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UD / Geography / GEOG 412 / What are the contradictory effects of clouds on the net surface energy

What are the contradictory effects of clouds on the net surface energy

What are the contradictory effects of clouds on the net surface energy

Description

School: University of Delaware
Department: Geography
Course: Physical Climatology
Professor: Brian hanson
Term: Spring 2019
Tags: climate, heat, and flux
Cost: 50
Name: Physical Climatology Final Study Guide
Description: Covers all quizzes and concepts from course
Uploaded: 04/18/2019
5 Pages 39 Views 1 Unlocks
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GEOG412 Final Study GuideWe also discuss several other topics like What is the perceived benefits of a product minus the perceived costs called?
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Don't forget about the age old question of Who are garibaldi and cavour?
We also discuss several other topics like What characterized the wartime spirit of “100 percent americanism”?
Don't forget about the age old question of Who is john watson and what did he do?
We also discuss several other topics like Define acrosome.

Quiz 1

  • Why is it reasonable that sensible heat and latent heat fluxes from the surface to the atmosphere are modeled in our spreadsheet as being proportional to the infrared radiation from the surface? What is the main important physical effect controlling these fluxes that is not included in this model?
  • All three should go up as surface temperature goes up. Main problem is lack of winds/turbulent mixing, contact coupling (all different ways of expressing the same problem)
  • What are the contradictory effects of clouds on the net surface energy balance?
  • Clouds raise both albedo and GHG trapping to nearly balancing amounts, with albedo effects being slightly larger
  • The contradictory effects are clouds reflect 30% of shortwave radiation and has a cooling effect, while clouds also absorb almost all longwave radiation from Earth’s surface and emits as thermal energy having a warming effect on the climate system
  • The greenhouse factor in our spreadsheet model was about 90%. What does that mean physically?
  • About 90% of the infrared radiation rising from the surface is absorbed by the air above it, and then re-radiated in both directions
  • 350/390 which is a fraction dealing with Is, infrared emissions

Quiz 2

  • Seasonal cycles of temperature are higher over continents than over oceans, why?
  • Higher heat capacity of thick layer of water relative to soil and air - water is both high heat capacity per mass and more water is involved
  • How and why is the temperatures pattern in the Southern Hemisphere significantly different from the Northern Hemisphere?
  • Much less land in southern hemisphere and what there is is centered on the south pole, leads to a more annual temperature pattern, less heat transport to the pole, and much colder temps (with smaller seasonal cycles)
  • Describe the Hadley cells and their effect on tropical and subtropical temperature and moisture patterns
  • The hadley cells are a pattern of rising air at the thermal equator and sinking air at +/-30 degree latitude. They give us well mixed tropics so there isn't much north south temperature gradient there. The precipitation zones associated are wet near the rising air and dry in the sinking air

Quiz 3

  • What is the meridional Overturning Circulation (MOC, also called thermohaline circulation) and what drives it?
  • It is the deep ocean circulation driven by dense water in polar regions that sink and spread. The dense water is primarily created by salt left behind by evaporation, and the MOC has the effect of returning the salt balance
  • In addition to essentially horizontal surface currents, the ocean has a coherent global-scale three dimensional circulation. While ocean surface currents are largely driven by surface winds, the three dimensional circulation is driven by density differences. It is known as the thermohaline circulation because both temperature and salinity influence seawater density
  •  Known as great ocean conveyor belt
  • Circulation is slow
  • Water sinks in the North Atlantic into the deep ocean (north atlantic deep water formation) then flows south to antarctic circumpolar regions and sinks to even greater depths
  • Upwelling of cold water, downwelling of warm water
  • Define either one of Kepler’s first two laws governing planetary orbits and its relationship to our solar input.
  • The second law is law of areas, which uses the concept of angular momentum - the closer the planet is to the sun, the faster it moves. The area of the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. This concept makes our seasons different intensities in hemispheres.
  • What is the main cause and timescale for small variations in the solar constant, So(t)?
  • 11 year sunspot cycle - solar constant is higher when we have more sunspots, but it's a 0.1% effect
  • Define thermocline (also called pycnocline)
  • Layer of high temp gradient and high density gradient separation the active mixed layer of the ocean from the deep abyssal
  • Thermocline is the second layer of ocean between 200-800m, in this area the temperature decreases and pressure increases as you go lower, contains approximately 18% of oceans water

Quiz 4

  • What combination of changes in orbital parameters (tilt, eccentricity, and time of perihelion) would produce the coldest possible Northern Hemisphere summer?
  • Low tilt, high eccentricity, perihelion where it is now in winter
  • What location and day on earth receives the highest amount of insolation in one day, and what are the main effects causing isolation to increase as you approach this point in space and time?
  • South pole on Dec 21 when 24 hours of daylight at highest possible zenith angle for that location overrides the fact that the zenith angle isn't very high. SP instead of NP because perihelion is Jan 3 so So(t)= So(R(t)/R)^2 is highest
  • Quantitatively define zenith angle z and explain why the factor cos z turns the TOA radiation perpendicular to the sun's rays into actual insolation received?
  • angle from directly overhead of the sun. Cos z works because its when z=0 and sun is directly overland, and 0 when z=pi and sun is on horizon, and varies appropriately as 1/area of circle being spread out

Quiz 5

  • In your lab, you calculated that approx 14% of Earth’s surface longwave emission is in the wavelength range of 13.5 um to 16.5 um. Why is that a particularly important wavelength range?
  • Bc it is strongest absorbed by CO2 and is part of the atmospheric window where a lot of radiation currently escapes - I.e. it is important to greenhouse gas induced warming
  • Why do molecules have different absorption coefficients for different chemical species and different wavelengths, require us to consider multiple wavelength bands when building radiation models.
  • Molecules can only absorb and emit photons that correspond to possible electron transitions and vibrational modes in the molecule - every molecule has a large set of spectrum lines, and the bands approximate them
  • How is the Stefan-Boltzmann Law derived from Planck's Law for blackbody radiation?
  • S-B is integral over all wavelengths to get total radiation
  • Why do high clouds lose less radiation to space than low clouds
  • High clouds are colder on top bc they are higher (lapse rate) hence sigmaTc is smaller in high clouds and that controls the outgoing radiation

Quiz 6

  • Air has a very low thermal conductivity compared to most other substances in the climate system, as well as a very low viscosity. How does this affect sensible heat fluxes and surface drag on the atmosphere? (Both as affected in same way by same process)
  • Sensible heat fluxes require turbulence bc conductivity would take forever - similar with drag
  • What is an adiabatic process and why is that concept usually not used on a climatic time scale?
  • A process in which radiative heating or cooling in smaller than expansion or compression heating and cooling. It only applies to vertical motions taking place on short, like hourly, time scales - we cannot ignore diabatic heating on longer time scales
  • Briefly explain what has to happen in the turbulent motions and temp measured by an eddy covariance system for there to be an upward sensible heat flux
  • Air moving upward needs to be warmer than avg, on avg, and air moving downward needs to be cooler than avg
  • We approx heat conduction and many other processes with diffusion or diffusive flow. What is the common driver or principle that characterizes all diffusive flows?
  • There is a gradient, and stuff flows down gradient

Quiz 7

  • What characteristics control the albedos of different types of green vegetation?
  • Leaf shape (broad or needle) and canopy architecture (trees, low shrubs, herbs and grasses) may create cavities or various types that radiation bounces around inside, creating more opportunities to be absorbed in trees, especially needle-leaf
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