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BAYLOR UNIVERSITY / Biology / BIO 1106 / What is the main function of cuboidal epithelium?

What is the main function of cuboidal epithelium?

What is the main function of cuboidal epithelium?

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BIO LAB Test 3 Review


What is the main function of cuboidal epithelium?



Exercise 41: Vertebrate Animal Tissues - Epithelial+ Connective + Muscular +Nervous • General  

o Cells ???? Tissues ???? Organs ???? Organ Systems ???? Organism

o Four tissue types: Epithelial, Connective, Muscular, and Nervous

o Histology: The study of microscopic anatomy of tissues

• Epithelial Tissue

o General:

▪ Function?

• Protect the body

• Cover exterior of organism  

• Protect underlying tissues from dehydration and mechanical damage


How do you identify glandular epithelium?



• Provide selective permeable barrier that can create or prevent material  If you want to learn more check out What is the function of lysosomes in the cell?

passage

• Provides sensory surfaces

• Secretes Fluids

▪ Classified How?

• Shape + Layers

▪ Shape Classification

• Squamous: flat (think of the word “squashed”)

• Cuboidal: cube

• Columnar: tall + narrow

▪ Layer Classification

• Simple: one layer

• Stratified: multiple layers

• Pseudo stratified: appears as if multiple layers but actually only one layer  


Why is blood a special connective tissue?



(due to nuclei appears in different positions within columnar cells)

▪ Classes

• Simple Epithelium  

o TIP: When you hear the word simple, think of the fact that your  

body wants to secrete and diffuse different materials in the  

simplest and most efficient way possible. Therefore, simple  Don't forget about the age old question of How do you manage complexity?

epithelium is the perfect candidate for these processes.

o Squamous

▪ Irregular + flattened

▪ IMPORTANT TO DIFFUSION

▪ Lines the alveoli of the lungs, filtration system of kidneys and  

other important cavities of the body

▪ Typically inactive and are at sites of passive movement of  

electrolytes, water and similar substances

o Cuboidal + Columnar If you want to learn more check out What is the meaning of speculative fiction?

▪ Appear fuller than squamous

▪ Line respiratory and intestinal tract as well as kidney tubular  

ducts

▪ Aid in secretion and typically have cilia  If you want to learn more check out What is entailed in value-based marketing and how do firms become value driven?

• Stratified Epithelium

o Several layers

▪ Top: typically squamous

▪ Middle: typically cuboidal

▪ Bottom/Basal: typically columnar  

o Ex: Our skin  

• Glandular Epithelium

o Tip: Think “glands”

o Do NOT function as protective covering, rather, as active and  

metabolic

o Our exocrine glands are created from “tubular invaginations” of these  

glandular epithelium layers

o Ex: Liver, Mammary Glands, Pancreas  

o Cellular excretion of these exocrine glands involves movement  

towards the surface and away from the organ via ducts

o Ex: Hepatocyte (liver cell) w/ large nucleus

• Be able to identify slides of:

o Simple Squamous/Cuboidal (Kidney C.s) If you want to learn more check out What is the definition of the proletariat?

o Simple Columnar

o Stratified Squamous (skin)

o Pseudo stratified Columnar (trachea)

o Glandular (liver)

• Connective Tissue

o General

▪ Function

• Support + Defends

• Stores Food

▪ Found?

• Some in circulatory system  

▪ How Classified?

• Function, Nature of extracellular matrix + cellular morphology If you want to learn more check out Who is bluma zeigarnik?

▪ Classes

• Connective Tissue Proper + Special Connective Tissue

o Connective Tissue Proper

▪ Loose

• Cells scattered within mass of proteins that form ground substance

• Includes:

o Fibroblasts: found dispersed in vertebrate bodies, irregular branched  

cells that secrete the extracellular matrix of fibrous proteins. In other  

words, fibroblasts produce protein fibers

▪ Types of Protein Fibers

• What is the most commonly secreted protein? Collagen  

(25%)

