1. What role does protein play in body functioning?
a. Builds new tissue and maintains old tissue
b. Acts as a functional unit for enzymes, hormones and antibodies
c. Fluid and electrolyte balance
e. Transport of other substances
f. Blood clotting, or coagulation
2. The DRI recommended intake of protein is ____ grams per kilogram of body weight. About ___% of calories, but will vary on lifestyle. Athletes may need slightly more protein, around ___ grams per kilogram
a. .8, 10, 1
3. What are the essential amino acids?
4. Describe how proteins are formed from amino acids.
a. An amine group will link with the acidic end of the next amino acid. Amino acids with electrically charged sides will be attracted to water, while amino acids with neutral side chains will be repelled by water. Proteins will form with convoluted shapes
5. What are the 4 levels of a protein structure?
a. Primary: amino acid chain, order in which amino acids are linked to one another b. Secondary: amino acid chains will coil into alpha helices and beta sheets, as side chains variously attract and repel each other
c. Tertiary: Folding of the coil. The protein will now be functional as is, or will need to join to another protein to become functional
d. Quaternary: two or more folded proteins that will join and form a globular protein 6. Protein denaturation is caused by ______, ______, _____ , ______, and _____ a. Heat, acid, salts, bases, alcohol If you want to learn more check out What is linear interpolation?
7. Describe how protein is digested within the body.
a. Protein is first digested within the stomach as stomach acid denatures protein strands into polypeptides and into a few amino acids. After the stomach the small intestine continues digestion as enzymes from the pancreas split polypeptide strands into tripeptides, dipeptides and amino acids - amino acids can be absorbed here. Enzymes on the surface of the small intestine must breakdown
tripeptides and dipeptides, so that intestinal cells can absorb amino acids and transfer them to the bloodstream Don't forget about the age old question of What are the capital gains and losses for non-depreciated assets?
8. Amino acids will be delivered to the ____ and will either be used there or released into the ____ and taken to other cells. Cells use amino acids to make ____ for their own use or to be released into the blood and into the _____. Body cells can also use amino acids for ____.
a. Liver, blood, proteins, lymph, energy
9. What are some effects of protein deficiency within the body?
a. Marasmus: due to chronic inadequate food intake that does not provide enough energy, vitamins, minerals, and proteins. People with marasmus tend to be very lean and shriveled. Often times characterized by extreme loss of muscle and fat. Don't forget about the age old question of What is the medium of exchange?
b. Kwashiorkor: caused by too little protein to support body functions. Symptoms include a swollen belly, skin rash, edema, and enlarged liver
10. What occurs if there is not adequate amounts of essential amino acids within one’s diet? a. Protein synthesis within the body can be slowed
11. What is a “complete protein”?
a. A food that contains all 9 essential amino acids.
b. Most plant foods are not complete proteins, except for legumes (like soybeans) 12. Describe what complementary proteins are.
a. Two or more foods whose amino acid assortments complement each other in way that essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other 13. What are the benefits and challenges associated with a vegetarian diet? a. Benefits: strong links with reduced incidences of chronic disease, less obesity, defense against some cancers, less heart disease, less high blood pressure, may help prevent certain diseases (diabetes, osteoporosis, diverticular (colon) diseases, gallstones, rheumatoid arthritis) If you want to learn more check out Define lenz's law.
If you want to learn more check out Why productivity is so important?
b. Challenges: meat provides abundant iron, zinc, and vitamin B12 needed in particular for pregnant women, children, and adolescents. Vegetarian diets typically lack these nutrients in addition to calcium, omega-3 fatty acids, and vitamin D.
14. How might vegetarian diets be more environmentally friendly?
a. The meat industry is responsible for more greenhouse gas emission b. Raising livestock leads to water and land degradation due to overgrazing and waste products in the environment
c. Growing corn for feed leads to monoculture, and less land for growing fruits and vegetables
15. What are some of the consequences of a diet with excess protein? a. Often associated with obesity and accompanying health risks
i. Animal protein sources can be high in saturated fats, a known contributor to atherosclerosis and heart disease Don't forget about the age old question of Define nucleophile.
