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UB / Biomed Engr/Joint / BIO 201LLB / What are the 3 types of cytoskeleton molecules?

What are the 3 types of cytoskeleton molecules?

What are the 3 types of cytoskeleton molecules?

Description

School: University at Buffalo
Department: Biomed Engr/Joint
Course: Cell Biology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: Biology
Cost: 50
Name: BIO 201
Description: Study Guides for Exam 2
Uploaded: 03/31/2019
3 Pages 36 Views 1 Unlocks
Reviews

Elywn Hammond (Rating: )

It would be better typed



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"}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7 0}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8 0}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3 0}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-4 0}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0,upper-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-2 0}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1 0}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-6 0}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5 0}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-8,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6 0}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-0 0}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7 0}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-0 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8 0}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-5 0}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-5 0}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2 0}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1 0}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-4}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4 0}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-2}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4 0}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0 0}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3 0}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6 0}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0 0}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7 0}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-2,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1 0}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-1,lower-latin) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2 0}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-1 0}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2 0}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-6}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1 0}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-5 0}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5,lower-roman) ". "}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0 0}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-8 0}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3 0}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6,decimal) ". "}ol.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-7 0}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-6 0}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-5 0}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-8 > li:before{content:"- "}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-8 0}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-5{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3}ol.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0 0}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-0}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-2,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-6}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-0}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-7,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-3 > li:before{content:"● "}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_js11jwho5r5h-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-6{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-2 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-2}.lst-kix_ailmz7dcz1i2-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-4 0}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-7 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-6 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-4 0}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-7 0}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-7 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-7}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-7{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-2 0}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-4 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-4{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-3 0}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-6 0}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-4 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-8}.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-3 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_1ej1gshxanxq-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-5 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-0 > li:before{content:"● "}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-1 0}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-4}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8 0}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_a15wbjvlfywp-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_ey3knqncahd0-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-7 0}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-5}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7 0}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-3 0}.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-8 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-1}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-7}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-0,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_sd0nre1ce0rw-0 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-3}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-8 0}ol.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8 0}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-4,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-6 0}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-2 0}.lst-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_iqgqdakx3su-8,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-3 0}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-5 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_th9abuxnuqda-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-7}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-3 0}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-0 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-8 > li:before{content:"■ "}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-2{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-0 0}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-0{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_j5df9778gasm-1 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-4 > li:before{content:"○ "}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_unqgpolc3301-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-8{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5,lower-roman) ". "}ol.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-0 0}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4,lower-latin) ". "}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-4{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-5 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-5,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-7 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-7}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-6{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5 0}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-5{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_f93dpp1j8x76-7{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-6 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-5}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-0{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-6 0}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-1 0}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-5}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-2 > li:before{content:"■ "}.lst-kix_fgc5y0qj334s-6 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-0,decimal) ". "}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-1{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-3{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_evi33flvstdh-2{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_txzc662cz0ay-3 > li:before{content:"● "}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-3 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-0{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-1{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-1 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_p8e3lagw3q7t-5 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-4{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-5{list-style-type:none}ol.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-4 0}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-2{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-3{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_8a6bshdt1s2o-7 > li:before{content:"- "}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-8{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-6{list-style-type:none}ul.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-7{list-style-type:none}.lst-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_fl90itu5jdqz-3}ol.lst-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_4dmuo72hftrg-2 0}ol.lst-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5.start{counter-reset:lst-ctn-kix_7iv3p02xowip-5 0}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-3,decimal) ". "}.lst-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_wcmr5z4koszj-8,lower-roman) ". "}.lst-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1 > li:before{content:"" counter(lst-ctn-kix_7nafcy4ttym4-1,lower-latin) ". "}.lst-kix_nyojt8nbeth-2 > li:before{content:"- "}.lst-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6 > li{counter-increment:lst-ctn-kix_hc9rxbqnaa9j-6}

Lecture 2 : Cytoskeleton: Molecular Motors.We also discuss several other topics like How can we use a chi square?