• Elastin: allows fibers to stretch

• Reticulin: thin branched fiber that supports glands such  

as spleen and lymph nodes. Creates junctions between  

tissues

o Microphages: immune system’s defense mechanism against invasions  

of organisms; small round cells that engulf and digest cellular debris  

Invading bacteria, and foreign particles; can remain fixated or move  

freely; some contain black India ink

o Adipose Cells: fat; contains droplet of triglyceride; used for energy by  

hydrolyzing stored fat and secreting fatty acids into blood for

oxidation by cells of muscle;  # in adult is fixed (expands when you  

gain weight and shrinks when you lose weight)

▪ Dense

• Tightly packed collagen fibers, therefore stronger than loose tissue

• Ex: Tendons and ligaments

o Special Connective Tissue

▪ Blood  

• Extracellular matrix: plasma

• Found: Everywhere in your body

• Function

o Maintains proper pH

o Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide in circulatory system  

• Types of Blood Cells

o Erythrocytes: red blood cells

o Leukocytes: white blood cells

o Platelets: enucleated fragments of large bone-marrow cells

▪ Cartilage

• Extracellular Matrix: chondrin (flexible)

o Secreted by chondrocytes  (found isolated in matrix in cavities of  

lacunae)

• Found: skeletal joints

• Elastic Cartilage: more flexible and richer in fibers than hyaline; found in  external ear + voice box

• Hyaline Cartilage: cushions bone surfaces between joints

▪ Bone

• Extracellular matrix: fibers

o Collagen fibers: surrounded by crystals of calcium salts  (hard) which  

is maintained by bone cells of osteocytes

• Function

o Forms lamellae (thin concentric layers) that in turn form Haversien  

systems, also known as osteons

o Lamellae form tubes around thin Haversian canals  

o Haversien canals

▪ Surround blood vessels and nerve cells throughout bone and  

communicate through canaliculi

o Be able to identify slides of:

▪ Subcutaneous (areolar)

▪ Reticulin fibers (lymph gland)

▪ Macrophage (defensive)

▪ Connective Tissue (liver)

▪ Adipose Tissue

▪ Dense Connective (tendon, white fibrous)

▪ Blood Smear

▪ Hyaline Cartilage

▪ Elastic Cartilage  

▪ Bone  

• Muscle Tissue

o General

▪ Distinctive Feature: contraction dependent on interaction of myosin and actin  protein filaments  

▪ Bundles of these filaments = myofibrils

▪ Myofibrils occur in one muscle cell and the contraction produces force + movement  ▪ Types: Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac

o Skeletal Muscle

▪ Striated (due to stacked array of myosin ad actin filaments), attached to skeleton,  voluntary  

▪ Cells are long fibers of contractile units with nuclei scatted in outer boundaries of  fiber

▪ The more cells = increase of strength and speed of contraction  

o Smooth Muscle

▪ Cells are long, + spindle shaped with one nucleus  

▪ Function: Line walls of gut and blood vessels

▪ Involuntary

▪ Sheets of cells that contract slowly and rhythmically  

▪ Ex: uterus and intestines

o Cardiac Muscle (Heart)

▪ Striated, involuntary

▪ Composed of chains of single, uninucleate cells

▪ Specialized junctions (intercalated disks) between cells that create an organization  ▪ Cells depolarize and contract as unit than as lose cells  

o Be able to identify slides of:

▪ Skeletal (striated) Muscle

▪ Cardiac Muscle (intercalated disks)

▪ Smooth Muscle (heart)

• Nervous Tissue

o Nervous Tissue Consists of:

▪ Neurons: transmit nerve impulses

▪ Glia: supporting cells

▪ Schwann Cells: help initiate nerve impulse and provide nutrients to neurons o Neurons Consist of:

▪ Cell Body: contains the nucleus  

▪ Dendrites: short extensions of neurons that carry impulses toward cell body; receive ▪ Axon: long extensions that carry impulses away from cell body  

o Axons and dendrites are often bundles as nerves  

o Be able to identify slide of the nervous tissue (neurons)

Exercise 47: Vertebrate Anatomy – External Features and Skeletal System of the Rat • Location Terminology (found on pg. 541 of lab manual)

o Dorsal: Toward upper surface (back)

o Ventral: Toward lower surface (belly)

o Anterior: Toward head

o Posterior: Toward tail

o Cranial: Toward head

o Caudal: Toward tail

o Medial: toward midline of body

o Proximal: Toward end of appendage nearest to body

o Lateral: away from midline of body; toward the side

o Distal: - Toward end of appendage farthest from body

o Planes

▪ Frontal: divides body into dorsal and ventral halves; 2D plane parallel to anterior posterior & perpendicular to dorsal ventral  