b. Although not fully empirically supported, high protein accompanied by low levels of calcium, fruits, and vegetables may lead to accelerated bone loss in adults c. Correlation with a higher risk of hip fractures in some populations
d. Animals fed experimentally high protein diets often develop enlarged kidneys and livers
e. May worsen existing kidney problems in humans
f. On the positive side, high protein diets force the body to use protein for energy and decrease calorie intake, but research is still ongoing about the positive effects of high protein diets - it is best to stick to a balanced diet
1. Outline total energy expenditure
a. Total energy expenditure = basal metabolic rate + physical activity energy expenditure + thermic effect of food
b. Can vary appreciably between individuals and within individuals over time 2. What constitutes the energy balance equation? What does each component comprise of?
a. Energy budget = energy in - energy out
i. Energy in: the food and drink we intake
1. Major sources of energy (carbohydrates 4 kcal/g, proteins 4
kcal/g, fats 9 kcal/g, and alcohol 7 kcal/g)
2. Measured by energy density of food
ii. Energy out: the energy we “spend” which can vary widely based on lifestyle and metabolism
1. Measured by total energy expenditure that consists of:
a. Physical activity energy expenditure - typically accounts for
25-50% of overall energy expenditure
b. Basal metabolic rate - typically accounts for 50-65% of
overall energy expenditure
c. Thermic effect of food - accounts for about 5-10% of
overall energy expenditure
3. How is Basal Metabolic rate calculated?
4. What is BMI?
a. BMI is the body mass index calculated by dividing an individual’s weight in pounds by their height in inches².
b. The general guidelines for BMI are
i. Underweight: <18.5
ii. Normal: 18.5-25
iii. Overweight: >25
iv. Obese: >30
5. What is the drawback to measuring BMI?
a. It does not measure amount or location of fat
6. What is the difference between fat mass and fat free mass?
a. Fat free mass: includes most vital cells and tissue within the body. Specifically organs, muscle, bone, connective tissue, and water
b. Fat mass: includes essential fats that contribute to body functions, and non essential or excess fat
7. What are some methods that can be used to determine percent body fat? a. Waist circumference: method in determining amount of intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Often compared to hip circumference, as abdomen to hip ratios over .85 represent a centralized distribution of fat b. Skin fold: used to characterize subcutaneous fat thickness on various points of the body. Often have limited use for overweight or obese individuals since the calipers can only measure to a certain limit. Useful in tracking changes in skin thickness
c. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry: quantifies fat, lean tissue, and bone within body
d. Underwater weighing: estimation of body composition through measuring body, weight, body volume, and residual lung volume.
e. Bioelectrical Impedance analysis: analyzes the composition of total body water, fat free mass and fat mass through measure of the body’s resistance against a small electrical current
8. Compare android and gynoid body shapes.
a. Gynoid body shapes typically accumulate fat in the hips, butt, and thigh regions subcutaneously. Generally in females
b. Android body shapes accumulate fat in the central abdomen region. Typically is stored viscerally and poses a greater risk to health as it may surround vital organs and contribute more greatly to obesity related diseases.
9. What are some of the environmental contributors to obesity?
a. Availability to food
b. Large portions
e. Physical inactivity
10. What are the components to a successful weight loss program?
a. Food: Appropriate calorie intake , avoiding portion sizes: reading labels and choosing low energy density foods, meal spacing: snacking, identifying calorie excesses, possible use of non-nutritive sweeteners
b. Physical activity: physical activity contributes to satiation effect, development of lean tissue, reduction of bone loss, reducing stress
c. Behavior modification: eliminating inappropriate eating activities, repetition of good/desirable activity behavior, changing thought process, keeping a food/activity diary
11. What are the risks associated with alternative treatments to obesity? a. Obesity medications: can be over the counter and prescriptions. May be adversely effective as the effects may only be temporary
b. Obesity surgery: used in cases in extreme obesity. Adverse effects include that it is not 100% cure as weight regain may occur over a few years, and surgery may have complications
12. List and describe the three most common eating disorders.
a. Anorexia Nervosa: self starvation due to a false perception of body weight. Can cause major physical and psychological problems. Treatment includes restoration of healthy eating patterns, family therapy, prevention of relapse, psycho
education on eating patterns, identification of dysfunctional thoughts and beliefs b. Bulimia Nervosa: a more widespread disorder than anorexia nervosa, that includes binge eating and purging through vomiting, use of
laxatives/diuretics/enemas. Typically will have normal weights and will realize what they are doing. Treatment are the same as treating anorexia nervosa c. Binge eating disorder: involves consuming a large amount of food in a short period of time accompanied by loss of self control and feelings of distress, and followed by periods of starvation. Often results in overweight individuals, but individuals are often more open to treatment.
