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UB / Biomed Engr/Joint / BIO 201LLB / What is bacterial flagella?

What is bacterial flagella?

What is bacterial flagella?

Description

School: University at Buffalo
Department: Biomed Engr/Joint
Course: Cell Biology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: BIO 201 BIO201 Todd Hennessey Notes and cellbiology
Cost: 50
Name: CELL BIOLOGY- BIO 201
Description: Study guide for exam 2.
Uploaded: 04/06/2019
14 Pages 91 Views 12 Unlocks
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STUDY GUIDE 2 


What is bacterial flagella?



LECTURE 12 

 ∙    Bacterial Flagella- made of a protein called flagellin &  doesn’t have axonemal microtubules

 ∙    Pericentriolar Material- material around centrioles  ∙    Kinesin- plus end directed on cytoplasmic microtubules   ∙    Dynein- minus end directed to microtubules   ∙    Myosin- plus end directed on microfilaments   ∙    Sarcomere- the contractile unit of vertebrate muscle  

1. What has axonemal microtubules?

2. What is the purpose of the centriolar microtubules? 3. Two centrioles make up a _____________.


The material around centrioles is what?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between concave and convex mirror?

4. What is the purpose of the three different motors on  cytoskeletal filaments?

5. What is one difference between kinesin and dynein?

Actin Monomers

Depolymeriza

Polymerizati

tion

on

Filament (polymer)

Double helix of filaments

Answers

Motor Protein Rules 

∙ The head is the motor  ∙ The head binds ATP ∙ The head binds to the  rails

∙ The tail binds the cargo  ∙ The cargo moves in the  direction set by the  


The plus end directed on cytoplasmic microtubules is what?



Don't forget about the age old question of What is nativism?

motor (Kinesin & Myosin  + end, Dynein – end)  

1. Eukaryotic cilia, eukaryotic flagella, lung cilia, sperm. 2. To serve as a microtubule organization center (MTOC) 3. Centrosome.

4. They are enzymes that hydrolyze ATP to produce energy to  move things

5. Kinesin is a tetramer that has quaternary structure and  axonal transport. Dynein is a motor protein that moves  microtubules into cilia.

LECTURE 13 

 ∙    Hypertonic Shrinkage- when water from inside the cell flows  out of the cell which causes the cell to shrink If you want to learn more check out Who are the members of a construction team?

 ∙    Isotonic Solution- No visible swelling or shrinking   ∙    Hypotonic Solution- when water moves into the cell but the  cell can’t expand because of the cell wall  

 ∙    Glycoproteins- proteins with covalently attached sugars

1. What does the extracellular matrix do?

2. How can you stop shrinking?

3. What is the fluid mosaic model?

4. What are the two main types of membrane proteins? What  are the two main types of membrane bound proteins? 5. What are integral membrane proteins held in the membrane  by?

6. What are peripheral proteins connected to the membrane  by?

7. If the protein is in the _______, it’s integral. If the protein is in  the ________, it is peripheral.  

8. How do you know when something is water soluble? 9. What are two membrane carbohydrates?  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the properties of noble gases?

10. The _________ parts extend into the aqueous cell  exterior and internal cytoplasm. Hydrophobic side chains  interact with the ________ ________ of the membrane.  HYPERTONIC HYPOTONIC

ISOTONIC

∙ Water moves down its  Concentration gradient ∙ Water moves out

∙ Cell Shrinks

Answers

∙ Water moves into  the cell  

∙ Cell Swells

∙ Cell soaks up water  but doesn’t burst  because of cell wall  

∙ Nothing: no  swelling or  shrinking

1. Holds cells together in proper positions, mediates cell to cell  interactions within the tissues, regulates shapes & activities  of cells, cell growth, signal transduction.

2. Add solutes to the inside to balance solute concentrations or  add permeable compound.  

3. It proposed that membrane proteins are used to transport  nonpermeable compounds & fluid membranes had rapid  lateral diffusions of lipids & proteins.  

4. Soluble & membrane bound. Peripheral & integral.  5. The distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ide chains on amino acids.  

6. Ionic Bonds  

7. Pellet, supernatant.  

8. If It stays in the supernatant after centrifugation a 100,000g  for an hour

9. Glycoproteins and glycolipids.  

10. Hydrophilic, lipid core.

LECTURE 14 We also discuss several other topics like What is hydrogen bonding?

∙ Passive Diffusion- No extra energy (-ΔG) coupling needed  ∙   Active Transport- Needs energy to make it go  

 ∙   Exoplasmic- Outside

 ∙   Cytosolic- Inside We also discuss several other topics like What is biological determinism?

