous System: The part that is activated. Ex: pupils dilate, heartbeat accelerates, inhibits flow of saliva (saliva is not needed no need to digest anything), inhibits bladder contraction (not thinking of bathroom).
∙ Parasympathetic Nervous System: The part that is suppressed. Example: Slows Heartbeat, Contracts Bladder.
NOT POSSIBLE TO HAVE BOTH SYSTEMS ACTIVATED AT THE SAME TIME!!!
HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE!
HEART DISEASE #1 KILLER!
LV HYPERTROPHY: Heart is “lopsided” an increased risk for irregular heart beat (or enlarged heart) If you want to learn more check out What is the difference between astrology and astronomy?
GREATEST PREDICTOR OF HEART DISEASE AFTER CONTROLLING FOR AGE!
During stress blood pressure increases. Don't forget about the age old question of What can marketers become?
During stress there is damage occurs to the lining of the arteries.
Cholesterol(animal fat); we used to believe this was the primary risk factor for MI (heart attack)
NOT EVERYONE RELATES TO CHOLESTORAL THE SAME WAY! Examples: vegans can have high blood pressure.
CVA: Cerebral Vascular Accident: STROKE
MI: Myocardial Infaction: HEART ATTACK
Ischemia and Angina: Damaged heart muscle and/or vessels constrict in response to stress hormones.
This causes even less oxygen delivered to the heart.
Myocardial Ischemia: Lack of blood flow and oxygen to the heart. Causes Pain: AMGINA PECTORIS (chest pain) SERIOUS WARNING! SERIOUS WARNING! SERIOUS WARNING! We also discuss several other topics like What is a surfactant and what is its function?
Women and Heart Disease: #1 killer by far.
Personality and Heart Disease: “Type A” perfectionist is a problem when turns those feelings into hostility.
Stress affects your appetite: We also discuss several other topics like What happened to king phillip's war?
Type of stressors key:
Hyperphagia: lowered amounts of food brought into system; ONGOING STRESS! (eat less)
Hyperphagia: FREQUENT, INTERMITTENT STRESSORS! (eat more)
STRESS IS YOUR ENEMY:
Glucocorticoids: Natural inflammatory
IBS Patients: more likely to experience colon contractions in response to stress IBS Patients typically DO NOT experience hypercontraction of their bowels while asleep.
Ulcers: Hole in the wall of ANY ORGAN
In 1983 discovered that a bacteria was responsible for gastritis in most people who develop ulcers.
PROBLE: Everyone has the bacteria only 10% of people get ulcers. Stress is part of the equation.
BACTERIA IS IMPORTANT BUT NECESSARILY INCLUDES INTERATION WITH OTHER FACTORS INCLUDING STRESS>
Stress and Reproduction:
So much stress not being able to reproduce that some couples consider divorce. IBF: Hormones injected, completely stressful.
Under stress, the whole reproductive system is inhibited.
Epinephrine blocks the release of hormone needed for this process. Chronic stress leads to increased levels of cortisol.
Follicular phase: hormones including estrogen build up, leading to ovulation. If you want to learn more check out What is the idea that psychological functioning is related to unconscious psychological processes?
Luteal phase: Progesterone stimulates maturation of uterine walls. Under stress, glucocorticoids inhibit both phases.
Immunity and Stress:
Your immune system is part of your life, directly related to the stress response. Example: After finals you go home in vacations and have all these plans, yet you get there and you’re sick.
Sleep Deprivation makes everything WORSE.
What is immune system attacks itself:
Fibromyalgia If you want to learn more check out Who is the first pr counsel?
LUPUS: Butterfly rash, random attacks, can be life threatening if gets to lungs. FIBROMYALGIA: Inflammatory in nerve endings, extreme pain. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS: Can affect move and feelings.
CELIAC DISEASE: Seems to be triggered by gluten.
*STRESS EXSATRIBATES THE FLARES*
Allostatic Load: “wear and tear” on the body as result of adapting to adverse situations.
o Child Abuse
o Assault / Rape
o Car Accidents
o Natural Disasters
DSMV: For trauma, there are a lot of variation.
Things that people consider traumatic differ from person to person in order for an event to be considered traumatic differ from person to person.
Can happen to them directly
Learning that the event happen to someone close to you.
DOES NOT INCLUDE VIDEO GAMES OR WATCHING A MOVIE WHERE SOMETHING TRAUMATIC HAPPENS.
Can go on for years (can also be very short in duration)
Often includes psychological torment as well. Including blame and terror (example: abuser blamed them for abuse, help them understand that the abuse was not their fault!)
Leads to lifelong effects
Adult relationships suffer!
Perpetrator can be known or stranger
Violation of space
Blame and shame
Interpersonal longterm effects
CONSENT IS THE BOTTOM LINE! NO CONSENT= RAPE!!! NO GRAY AREA!
Types of Trauma: Combat:
Fear and horror
Exhaustion (repeated exposure and can’t escape from it.)
Proximity to trauma:
The more exposure to trauma, the more difficult
Those that saw planes crash into twin towers were more affected than those who dealt with financial loses.
Different from normal coping
Less conscious control over coping.
o Emotional numbing
o More denial, distortion.
Selfblame becomes something we start believing.
Therapy for trauma:
CBT: Cognitive Behavior Therapy
CPT or PE (Prolonged Exposure)
“You’ve suffered long enough its time”
Cumulative Effect: Past trauma is the best predictor in PTSD for future trauma.
PTSD: Larry King: Panel with teacher
Dr. Phil and others were saying that it was PTSD.
Positive: Social Support (talking to someone) helping others seeking that safety relaxation, counseling.
Negative: Selfblame, alcohol/ drugs, denial, isolation.
Self medication: just makes things worse.
Adrenaline: Attempt to feel some rush that was similar to the trauma. “ I feel nothing”
“ I want to feel something”
Violence: opposite of violent, become extremely, some do get in trouble with violence.
PTSD HAS TO INCLUDE A TRAUMA!!! In order for the diagnosis to occur.
The traumatic event is persistently reexperiencing in the following ways Recurrent, involuntary, and intrusive memories
NOT WANTED MEMORIES
NOTE: Children may have frightened dreams without content related to the traumas.
Dissociative Reactions (flashbacks) which may occur on a continuum from brief episodes to complete loss of consciousness
NOTE CHILDREN MAY REANNACT
Intense or prolonged distress after exposure to traumatic reminders.
Anhedonia: lacked pleasure activities, we see this in depression too. Domestic/ Other Violence: PTSD not violent blame/shame inward. NOT VIOLENT PEOPLE!
Two FDA approved medications:SSRI’S
Prolonged Exposure (PE):
Basis for Effect
(If they have distress can’t go to movies/ restaurant exposure.)
Cognitive Processing Therapy:
Basis for effect
EMDR: Eye movement desentization reprocessing
evidence doesn’t show that these work alone, but its added support. art therapy
healing touch/massage therapy
narrative/ theatre therapy