▪ Transverse: cross-section; 2D plane perpendicular to anterior-posterior  

▪ Sagittal: divides body into left and right; 2D plane parallel to anterior-posterior axis  and parallel to dorsal-ventral  

• External Anatomy  

o Rat’s Body (6 regions)

▪ Cranial Region - head

▪ Cervical region - neck

▪ Pectoral region – where forelegs attach

▪ Thorax region - chest

▪ Abdomen region - belly

▪ Pelvic region – where hind legs attach

o Other terms

▪ Pelage: hair coat  

▪ Vibrissae: whiskers

▪ Nares: nostrils

▪ Sub terminal mouth: has cleft in upper lip with large incisors (front teeth) ▪ Eyes: large pupils, bulge out of head, nictitating membrane inside corner of eye that  can be used as protection when drawn across eyeball

▪ Ears: on posterior head with pinna (external ear) and auditory meatus (ear canal) ▪ Nipples (teats): 6 pairs

▪ Tail: hairs and scales

▪ Anus

▪ Female

• Clitoris: where the urinary aperture opens

• Vaginal orifice: within the vulva

▪ Male

• Scrotal Sacs: each side of anus, contain testes

• Testes: produce sperm cells, can be withdrawn into abdomen when non

reproductive  

• Prepuce: skin around penis

• Preputial Orifice: where penis extents through  

• Urogenital orifice: urine and sperm cells exist through this

▪ Quadruped: four leg, four digits, vestigial thumb on each foot, no hair from toes to  heel which results in sole and heel touching the ground (plantigrade)

o Skeletal System

▪ Skull

• Mandible: lower jaw, broad flat surface for muscle attachment

• Maxilla: upper jaw

• Zygomatic arch: some jaws pass under this into to attach to lateral surface of  cranium

• Cranium: braincase

▪ Skull + vertebral column = axial skeleton

▪ Vertebral Column

• 5 groups of vertebrate

o Cervical

▪ Anterior two: Atlas & Axis ???? form joint that allows for many  

types of head movements

o Thoracic

▪ Ribs extend from this and form rib cage enclosure

o Lumbar

o Sacral

o Caudal  

▪ Forms the tail

• General

o Forelegs (anterior appendages) attach onto pectoral girdle

o Hind legs (posterior appendages) attach onto pelvic girdle

o Bones of forelegs and hind legs form appendicular skeleton

Ex 48: Muscles and Internal Organs of the Rat

• Muscular System

o General

▪ Muscles arranged in antagonistic pairs (opposing) ???? contracting one member  moves the body and contracting the other restores the body and first muscle to  original positions  

▪ Muscles contract ???? bones are used as levers for motion and resistance

▪ Tendons: connective tissue that attaches muscles to bones & adhere to depressions  on bones as well as spines, knobs, and ridges

▪ Origin: end attached to the bone that does not move when contracted

▪ Insertion: bone that moves during contraction

▪ Action: the movement of a contraction  

▪ Important Terms

• Extensors: increase angle of a joint

• Flexor: decreases angle of joint

• Abductor: appendage away from midline of body

• Adductor: appendage toward midline of body

• Retractors: appendage moves backward

• Protractor: appendage moves forward

• Supinator: rotate upward (palm and foot)

• Pronators: rotate downward (palm and foot)

▪ Refer to page 550 – 551 in manual to view dorsal, ventral and lateral views of  rat  

o Origins, insertions, and actions of muscles (found on page 551)

▪ Bicep brachii – muscle on anterior of humerus

• Origin: scapula

• Insertion: radius

• Action: flexes lower arm

▪ Triceps brachii  - on sides and back of upper arm

• Origin: humerus and scapula

• Insertion: elbow (olecranon)