1. What are glycoprotein cell receptors?

2. Can a glycolipid be a cell receptor?

3. Do all plasma membrane have the same amounts of lipids,  protein and carbohydrates?

4. What does it mean if Δ G is negative?

Answers

1. They serve as points of attachments for other cells,  infectious bacteria, viruses, toxins, hormones and many  other molecules

2. Yes, for toxins  

3. No

4. The net influx is thermodynamically favored

LECTURE 15 

 ∙    Vm- voltage across a membrane

 ∙    Depolarization- a positive going charge in a cell’s membrane  potential, making it more positive or less negative inside   ∙    Hyperpolarization- a change in a cell’s membrane potential  that makes it more negative

1. What additional things must you know if it Is a charged  compound?

2. What are the two electrochemical driving forces? 3. Is a polar substance more concentrated on the outside  or inside of the cell?

4. What are the two kinds of ion channels?

5. Active transport requires _______ _________ to overcome a positive ΔG with a sufficiently negative ΔG. 

Electrochemical Energy  

ΔG Influx= Wc+We At equilibrium, Wc=We  (B/c ΔG=0) 

You can get a -ΔG with: 

Negative Wc & positive We (driven by chemical forces) Negative We & positive Wc 9 driven by electrical forces) Both Wc & We negative (driven by both forces)  

Answers

1. What is the equation for passive diffusion of a charged  molecule, what is the membrane potential, what is the  valence electron.  

2. Chemical force (Wc) & electrical force (We).

3. Outside

4. Voltage & mechanosensory  

5. Energy coupling  

LECTURE 16 

 ∙    Uniporter- transports one substance in one direction  ∙    Symporter- transports two different substances in the same  direction  

 ∙    Antiporter- transport two different substances in opposite  directions  

 ∙    Intercellular- between cells

 ∙    Intracellular- inside cells  

1. Is the energy for active transport always provided by ATP? 2. What is another way for things to get inside cells? 3. What are the general types of chemical communication  between cells?

4. What do plasma membrane receptors do?

5. What are some of the enzymes affected by GCPR?

GPCR General Pathway  

Metabotropic GPCRs Ionotropic  

GPCR

cAMP

Ca+  

Regulation

Phosphorylation & gene regulation

Many

Cellular

Responses

Cell Communication 

Membrane  Potential

Signaling  Cell

Answers 1. Yes

Sign al

Recept or

Target  Molecule

Respons e

2. Receptor- mediated endocytosis  

3. Synaptic, paracrine, endocrine, signal transduction 4. Signal arrives at target cell, signal molecule binds to a  receptor protein, the signal binding changes the  conformation and exposes its active site, the activated  receptor activates a signal transduction pathway to bring  about cellular changes.

LECTURE 17 

Steady State- something coming out, something coming in

1. What are two ways to increase cAMP?

2. What is protein phosphorylation?

3. What is the point of receptor tyrosine kinase? 4. Are all receptors on the plasma membrane?

5. What is the purpose of a chaperone?  Protein Phosphorylation 

+

Target ATP Protei

cAMP Regulation  

Protein  Kinase  

Phosphate on protein  & ADP (alters shape &  function)  

 

ATP

Adenylyl cAMP Cyclase

phosphodiester ase 

AM P  

Answers

1. Increase adenylyl cyclase activity or decrease  

phosphodiesterase activity  

2. The process of covalently attaching a phosphate to a protein  which cause a change in conformation.

3. Insulin receptor binds insulin which cause phosphorylation of specific proteins to cause a specific cellular response  4. No

5. It doesn’t allow something to get into the membrane

LECTURE 18 

 ∙    Metastasis- spread of a tumor to other parts of the body  ∙    Potential Energy- stored energy  

 ∙    Kinetic Energy- energy used to do work  

 ∙    Chemical Energy- ATP stored in bonds

 ∙    Electrical Energy- Sperate charges

 ∙    Heat Energy- Transfer due to temperature differences  ∙    Mechanical Energy- Energy of motion  

 ∙    Light Energy- Electromagnetic radiation stored as photons   ∙    Exergonic- Reactions that release free energy due to – ΔG  ∙    Endergonic- Reactions that require energy due to + ΔG  ∙    Induced Fit- enzyme changes shape when it binds to the  substrate, which alters shape of the active site

1. What are special adhesion properties of metastatic cells? 2. What is lost during the growth and development of a tumor? 3. What must be conquered to initiate a reaction?