3 types of cytoskeleton molecules

  1. Microtubules - hollow, rigid tubes
  • X - and  - tubulin subunits form dimers
  • MTs are multimers of a - dimers
  • Polymerization requires GTP
  • Polar, plus end favor polymerization
  • Minus end less favor polymerization

MT polymerization / depolymerization cycle

  1. GTP binds to free tubulin dimers
  2. CTP - bound tubulin: polymerization favored
  3. Tubulin catalysis reaction GTP → GDP = Pi
  4. Tubulin now bound to GDP. depolymerization favored
  1. Tubulin itself catalyzes hydrolysis of GTP(GTPase)
  • Centrosome made of centriolar MTs + other proteins
  • Microtubules organizing center in plants + animals.
  • Nucleatis new MTs and anchors + organizes MTs
  • Organizes mitotic spindle in dividing cells
  • MT arrangement
  • Plus end towards plasma membrane.
  • Minus end towards nucleus

     B. Actin  - flexible, thin / fiber

  • G - actin monomer
  • Polymerization requires ATP
  • F - actin also polar
  • Plus end: polymerization
  • Minus end: polymerization

  • Actin polymerization
  1. Actin distribute randomly in cytoplasm
  2. Alignment of actin filament in signal + end → plasma membrane
  3. Polymerization at + end causes membrane to produce

If you want to learn more check out How can we test the role of parasites in fitness of cliff swallows?
If you want to learn more check out What refers to a clear, colorless fluid that originates as extracellular fluid drawn into lymphatic capillaries?

Motor Proteins

  • Vesicles move along microtubules.
  • anterograde : away from the cell body / nucleus(+)
  • Retrograde: towards the cell body / nucleus(-)

  • Gliding assay
  1. Purify proteins from neurons
  2. Glue them to surface of a glass slide.
  3. Add fluorescently labeled MTs.
  4. Add ATP
  • Myosin pulls actin as heads “walk” towards actin plus(+) ends leading to contraction
  • Myosis: variation on theme of kinesis
  • Similarities                                -differences

2 head groups + a tail                myosis is an actin motorIf you want to learn more check out What maintains constant angular velocity no matter the torque?

Requires ATP                        ATP binding require for release of

myosis from actin filament.

Lecture 12: membraneDon't forget about the age old question of What is marginal propensity to consume (mpc)?

We also discuss several other topics like What are the trait approaches to personality?

Fluid mosaic model.

  1. Membrane Amphipathic - hydrophobic regions of lipids + proteins are buried w/ hydrophilic regions on the surface.
  2. Membrane Asymmetry - lipids, protein, and carbohydrates are asymmetrically arranged in the membrane.
  3. Membrane Fluidity - lipid bilayer is fluid

Membrane fluidity.

  1. Unlabeled cell →
  2. Label lipid or protein with fluorescent dye -->
  3. Bleached spot with laser →
  4. Unbleached protein or lipids diffuse + fill in spot

Fatty acids → high Tm( ridge) , low Tm( flexible)

Membrane → less fluid(ridge) , more fluid(bent)

Better at high temp                better at low temp

  • Cholesterol membrane antifreeze
  • High temp: cholesterol high tm dominates.
  • ↑ Tm at high temp
  • Low temp: cholesterol inhibit phospholipid tail
  • Lowerrs tm at low temp.
  • Incomplete recovery during FRAP
  • Fluorescently label → bleach area → most area fill in quickly, few patches.
  • Non - recovering area = lipid rafts
  • More saturated phospholipids.
  • Longer - chain phospholipids.
  • Very high cholesterol.
  • Specialized high tm phospholipids.
  • Low fluidity lipid rafts → improved efficiency!
  • Membrane permeability.
  • observation : RBC shrink when ↑salt concentration.

Effects of solute concentration on cells.

  • Hypertonic: high solute  → outside of cell.
  • Isotonic: normal solute  → inside / outside cell
  • Hypotonic: low solute  → inside cell.

Cell swell or shrink due to osmosis:

  •  moves b/c membrane not permeable to polar solutes.
  • Low solute → high solute.

Plasma membrane is selectively permeable.

  1. Cell shrink when placed in high concentration of ions.
  1. Not permeable to isons / large , polar molecules.
  1. Cells don't shrink when placed in ↑ concentration of small , uncharged polar solutes.
  1. Permeable to small, uncharged polar molecules and non - polar molecules.

Protocells: fatty acid membranes → most permeable.

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