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UF / Developmental Psychology / DEP / What are the general characteristics of theories of social cognition?

What are the general characteristics of theories of social cognition?

What are the general characteristics of theories of social cognition?

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School: University of Florida
Department: Developmental Psychology
Course: Developmental Psychology
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: learning theories, emotions, emotional development, attachment, Attachment Theory, development, self, Psychology, and developmental psychology
Cost: 50
Name: DEP 3053 - Developmental Psychology Exam 3 Study Guide
Description: These notes cover what will be on exam 3: chapters 9, 10, and 11. The main themes of these chapters are learning theories, emotional development, attachment theory, and development of the self.
Uploaded: 04/13/2019
12 Pages 225 Views 9 Unlocks
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This study guide will cover what will be on exam 3: chapters 9, 10, and 11 with  emphasis on what we learned in class.


What are general characteristics of theories of social cognition?



Chapter 9:  

- What’s something that makes learning theory valid?  

o They try to account for lots of different aspects of development  - Give examples of developmental aspects learning theory encompasses.  o Emotion

o Personality

o Attachment

o Self

o Peer relationship

o Morality

o Gender

- Which philosopher’s ideals does learning theory follow?  

o Locke’s idea of Tabula Rosa

- What does learning theory put importance on, regarding the shaping of child  

development?  

o The environment  

- Does learning theory think development is continuous?  

o Yes


Can learning theory help with interventions for children with welfare or behavior issues?



- Is there research that backs the ideas of learning theory?  

o Yes  

- Can learning theory help with interventions for children with welfare/behavior

issues?  

o Yes

- Describe Watson’s behaviorism learning theory.  

o Importance on classical conditioning  

o Two baby experiments: Baby Albert and Baby Peter

 Baby Albert:  

∙ Child was classically conditioned to fear a white rat

∙ Loud sounds were played right before the rat appeared,  

scaring Albert

o Sound was associated with the rat

 Baby Peter

∙ Deconditioned to his fear of white rabbits using  


What’s something that makes learning theory valid?



We also discuss several other topics like What are the characteristics of a higher star luminosity?

systematic desensitization  

o He was exposed to the white rabbits in different  

forms until he finally got over his fear  

o His techniques are considered controversial  

- Describe Skinner’s operant conditioning learning theory.  

o Put an emphasis on punishment and reinforcement

 Any kind of attention, both positive and negative, can act as a  

reinforcer for children  

o Behaviors that are reinforced occasionally are hard to get rid of  o Techniques drawn from this theory are used to help children with  

behavior issues  We also discuss several other topics like What is the main function of cuboidal epithelium?

- Describe Bandura’s social-cognitive learning theory.  

o Thinks learning is inherently social  

 Doesn’t need reinforcement  

o Uses an observational learning and modeling of behavior  If you want to learn more check out What organelle of the cell is used to increase surface area along the cell membrane that absorbs substances?

o Did the Bobo Doll experiment

 Children watched someone interacting with a Bobo doll either  

aggressively or passively  

 Those exposed to the aggressive model interacted with the Bobo

doll just as or more aggressively

 Those exposed to the passive model interacted with it peacefully o Used reciprocal determinism  

- What is “reciprocal determinism”?  

o The bidirectional relationship between the child’s environment and  

behaviors  

- What are the current perspectives on learning theories?  We also discuss several other topics like How do you manage complexity?

o They’re supported by data

o They typically don’t have a lot to do with biological and mental  

processes  

- What are general characteristics of theories of social cognition?  o Emphasis on self-socialization (children shape their own development)  o Emphasis on individual differences in development  

o Split between the idea that development happens in stages, and  

development happens continuously  

- Describe Selman’s stage theory.

o Focus on development of role taking

 Also called perspective taking

o Idea that children have a hard time taking other peoples’ perspectives  - What are Selman’s perspective taking stages?  