Sunligh

4. What do enzymes do to a reaction?

5. What might an enzyme do in catalyzing reaction? 6. What does increasing a substrate concentration do?

ADP &

t

Energy

Synthe

sis

(requir

es

Answers

extra

phosphate

AT

P  

Energy

Hydrolysis (release energy)

1. Less adhesive, penetrate several barriers, invade normal  tissues.

2. E-cadherin  

3. Activation energy

4. It lowers the energy barrier by bringing reactants together  5. Orientate substrate, induce a strain, add chemical groups  6. Increases the rate and products formed over time

LECTURE 19 

 ∙    Anabolism- Synthesis (make)

 ∙    Catabolism- Breakdown (use)

1. What happens at saturation?

2. What is the difference between irreversible & reversible  inhibition?

3. What affects the charge of an enzyme? What happens to an  enzyme when you increase the temperature?

4. Energy derived from _____________ can be used to drive  _____________.

5. What are the 3 steps from glucose to ATP?

6. What can you do with a pyruvate?

Circle of Life  

In

mitochond ria

 

SU

N  

Photosynthet ic Cells

In

chloroplas ts

 

Carbon Dioxide

Wate r  

Oxyge n

Carbohydrat es  

Answers

Heterotrophi c cells (us)

1. All enzyme is bound to the substrate.  

2. Irreversible- covalent bond forms. Reversible- noncovalent  bonds form, competitive inhibitor effect is concentration  dependent.

3. pH, it becomes inactive.  

4. Catabolism, anabolism.

5. Glycolysis in cytoplasm, citric acid cycle in matric of  mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation across the  mitochondria inner membrane.  

6. Convert it to acetyl CoA inside the mitochondria to go into  citric acid cycle.  

LECTURE 20 

1. What is NADH?

2. Is the outer membrane or inner membrane more permeable  in mitochondria?

3. What is pmf?  

4. What happens to the pmf if the membrane potential is held  constant?

5. What are the 3 steps?

6. What happens in the cytoplasm during oxidative  phosphorylation?

7. What does mitochondrial electron transport produce? 8. Is oxidation of NADH & FADH2 in the respiratory chain  

endergonic or exergonic?

Mitochondrial Electron

Transport

Redox 

Glycoly

sis

 

Reduced molecules

TCA  

Cycle

 

NAD+

Water

from glucoseOxidati Reductio

Reductio

Oxidized

Molecule

sOxyg

NADH

Electron  

Donor

 

∙ Reducing agent  

∙ Gets Oxidized (LEO)

∙ Loses electrons

∙ Loses H+ usually

∙ Low Affinity for electrons

Answers

en

Electron  

Acceptor

∙ Oxidizing Agent   

∙ Gets Reduced (GER) ∙ Gains electrons  ∙ Gains H+ usually  ∙ High affinity for  electrons

1. An electron donor that has more energy than ATP. 2. Outer membrane.

3. The proton motive force which provides electrochemical  energy.

4. If a change in the pmf occurs, then it is mainly controlled by  the changes in the H+ gradient.

5. Electron transport from NADH to O2 produces energy (-ΔG).  This energy is used to set up the H+ gradient by pumping H+ against their electrochemical gradient (+ΔG. The energy  from the H+ gradient (-ΔG from pmf) is used to make ATP  (+ΔG). 

6. Glycolysis breaks down sugars into smaller pieces in  cytoplasm.  

7. A proton gradient across the inner membrane & a higher H+ outside the membrane to generate an inward pmf to provide  energy for ATP synthesis in the matrix.  

8. Exergonic.  

LECTURE 21 

 ∙    Envelope Membrane- double membranes that aren’t  photosynthetic membranes

 ∙    Thylakoid Membrane- photosynthetic membranes inside  chloroplasts

 ∙    Lumen- aqueous area inside thylakoids  

 ∙    Stroma- aqueous area outside thylakoids  

1. How is ATP made?

2. Name one mitochondrial poison.

3. What is non-shivering thermogenesis?

4. What are the two ways to make ATP in the absence of  oxidative phosphorylation?

5. What are the 2 main types of anaerobic fermentation?

Anaerobic Energy Production 

Sun -> photosynthesis -> glucose -> glycolysis -> pyruvate (3-  carbon molecule)

Glycolysis 

Glucose -> pyruvate (O2 present) -> fermentation -> lactate/  alcohol

Answers

1. H+ diffuses through a channel, a subunit rotates, and then  the rotation causes the subunit to change its shape to  expose active site for ATP synthesis.  

2. Cyanide.  

3. It is something babies and hibernating organisms do to  produce heat.

4. Use sunlight to provide energy to pump protons out through  proton gradient & acidophilic bacteria in low pH pond use the pH gradient to make ATP.