13. What are eating orders in athletes?
a. Eating disorders often emerge in athletes when they are at a young age, have great pressure to excel, and have to fit into certain weight guidelines. Will occur in both males and females.
14. What is the female athlete triad?
a. The result of three medical problems due that begins with an eating disorder (including restrictive dieting, over exercising, weight loss, and deficient body fat) that can cause amenorrhea or the diminishing of hormones, which may then lead to osteoporosis due to a loss of calcium within bones
15. What are the questions involved in fad diets?
b. Nutrition: use of recommended supplements
d. Success of fad diet industry relies on failure of dieters
16. What are some of the theories associated with obesity that come from within the body? a. Set point theory: individual’s weight will stay within a small range, long term changes to diet and physical activity change this set point
b. Genetics and epigenetics: can influence tendency to gain weight/stay lean c. Thermogenesis and BAT: maintenance of body temperature and brown adipose tissue
d. Gut microbiome and dysbiosis: maintenance of normal gut flora, dysbiosis (imbalance of these gut flora) may cause obesity
17. What are some hormones related to hunger and satiety?
a. Hunger - Ghrelin: from the stomach that targets the hypothalamus to signal hunger by signaling the body to increase energy intake and oppose weight loss b. Satiety - Leptin: adipokine hormone that targets the hypothalamus to reduce food intake and increase energy expenditure. Opposes weight gain.
1. How is obesity defined?
a. A BMI (body mass index) greater than 30
2. What are some causes correlated to obesity?
a. Unhealthy diet mostly; but can include family history, lack of physical activity, old age (typically over 60), and smoking
3. What are the major diseases related to obesity, that often increase in risk? a. Stroke, diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, gallbladder stones, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, cirrhosis, and cancer
4. Risks from central, or visceral fat, relate to increase in ______ _______ like insulin resistance, free fatty acids, and _______.
a. Metabolic syndromes, inflammation
5. What is the ideal body fat percentage in men and women?
a. Men: 12-20%
b. Women: 20-30%
6. List the risks associated too little and too much body fat.
a. Too little body fat: may result in frequent hospital stays, wasting disease, and risk of heart disease
b. Too much body fat: often results in chronic diseases and possible loss of life
1. What are the 4 characteristics of Vitamins?
b. Non-energy yielding
2. How was the nomenclature of nutrients determined?
a. Order of discovery
3. What are the 2 classifications of vitamins?
a. Water soluble
b. Fat soluble
4. What are the fat soluble vitamins? What are some of their characteristics? a. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are fat soluble
b. General characteristics: absorbed like fats (first into lymph than into blood), must travel with protein carriers, stored in liver or fatty tissues, tend to build up in tissue - not easily excreted, needed in periodic doses, require bile juice for absorption
5. What are the water soluble vitamins? What are some of their characteristics? a. Vitamins B and C are water soluble
b. General characteristics: absorbed directly into the blood, not stored in the body - readily excreted, needed in frequent doses
6. What are the vitamins that can be synthesized in the body?
a. Niacin: requires tryptophan for synthesis, and depends on adequate protein status
b. Vitamin D: synthesized in skin. Requires sunlight and cholesterol precursor c. Vitamin K and Biotin: Synthesized by bacteria in our gut
7. Describe what bioavailability.
a. Efficiency of nutrients that is absorbed, utilized, and retained. Amount of nutrient that can actually be used by our bodies
8. What factors affect bioavailability?
a. Presence of non-nutritive factors
b. Form within food
c. Food processing
d. Interaction with other components
e. Medical states
g. Temperature during storage
h. Cooking method
i. Sensitivity to destruction
j. Vitamin mineral interaction (vitamin c and iron)
k. Mineral mineral interactions (iron, zinc, and copper)
9. Beriberi is caused from _______ deficiency due to polishing of rice. Symptoms include _________________________________________.
a. Thiamine, mental confusion, memory loss, jerky movements
10. Pellagra is a _______ related disease from a ____ based diet. Symptoms include ____________________________________________________.