o Egocentric  

 Happens before 6 years old

 Kids understand that people have different opinions from their  own, and often confuse their own thoughts and opinions with  

others  

o Differentiated  

 6-8 years old

 Kids know that people may share/not share their opinion, but  

still can’t guess another person’s perspective  

o Reciprocal  

 8-10 years old

 Can think using someone else’s ideology and know other people  We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of speculative fiction?

can do the same thing  

 Can anticipate and consider other peoples’ feelings  

o Mutual  

 10-12 years old

 Children can see their own perspective, someone else’s  

perspective, and the shared perspective between the two of  

them from the view of a third person  

o Societal or in-depth  

 12 years and older

 Can understand a person’s perspective by comparing it to “a  

generalized other”  

- Describe Dodge’s information-processing theory of social problem solving.  o Emphasizes the interface between cognitive processes and social  

behavior  

o Aggressive children have a tendency toward hostile attributions  o Harsh parenting during early years of development will probably  

predict hostile attributional bias  

- Describe Dweck’s theory of self-attributional and achievement motivation.  o There are factors associated with both better achievement motivation  

and worse achievement motivation  

- What are the factors in Dweck’s theory that help with better achievement  

motivation?  

o Learning goals

o Incremental/mastery orientation  Don't forget about the age old question of Why is it important for a marketer to understand a consumer’s needs and wants?

o Incremental theory of intelligence/ability mindset

- What are the factors in Dweck’s theory that contribute to worse achievement  

motivation?  

o Performance goals

o Entity/helpless orientation  

o Entity theory of intelligence/ability mindset

- What’s the difference between children who are oriented toward better  

achievement motivation and worse achievement motivation?  o Better achievement motivation  

 Children with this mindset think praise and criticism is focused  

on their effort  

 Idea that how much effort you put in controls how things will  

come out  

o Worse achievement motivation  

 Children with this mindset think praise and criticism is focused  

on their abilities  

 Idea that intelligence is something you can’t change

- Define ethology.

o “the study of human behavior and social organization from a biological  

perspective”  

- What are basic points of evolutionary psychology?  

o To achieve a large brain size, humans experience a longer period of  

immaturity compared to other species

o Immature infants need a lot of care and attention from their parents  - What are the basic points of evolutionary theory?  

o There's an evolutionary basis for many aspects of parenting behavior,  to the degree that all the investment parents make into their offspring  

helps ensure that their genes will survive

o Parents who do this more are more likely to insure their genetics will  

survive

- What is the relationship between children, step-parents, and murder?  o Children are more likely to be killer by a step-parent than a genetic  

parent  

 Genetic parents are more invested in their offspring  

o Children are more likely to die of an accident in their home with a step

parent present than a genetically related parent  

- Describe Bronfenbrenner’s bioecological theory.  

o Against the idea that genes are destiny  

o Proponent of idea that poor children’s lives can be improved by  

improving the environment they grew up in  

o Has two main ideas:  

 Proximal processes: human development is shaped by  

interactions between children and people, objects, and symbols  

in their environment  

 Proximal processes are determined by the characteristics of the  child and the characteristics of both the immediate and broader  

environment  

o Thinks of the environment as “nested structures”  

- What are the 5 layers of Bronfenbrenner’s nested structure model? Describe  

them.

o Microsystem

 Relationships that exist with the child and anything in its direct  

environment  

 Proximal processes  

o Mesosystem  

 Interconnections between the different systems  

 Doesn’t represent anything, just the relationship

o Exosystem

 Settings that the child isn’t a direct part of, but still influences  their development

o Macrosystem

 The relationship between the child and broader culture/society o Chronosystem  

 The element of time  

 Shows how experiences affect children at different times in  

development  

o All the layers influence each other

- What program did Bronfenbrenner’s theory help contribute toward?  o Head Start

Chapter 10:

- What are two important components of emotion?  

o Neural responses

o Physiological responses

- What are the two theories of emotional development?  

