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ONEONTA / OTHER / Psych 240 / What areas are the first myelinate in infancy?

What areas are the first myelinate in infancy?

What areas are the first myelinate in infancy?

Description

School: SUNY Oneonta
Department: OTHER
Course: Intro to Child Development
Professor: Takagi
Term: Spring 2019
Tags:
Cost: 50
Name: Ch 8, 9, 20
Description: Exam 3 material
Uploaded: 03/21/2019
6 Pages 76 Views 2 Unlocks
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  • Allows for quick responses; pivotal when several thoughts must occur in rapid succession(recognizing things, playing games, communicating)
  • White matter = myelinated axons
  • Gray matter = soma, dendrites, axon terminal
  • In infancy, visual + auditory areas are among first to myelinate, followed by sensory motor areas; then in early childhood, brain areas dedicated to memory + reflection myelinate most rapidly
  • Partially responsible for young kid’s ability to retain long - term memories
  • Right brain, left brain, both
  • Lateralization = sidedness of brain + body functions
  • Left side controls right + vice versa
  • Left = logic, detailed analysis, basis language
  • Right = general emotion and creative impulses
  • Corpus callosum = thich band of nerve fibers which allows for communication between right and left hemispheres
  • Grows and myelinates rapidly during this time
  • Several corpus callosa demonstrate brain plasticity(localization)
  • Specific brain regions serve different functions
  • prefrontal cortex = responsible for the executive functions(planning, logic, decision - making, emotion regulation, etc)
  • Perseveration and lack of impulse control demonstrate lack of growth in frontal regions(tantrums, etc)
  • Gets better by 3 -4 years old

We also discuss several other topics like What are the steps of cellular respiration?

Motor development

  • Gross motor skills improve drastically more prone to accidents and injury
  • Fine motor skills = less drastic growth
  • Difficulty w/ pouring drinks, clutting food, art, etc
  • Lack necessary muscular control, patience and judgement for many fine motor skill functions

Avoidance injury

  • Malnutrition =-single biggest killer of children worldwide
  • 45% (World Health Organization 2014)
  • Sans hunger, accidents kill children more than anything else / year
  • Experts stress injury control / harm reduction = the idea that accidents aren’t random and can be prevented with proper control
  • 3 level of prevention
  • Primary (speed bumps, sidewalks, rear camera, etc)
  • secondary (crossing guards, flashing school lights)
  • Tertiary (calling 911, ambulance, rehab, etc)

We also discuss several other topics like What is the greatest contributor of osmolality?

Maltreatment and consequences

  • All intentional harm to anyone under 18 y.o.
  • Child abuse: deliberate action that is harmful physically, emotionally or sexually
  • Child neglect: failure to meet basic needs (2x as likely as abuse)
  • Possible brain damage and other injuries
  • Hinders learning (lack of focus / concentration)
  • Emotional / psychological disturbances (anxiety, PTSD, etc)
  • Impaired social skills (bully, victim, both)

We also discuss several other topics like What is congressional apportionment?

3 levels Maltreatment Prevention

  • Primary prevention
  • Familial and communal efforts to reduce risk of problem occurring
  • Secondary prevention
  • Reported maltreatment(identify problems and necessarily intervene)
  • Tertiary prevention
  • Substantiated maltreatment (foster care or kinship care)
  • Substantiated maltreatment rates decreased

We also discuss several other topics like How do you solve partial fractions?

3/22 chapter 9Don't forget about the age old question of Why did the northern abolitionist movement become more militant by the 1830s?

Early Childhood Cognitive Development

Piaget

  • Sensorimotor → preoperational (2-6 y.o.)
  • Imagination and language flourish
  • Egocentric time
  • Symbolic thought = words refer to things unseen and items symbolize something else
  • Still cannot think logically

If you want to learn more check out What substances activate the immune system?

Obstacles to logical thought

  • Centration = focusing on 1 idea or aspect of something while ignoring others
  • Knowing who DAD is, but DAD is also a husband, brother, etc
  • Focus on appearance = fixate on looks and exclude other attributes
  • Static reasoning = assumption the world is unchanging
  • Irreversibility = failure to recognize something can be undone, or that a process can be reversed to restore what previously existed.
  • Conservation = principle that the amount of a substance can remain the same even when appearance changes (=liquid, different glass)

Lev Vygotsky

Chapter 8

Early Childhood Biosocial Development

 

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