a. Niacin, corn, dermatitis, diarrhea, dementia, or death
11. Scurvy is lack of _______ _____ from low intake of ____ and ____. Symptoms include ___________________________
a. Ascorbic acid, fruits, vegetables, bleeding gums, anemia, poor growth, infection 12. What are the main functions of Vitamin A?
a. Eyesight (maintenance of healthy cornea, light perception at the retina) , differentiation (maintenance of skin and tissue linings), immunity, bone growth 13. Define xerosis and xerophthalmia.
a. Xerosis: dry cornea due to keratin buildup when vitamin A is lacking b. Xerophthalmia: blindness due to keratin buildup when vitamin A is lacking 14. What is Vitamin A’s precursor?
a. Beta-carotene, a strong antioxidant
15. What are the main functions of Vitamin D?
a. Bone integrity, by Ca metabolism
16. Describe what occurs with Vitamin D deficiency.
a. Bones will become poorly mineralized
17. What are the main functions of Vitamin E?
a. Antioxidant, protect cell membrane, enhance immune response
18. Vitamin E deficiency is ____ in the U.S, but can cause ___ ____ and ___ ____, __________, and ______
a. Rare, RBC rupture, infant anemia, heart disease, and cancer
19. Radicals are…
a. A molecule with unpaired electrons that can cause damage to body structures 20. Explain some of the damages caused by free radicals
a. Destroy lipids in cell membrane causing cell lysis
b. Inactivation and degradation of proteins
c. Damage or alteration of DNA sequence and gene function
21. What are the substances that help to remove free radicals from the body? a. B- carotene, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Selenium, Zinc, copper, phytochemicals 22. What is the main function of Vitamin K within the body
a. Blood clotting
23. Who is at risk for Vitamin K deficiency
a. Infants, often given injection at birth
24. Main functions of Vitamin C include:
a. Collagen synthesis, and antioxidant
25. Function of B Vitamins
a. Coenzymes, normal energy production pathways
26. What are the 8 B vitamins?
d. Pantothenic acid
27. Folate is the _____ or complex form of vitamin B9 and typically about ____% of it can be absorbed by the body. The synthetic form of B9, _____ is the simple form that has better ________ - often added by ____ _____ or within ___ ___
a. Natural, 50, folic acid, bioavailability, food fortification, natural supplements 28. What is the role of folate within the body?
a. Normal development of the neural tube
b. Nucleic acid synthesis
c. Amino acid metabolism (homocysteine to methionine)
29. What is the main symptom seen with folate deficiency? What are some other symptoms that may be seen?
a. Main symptom: neural tube defects
b. Others: anemia, abnormal digestive function, cancer, cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer’s disease
30. Vitamine B12, or _______ plays an important role in maintaining ______. It also is a part of coenzymes needed for ____ ____ ____ ______. Deficiency can cause ____ _____ or ____ _____ ___ ____
a. Cobalamin, nerves, new blood cell synthesis, damaged nerves, immature red blood cells
31. Describe what anemia is.
a. Anemia is deficiency of folate and vitamin B12 that lead to a deficiency in iron. These deficiencies cause an inability to carry enough oxygen within the blood. Symptoms often include tiredness, fatigue, or inability to do work
32. What is the role of vitamin B6, or pyridoxine, within the body?
a. B6 plays a role in over 100 functions within the body, however, its main functions include:
i. Converting amino acids into other amino acids (especially in regards to non-essential amino acids)
ii. Converting tryptophan to niacin
iii. Synthesizing hemoglobin and neurotransmitters (like serotonin)
iv. Assists to release glucose from glycogen
Minerals and Water:
1. Water is and essential, ________ nutrient that composes about ___% of the human body. Balance within the body is affected by ____, ____, and ____
a. Non-caloric, 60, gender, age, obesity
2. What are the functions of water?
a. Transport nutrients within the body, act as a solvent for nutrients, cleansing agent, medium for chemical reactions, lubricant and cushion for organs, and a coolant in temperature regulation
3. The DRI recommended intake for water is ___ cups for men and ____ cups for women. Individual needs may vary due to ____, _____, _____, etc.
a. 13, 9, humidity, altitude, activity level
4. What are the sources of water input? Output?
a. Water intake: food, drink, metabolism
b. Water output: feces, urine, evaporation
5. What are the characteristics associated with minerals?
c. Non energy yielding
e. May be toxic at high levels
6. _____ and ____ are the most abundant minerals in the body.