o Discrete/differential emotions theory  

 The idea that basic emotions are present from birth  

 The physical happenings in the body and the emotions correlate  Proposed by Darwin

o Functionalist perspective  

 Emotions help us manage our relationships between ourselves  

and the environment  

 We appraise the environment and give an emotional response  

that helps us achieve our goals within the environment

- At what age can babies start to smile? At what age do they smile in response  

to things?  

o Birth

o 6 weeks old

- At what age do babies respond more to familiar people?  

o 7-8 months  

- At what age does a baby’s fear of strangers go away?  

o 15 months  

- Do children grow happier as they get older?  

o Yes, because they can show more emotion to more stimuli than before - Define “separation anxiety”.  

o A type of fear children feel when they are separated from their  

caregivers

- What are “self-conscious emotions”?  

o Emotions that happen because someone is aware that they are  

different than other people

- Are self-conscious emotions continuous or discontinuous?  

o Discontinuous  

- When do self-conscious emotions first appear?

o Age 3-4 years old  

- What are some examples of self-conscious emotions?  

o Pride

o Guilt

o Shame

- Which self-conscious emotion has the biggest effect, and why?  o Guilt

o Guilt comes from other people

o Parenting practices shape whether or not children can experience guilt  

or shame

 Instead of just shaming, if parents explain why a child did  something wrong then they're more likely to experience guilt  

(which they're more likely to feel bad for the action)

- How are shame and guilt different?  

o Shame is more centralized to the self and relates more to how the  

person is feeling  

- At what age can babies start to recognize the emotions of others?  o Around 1 year old

- What is “social referencing”?  

o When a baby uses a parent/adult's facial expression and/or vocal cues  

to deal with new situations

- What are “display rules”?  

o An idea that there are situations where and when it is appropriate to  

display certain emotions  

o These are different across cultures

- What is “simulation of emotion”?  

o Something that emerges as children begin to understand that  

emotions people express don't always match what they're feeling - How do children regulate their emotions when they don’t have the capacity  

to?  

o Parents help co-regulate them  

- At what age do children start to develop self-comforting behaviors?  o 5 months old

- At what age does self-comforting decrease and self-distraction increase?  o 1-2 years old

- Does the ability to regulate emotion increase during the early years of life?  o Yes, drastically  

- Define “social competence”.  

o Achieving your goals while still maintaining your relationships with  

other people  

- What happens to children who have better social competence at a young  

age?  

o They tend to do better later on in life  

o Have a good delayed gratification  

- What is “temperament”?

o Individual differences in emotion, activity level, and attention that are  

exhibited across contexts and that are present from infancy

- Describe Thomas and Chess’ temperament categories.  

o Has fit into 3 categories  

o Easy babies  

 40 percent of all babies  

 Good with new experiences

 Quickly establishes routines  

 Generally has a cheerful mood

 Easy to calm down  

o Difficult babies  

 10 percent of all babies  

 Slow to adjust to new experiences

 Will probably react negatively and intensely to stimuli and  

events  

 Irregular in body functions  

o Slow-to-warm-up babies  

 15 percent of all babies  

 Somewhat difficult at the start, but warm up over time  

o The percentages don’t add to 100 because not all babies fit into these  

categories  

- What is Mary Rothbard’s temperament questionnaire?  

o Measures a child's behavior indicator based on their actions over a  

variety of topics

- How do parents/a child’s home life influence their emotions?  o Parents are role models of when and how to express emotions   Parents’ failure to express emotions can influence their child’s  

emotional development

o Emotional valence of home shapes children's emotional and social  competence

Chapter 11:  

- What is the basic tenant of attachment theory?  

o Humans need basic attention and affection from others in order to live  

and survive

- What were Freud’s thoughts on attachment theory?  

o Used the concept of Id: primal instinct  

o Pleasure principle: we get pleasure from reducing biological drives we  

have  

 E.g. hunger is a biological drive, so babies are attracted to  

mothers since they can get rid of their hunger

- What were Watson’s thoughts on attachment theory?  