5. Fermentation of pyruvate to lactate & fermentation of  pyruvate to ethanol.  

LECTURE 22 

1. Where does electron transport occur in chloroplast? 2. What are the stages of e-flow in photosynthesis? 3. What does phosphorylation produce?

4. What are the 2 light harvesting centers?

5. Name an inhibitor of photosynthesis.

6.What are the main steps of light reactions?

How do thylakoid membranes harvest light to make NADPH &  

ATP?  

Reflected

(5)

 

Passed along to

another energy

carrier (4) 

Ligh

t

 

Pigme

nt

 

Transmitted (3)

(No change in

wavelength)

 

Emitted as Heat (1)

Photosynthesis 

Emitted as

fluorescence (2)

(longer wavelength) 

CO2 + H2O  (CH2O)n + O2

Answers

1. In the thylakoids.  

2. Photolysis, pass electrons from PSII to PSI, pass electrons  from PSI to NADPH+.

3. NADPH & ATP (to give to dark reactions to help make  carbohydrates).

4. P680 in photosystem II (PSII) & P700 in photosystem I (PSI). 5. DCMU.

6. Light energy is absorbed, electron transport, energy of H+ gradient is used to make ATP in the stroma.  

LECTURE 23 

1.Summarize the Calvin Cycle.  

2. What is the difference between CAM plants photosynthesis  and C3/C4 plants photosynthesis?

3. How is DNA replicated?

4. What is one thing that can happen in 3PG? Where is everything?  

Chloropl

ast 

1. Light reactions in thylakoid  2. Glucose and oxygen in cytoplasm  

1

ATP

NADH NADP

+

ADP

Calvin

Cycle

3. Carbon dioxide goes into chloroplasts  From cytoplasm.  

4. Production of ATP & NADPH, Calvin Cycle,  Starch synthesis in stroma.  

Answers

H2O

Glucose  

CO2

1. First, you need to have enough RuBP to begin the cycle.  Carbon dioxide is added to RuBP to make a transient 6  

carbon compound which splits into two 3 carbon compounds. Then, 3PG is converted to G3P which uses ATP & NADPH.  Finally, some of the G3P is used to regenerate RuBP & the  rest goes to make sugars.  

2. CAM plants fix carbon dioxide in mesophyll cells a night &  then run Calvin cycle during the day. It also has temporal  separation.

3. Grow bacteria on “heavy” nitrogen to metabolically label all  DNA. Switch the regular “light” nitrogen. Use density  gradient centrifugation to separate heavy & light DNA. 4. It can be recycled into RuBP.

LECTURE 24 

 ∙    Semiconservative Replication- produce molecules with both  new and old DNA

 ∙    Conservative Replication- preserves the original molecules  and generates an entirely new molecule  

 ∙    Dispersive Replication- would produce two molecules with old and new DNA interspersed along each strand

 ∙    Disperse Chromatin- single piece of double stranded DNA  with associated proteins, mostly histones  

 ∙    Mitotic Chromosome- paired chromatids  

 ∙    Assay- fuse two cells together and see if the phase that one  is in causes the  

other to enter that same phase

∙ Eukaryotic Mitotic Chromosome- two long pieces of double  stranded DNA bunched up and held together at the  centromere

1. What are the three possible models for DNA replication?

2. How can you tell it is replication and not transcription? 3. What is the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis? 4. In what phase do the centrioles replicate?  

Mitosi

s

G

Cytokine

sis

M-Phase

G

1

2Interphase

Answers

S

Phase

1. Semiconservative replication, conservative replication,  dispersive replication.  

2. In replication, A is paired with U. In transcription, A is paired  with T and DNA-> RNA.

3. Mitosis is nucleus division and cytokinesis is cell division. 4. S phase.

LECTURE 25 

1. What is MPF?

2. What happens during cell cycle regulation?

3. How is DNA packed into a mitotic chromosome?

4. What are the two parts of a histone?

5. What is the purpose of codensin?

Cell Cycle Checkpoints 

G1

S

G2

M

Damag

ed DNA

Unfavorabl e

extracellul

Damaged/

incomplete ly

replicated

Damaged/

incomplete ly

replicated

Chromosome improperly

attached to

mitotic

Answers

ar

DNA 

DNA 

spindles 

1. The maturation promoting factor that stimulates entry into  mitosis.

2. Cyclin synthesis begins during G1 and then breaks down  when going into S-phase.

3. DNA warps around histones to form nucleosomes, which  then compacts loops and forms mitotic chromosomes. 4. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic.  

5. It helps compact and supercoil DNA in mitosis.

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