a. calcium , phosphorus
7. What role does calcium play in the body?
a. Main function is to be an Integral part of bones and teeth.
i. Bones acts as a reservoir for calcium
b. The smaller function calcium plays is a biological mediator in body fluids i. Nervous system, blood pressure, blood clotting, muscle contraction, hormone secretion, metabolism
8. Which hormones and structures work to maintain healthy levels of calcium? a. Hormones: vitamin D, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and calcitonin
b. Tissues: bone, intestine, kidneys
9. Osteoporosis is caused by inadequate intake of ____ and _____ which can cause ___ ____
a. Calcium, vitamin D, bone loss
10. What is the function of sodium? What are some good sources of sodium? a. Functions: electrolyte balance, major extracellular cation, acid-base balance, muscle contraction, nerve transmission
b. Sources: unprocessed foods, processed foods, salts
11. What are the health risks associated with overconsumption of sodium? a. High blood pressure
b. Cardiovascular heart disease
12. Fluoride helps to prevent ____ ____ and helps to stabilize ___. Some sources of fluoride include ____ and _____. Toxicity causes ____
a. Tooth decay, bone, fluoridated water, toothpaste, fluorosis
13. The major intracellular cation is ______. This mineral functions in ____ and ____ balance, and in _____ contraction. Deficiency may lead to _____
a. Potassium, fluid, electrolyte, muscle, hypertension
14. What is the major anion in our body fluids?
15. Describe iron
a. Major component of hemoglobin and myoglobin (transporting oxygen in blood muscles) and is a common cofactor for enzymes. Functions as a prooxidant as it is easily oxidized, although it can be very toxic at high levels.
16. What are the types of the iron that can be utilized by the body?
a. Heme iron: derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in meat, that has an 18-25% absorption rate
b. Non-heme iron: derived mainly from cereals, legumes, fruits, and vegetables. Has a less than 5% absorption rate
17. List the factors that affect iron absorption
a. Vitamin C
b. Meat protein factor
18. Iron deficiency anemia is the major micronutrient deficiency amongst populations. Primarily in ____ , ____, and ______________. Often causes _____ _____ _____. a. Infants, children, women during reproductive years, digestive tract problems 19. What is the biological function of iodine?
a. Energy metabolism
20. List and describe the syndromes caused by iron deficiency.
a. Goiter: abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland
b. Cretinism: abnormal functioning of the thyroid gland in children
1. Diabetes is a group of ______ diseases characterized by high blood _____ levels over a prolonged period. Often cause ___ ____, increased thirst, increased hunger, impaired ____ ______, and blurred vision. Caused by a defect in ______ secretion or action a. Metabolic, sugar, frequent urination, wound healing, insulin
2. What are the common risk factors for diabetes?
a. Family history
b. Race or ethnicity
c. Age, typically over 45 years
e. Elevated triglycerides
f. Low HDL
3. What are the major health risks caused by diabetes?
a. Cardiovascular disease: high blood pressure can result in greater resistance to insulin. Increase in LDLs can contribute to clogged arteries, known as
b. Can affect kidneys, eyes and nervous system
e. Urinary infection
f. Coronary heart disease
4. Differentiate between type 1 and type 1 diabetes.
a. Type 1: often diagnosed in children and young adults. Occurs when beta-cells of the pancreas do not produce enough insulin. A autoimmune response often affected by heredity. About 5-10% of diabetes cases. Treatment: insulin
replacement therapy and dietary management
b. Type 2: non-insulin dependent disorder often characterized by a resistance to insulin, the pancreas will still produce insulin but the body does not have a response to it. Often caused by obesity, lack of exercise, and an improper diet. 90-95% cases of diabetes that occurs later in life. Treatment: exercise and a proper diet limit effects
5. What is the process of insulin regulating glucose intake by cells?
a. Insulin will bind to an insulin receptor to activate it
b. Activation of the receptor causes a downstream signal transduction cascade c. GLUT-4 can now translocate to the plasma membrane
d. Glucose can now enter cell through GLUT-4
6. Describe insulin resistance.
a. Insulin receptors will be activated by insulin binding however there is defect in signaling the GLUT-4 channels to open, causing diminished glucose uptake into cell
7. Obesity associated changes affect secretion of _____ that modulate insulin signaling a. cytokines