o Thinks it ties in with classical conditioning  

 E.g. babies are classically conditioned to associate mothers with  

lack of hunger  

- What were Robertson’s thoughts on attachment theory?  

o Psychoanalytic lens

o Ideas that lead to the creation of child life specialists  

o Showed that lack of affection and consideration children go through in  certain situations can inhibit their emotions in the future, and cause  

trauma  

 This is seen in his film “A Two-year-old Goes to the Hospital”  - What were Bowlby’s thoughts on attachment theory?  

o Psychoanalytic and ethological lens, but mainly ethological  o Believed that strong attachment between the mother and the baby  

meant the baby would survive, since all of its needs were being met  - What is a child life specialist?  

o People who make the hospital a friendly place for children to thrive  o Make things more comfortable for children and get them the  

interaction and affection they need

- Why is attachment research done on animals as well as humans?  o There is near constant contact between mother and baby during the  

early weeks/months  

- What are Bowlby’s 5 instinctual attachment behaviors shown by infants?  o Sucking  

o Clinging  

o Crying  

o Following  

o Smiling (also seen in chimpanzees)  

- Describe Harlow’s research on attachment with Rhesus Monkeys. o Wanted to test the cupboard theory vs contact comfort theory   Cupboard theory: babies only attached to mothers because they  

provide food  

 Contact comfort theory: babies attached to mothers because  

they provide comfort through their interactions  

o Baby Rhesus monkeys were separated from their mothers to see  whether or not food or "contract comfort" formed the basis of  

attachment

o Two fake "mothers" were in a room that the baby could choose  

between

 One was made of wire that had a bottle of warm milk (food) and  

one that was soft and comforting

o More time was overwhelmingly spent on the comfort mother, indicating that the babies liked that one more than the food

- Define the idea of a mother being a baby’s “secure base”.  o Babies can explore the environment and feel safe, because they know  

their mother is watching over them  

o “mother” can be any caregiver, not a baby’s actual mother  - What are Bowlby’s phases of attachment development?  

o Process is called “internal working model of attachment”

o Pre-attachment

 Birth to 6 weeks  

 There isn’t a lot of emotional connection from the baby to the  

caregiver  

 Babies are only using their innate behaviors  

o Attachment-in-the-making

 6 weeks to 8 months old  

 Babies start to gradually respond to their caregivers  

∙ They don’t actually start to care about other people yet,  

but this stage is the process of starting to care

o Clear-cut attachment  

 6-8 months to 1.5 years old

 Actively seek out their caregivers

 Have separation anxiety when apart from caregivers  

o Reciprocal relationships  

 1.5-2 years and older  

 Parents are no longer thought of as a secure base after 2 years  

old

 Relationship is a lot more two-sided

- How does the way caregivers treat babies during early attachment influence  

babies?  

o When the babies grow up, they will likely look for relationships with  

these same characteristics  

- What is Mary Ainsworth’s strange situation?  

o An experiment that measures attachment security between caregivers  

and babies  

o The baby and mother go into a room and they leave the baby twice,  

with other people  

 The way the baby responds when the mother leaves and comes  

back is classified on a scale

- What are Ainsworth’s attachment categories?  

o Secure attachment

 Baby uses attachment as a secure base  

 Actively explores the room  

 Upset when the mom leaves but reacts with happiness when the mom comes back

 About 60 percent of middle SES babies in the USA show this  

pattern  

o Insecure-resistant (ambivalent)  