• Actions: extends lower arm

▪ Spinotrapezius – lays across dorsal thoracic region of rat

• Origin: thoracic vertebrae

• Insertion: spine of scapula

• Action: moves scapula upward and backward

▪ Acromiotrapezius – central muscle of trapezius group

• Origin: cervical vertebrae

• Insertion: scapula

• Action: moves the scapula dorsally

▪ Latissimus Dorsi – posterior to and partially covered by spinotrapezius

• Origin: thoracic and lumbar vertebrae

• External oblique – covers sides of abdominal cavity (hip to rib cage); fibered  arranged in right angles to fibers of Latissimus dorsi

o Origin: lumbodorsal fascia and posterior ribs

o Insertion: Linea alba and pelvis

o Action: retains and compresses viscera and acts with rectus  

abdominus to form ventral and lateral body wall (flexible)

• Cutaneous trunchi - attaches to skin dorsal and lateral sides of body

o Origin: under the upper front leg

o Insertion: skin

o Action: moves skin  

• Biceps Femoris – large muscle consisting of two bundles; easily located on  size of thigh

o Origin: ischium

o Insertion: distal portion of femur and proximal part of tibia

o Action: flexes shank and an abducts thigh

• Gastrocnemius – forms bulk of calf muscle (in lower leg)

o Origin: distal end of femur,

o Insertion: calcaneus heel by means of tendon of Achilles

o Action: extension of foot

• Internal Anatomy

o Organs of the Head and Neck

▪ How to Locate

• Salivary glands – consists of sublingual, parotid and submazillary  

glands)

o Locate medial sternohyoid muscle (salivary glands lie to side of  

anterior of this)

o Soft, spongy tissue that secretes saliva which then lubricates food and  

has amylase(starch ???? maltose)

• Lymph Glands

o Darker, more compact, circular and live anterior to salivary glands  

and press against jaw muscles

• Submaxillary glands

o Large, oval-shaped,& elongate  

• Sublingual glands

o Touch sub maxillary glands on anterolateral surface

• Parotid Glands

o Best in lateral view

o Extend into/toward or in opposite/away direction of ear  

o Infected parotids = can cause mumps

• Thyroid glands

o Gray or brown swell on trachea, thin isthmus transverses trachea

o Two lobes – ventral to larynx and connect and connected by  

isthmus of thyroid

• Larynx

o Rigid, cartilaginous chamber contained vocal cords  

o Nail lady just called and is not do at doing my nails today

o The Thoracic Organs

▪ Thoracic cavity separated from abdominal cavity by diaphragm

▪ Heart located in thoracic cavity

• 2 atria chambers at top of heart (dark-colored) – receive blood from veins • 2 ventricles chambers  (light-colored) – pump blood (muscular)

▪ Thymus Gland

• Directly above upper chamber of heart

• Functions in developing immune system (larger when rats are younger) ▪ Bronchial tubes: branch from the trachea where air enters in order to get to the  lungs

▪ Alveoli: air sacs where bronchial tubes terminate and gas exchange occurs; smaller  = larger surface area  

▪ Diaphragm: posterior to lungs and heart; can develop a twitch; can cause sharp  pain if you are running and trying to breath too fast

o The Abdominal Organs

▪ Coelom: body cavity where viscera (internal organs) are suspended ▪ Peritoneum: membranous tissue that covers abdominal cavity and viscera (forms  from mesoderm)

• Parietal Peritoneum: covers abdominal cavity walls

• Visceral Peritoneum: covers internal organs

• Mesenteries: thin membranes between parietal and visceral and attach  internal organs to dorsal body wall

• Omentia: thin membranes that connect organ to organ and extend from  visceral peritoneum  

▪ Liver: dark-colored suspended under diaphragm; produces bile (helps digest fat  and stores glycogen); located near digestive system to directly receive rich supply of  blood

• Median/Cystic Lobe: atop organ; cleft in center

• Left Lateral Lobe: large and partly covered by stomach

• Right lateral Lobe: divided between anterior and posterior lobule; smaller  than left lateral lobe; hidden under median lobe

• Caudate Lobe: small, esophagus and stomach are given folds; in two sections  noticeable when liver raised

