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MU - CHM 242 - Class Notes - Week 8

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MU - CHM 242 - Class Notes - Week 8

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School: Miami University
Department: Chemistry
Course: Organic Chemistry 2
Professor: Richard Taylor
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Organic Chemistry
Name: CHM 242 Week 8
Description: chapter 19 aldehydes and ketones
Uploaded: 03/26/2019
2 Pages 27 Views 21 Unlocks
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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 19 Aldehydes and ketones - atdehydes and keiones both contain carbonyl (C=C) group carbonyl group R3 alderde verene Namen Ciature - Aldenydes 1. Identity and name parent chain - for albehydes replace e with all ulane - make sure that parent chain contains carbonul carbon - nur bering carbony! group of aldenye chane i takes prichly cwer other groups bulanco hexonal Nomenclature - Ketones 1. Identity and name parent chain - for tetones, replace e with oce - Tocant is exoessed before furent name bul nene or suitix -numbering carbonyl group of ketone ! 3 trepanone takes pridry Cuer d'her groups heptan-3one Preparaton of Aldehydes 3 Ways: 1. Oxidation of primary alcohols usino Pecich.v) 02 nec primary alcohol oxidieed R ehte H 2. Ozonglysis of Axenes (Ch.8) orice to form aidehyde cleans C=C pond, it cither bears Qideny de is ton formed 3. Huoroooration - Oxidation of Termine! Aleynes (Ch.9) ana Markovnikov addition B CF 10 aCIOSS TT cond, 2102, Rabu followed bus tautomeritation DRB-HPreparation of Kelines -4 mair ways: 1. Oxidation of serundary alcohols (ch.12) 0H Naz OrzOn strong/mild oxidizha agents can oxidice secondary RAHS6.520 KR dcinos 1. Otomolysis of alkenes (ch.) fetusuosituted alkenes B 03 R a re Oleaved to form Ketones R R 216MSR 3. Picid-Catolyzed Hydration of Termina! Alkynes (ch.) Markownikou addition of H2O HO SOU GOESS TT bond, then Collowers by kulomenzahun 4. tedel Cratis Aculation (Ch.18) Orari hos no sireno de pared) Teow Ocio Ald3 halde in presserte i Lew's Tid to from any Chroduction tu Nesclephilic Addition ketone in nucleophilic add for reactions, carbon of carbonyl ac's as electrophile 3 Reasons : - resonance, induction, and stories leasier ic chack sple than spc) - which is better eleticphile: kefore or aldenude? electronics aldendzony one ketone: 2 elechon Sen Bonim oloup Sonering Cups is stabilize - Things to consider - S oHacking nudeophile weak or shong? - il strengthen addition occurs - if weat can we enhance reaction? - is oftacking nudlechile a good leaving group? does this affect reaction?Strong Attacking Nucleophile - if n eophle is strong enough to attack and NOT a good leaving group, then fuit ADDITION will occur intermediale carries negative charge picks up proton to become more Stable - Stoong nuclecchies > Grigoard reagents, other carbon nuelesphies, hydrogen Delivy agents Lait and No BH) creation pothway usuall under basic conditions nudephilic attack proion transfer ruce se > We weak Attockino Nucieophile "maice carourut more electroprilis - w/weak nudeoprie, prestence of acid will make carbon more attractive te nucleophie su full additton will occur very power electrophile proton amster nude philic Occally od pony - Uttack on - Tupes of Nucleophiles seugen sulfur mihogen bidrogen carbon R. MOBO 1- Ph-PC Oxygen Nuclepniles - reaction of carbonyl w/ water produces hudcate - o enrande reaction, odd either acid or base 120 Base catalyzed rochichirives use of hydroxide - we make water is strong nucleophile nucleophilic hack on transfer hydrate hydrate

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