 Baby doesn’t easily leave the mother to go play

 More upset than the securely attached baby when the mother  

leaves

 Rush to mom after she comes back, but also resists her soothing

after she’s left them  

 About 10 percent of middle SES babies in the USA show this  

pattern  

o Insecure-avoidant

 Unresponsive to the parent when they’re present  

 When the parent leaves there isn’t much distress from the baby   Slow to acknowledge or ignores the mom when she comes back   About 15 percent of middle SES babies in the USA show this  

pattern  

o Insecure-disorganized  

 Shows behavior disorganization/disorientation through  

wandering, confused or weird expression, freezing, undirected  movement, and contradictory patterns of interaction with the  

mother  

 About 15 percent of middle SES babies in the USA show this  

pattern  

o This is the best method used today  

- What are sensitive parents like?  

o They display a greater sense of warmth toward the child  

o Are contingent and consistent  

 Will respond in a warm and loving way no matter what  

- How do the mothers of ambivalent parents tend to act?  

o Tend to be inconsistent in caregiving  

o Not always true

- How do the mothers of secure attached babies tend to act?  o Tend to share genes with the baby that makes them very sensitive to  

the baby’s needs

- What percent of highly reactive babies end up being ambivalently attached?  o 15-20 percent  

- What percent of impulsive babies end up being difficultly attached?  o 5-10 percent

- What are secure attached babies better at handling than other babies?  o Stress

- What does the idea of “self-concept” cover?

o Thoughts

o Beliefs  

o Attitudes about the self

- How does self-concept develop?  

o By interacting with others in the environment  

- How does self-concept develop in infancy?

o Messages from caregivers shape how children will see themselves o Preschool age children’s self-concept is based off of observable  

concepts  

o Young children are very optimistic about their abilities  

o In elementary school self-concept becomes very differentiated and  

more realistic  

- Describe self-concept in adolescence.  

o Idea of multiple selves

o Increased concern about social acceptance  

o Two types of egocentrism

 Personal fable

 Imaginary audience

o Older adolescents are able to integrate contradictions within  

themselves

 Can understand personalities are complex  

- Define “multiple selves”.

o The idea that a person acts different ways in different contexts  - Define “personal fable”.

o Adolescents overly differentiate their feelings from those of others o Think their feelings are special and no one else has experienced what  

they are feeling

- Define “imaginary audience”.

o Preoccupation with what others think about you  

o Think everyone is always thinking or looking at you  

- Do boys or girls tend to have overall better self-esteem?  o Boys  

- What are sources of self-esteem?  

o How others see us (especially our parents)  

o Caregivers’ discipline approaches  

o Peer acceptance  

o Society’s standards and values  

o School context  

- Does peer acceptance get more important as you grow older?  o Yes, there’s a bidirectional relationship between self-esteem and peer  

acceptance

- Is it possible self-esteem to be too high?  

o Yes

o It will border on narcissism and can turn into aggression  

- What is usually the hardest school transition?  

o The transition between elementary school and middle school o This is usually harder for girls than for boys  

- Define “identity”.  

o Definition of the self, usually defined by membership in a category or  group

- What are Marcia’s 4 groups of identity status?  

o Foreclosure

 “I’ve made a choice without thinking”  

o Identity Diffusion

 “I don’t know what to do with my life and I don’t care”

o Identity achievement  

 “I thought about it and I now know what I should do with my life” o Moratorium  

 “I’m thinking about what I should do”  

- What categories of Marcia’s group are younger adolescents mostly in?  o Foreclosure and diffusion  

- What factors influence identity formation?  

o Warmth and support from caregivers

o When parents are high on psychological control, the kids tend to  

explore in breadth and have a harder time committing to an identity o Having at least one supportive parent predicts exploration instead of  

foreclosure

- What is an ethnic/racial identity?  

o Beliefs and attitudes about one’s ethnic or racial group

- Do preschool children have a limited understanding of racial/ethnic identity?  o Yes

- How do school age children understand racial/ethnic identity?  o Understand common features of their group  

o Have feelings about group membership  

o May display ethnically based preferences

- Why does identity become more salient during adolescence?  o Experiences with discrimination  

o Ability to reflect on meaning of group membership

- What does strong identification with an ethnic/racial identity positively  

correlate with?  

o Self-esteem  

o Academic achievement

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