▪ NO GALL BLADDER

▪ Esophagus: conducts food from mouth to stomach (left side under diaphragm) ▪ Stomach: food storage, breakdown of food, enzymatic digestion in protein  ▪ Cardiac/Lower Esophagal Sphincter: guards entrance of esophagus to stomach;  

circular muscles that control flow of fluids by contracting and closing opening  between cavities

▪ Greater Curviture: outer margin of curved stomach

▪ Lesser Curviture: inner margin of curved stomach

▪ Plyoric Sphincter: attaches intestine to stomach

▪ Spleen: similar color to liver; attached to greater curvature of stomach; used in  circular system and forms, stores, and destructs blood cells

▪ Pancreas: brownish and fattened; near junction of stomach and small intestine;  exocrine and endocrine functions; digestive enzymes produced to intestinal tract;  secretes insulin into bloodstream in order to regulate glucose metabolism

▪ Greater Omentum: curtain of tissue that hangs from stomach and has lymph nodes,  blood vessel and fat

▪ Small Intestine: slimmer and more coiled  and receives partially digested food that  then continues nutrient absorptions and digestion

▪ Duodenum: receives enzymes from digestive glands

▪ Pyloric sphincter  

▪ Jejunum: central portion of small intestine

▪ Ileum: posterior portion of small intestine that empties into colon (large  intestine)

▪ Ileocecal valve: controls flow of food into colon

▪ Colon: large green tube; extends from small intestine to anus; secretes lubricant of  mucus for feces

▪ 5 sections

• Cecum: large flattened sac in lower third of abdominal cavity; caudal  

junction of ileum and usually green; homologous to appendix in humans; rich  in those micro organisms that aid in digestion

• Ascending colon: goes toward right lateral lobe of liver on right side of  

cavity

• Transverse colon: crosses body cavity under liver and stomach

• Descending colon: goes down left side of body cavity; to see clearly, move  small intestine to side

• Rectum: short end point of colon (between colon and anus); stores feces for  short time before business  

Ex 49: Urogenital and Circulatory Systems of the Rat

• General Facts

o Excretory System: filters nitrogenous waste from blood and removes from body o Reproductive System: produces gametes which come into contact for fertilization ???? embryo  

o Circulatory System: Goal is to help distribute dissolved gases, fluids, and nutrients into  order to come into close contact with cells of the body  

• Urogenital System

o General Fact

▪ Excretory + reproductive system = urogenital  

o Excretory Organs  

▪ Primary organs: kidneys  

• In humans: process 423 gallons blood a day and 1/5 quarts of urine

▪ Sagittal section of kidney: renal artery

• Transports blood to kidney for filtering  

▪ Renal vein

• Filtered blood ???? away from kidney  

▪ Ureter

• Urine from kidney???? urinary bladder

▪ Renal pelvis

• Collects urine produced by tubules of kidney  

▪ Cortex

• Outer area of kidney

▪ Medulla

• Inner area of kidney  

▪ Urethra

• Urine from bladder ???? urogenital orifice

▪ Urogenital orifice

• Releases urine  

▪ Adrenal Glands

• Small, yellow glands found at top of kidneys immersed in fat

o Reproductive Organs of the Male Rat

▪ Major reproductive organs: testes

▪ Scrotal sac: where testes are found inside

▪ Epididymis: coiled tube on surface of testis

▪ Vas deferens: conducts sperm from epididymis ???? urethra

▪ Urethra: carries sperms through penis ???? out of body  

▪ Seminal vesicles: brown glands on left and right of urinary bladder

▪ Prostate gland: white gland; below bladder

▪ Seminal fluid: also known as semen; secreted by seminal vesicles and prostate  gland

o Reproductive Organs of the Female Rat

▪ Vagina: dorsal to urinary bladder; short and gray  

▪ Uterine horns: vagina divides into these; extend toward kidneys

▪ Duplex uterus:  also known as the two uterine horns; accommodates for multiple  offspring (litter) during reproductive cycle

▪ Simplex uterus: having a single chamber for embryo development (ex: like in  humans)

▪ Ovaries: small and located on each top of uterine horns; produce eggs  

▪ Oviducts: tubes between uterine horns and ovaries; capture eggs and conduct them  from ovaries to uterine horns  

• Circulatory System

o General facts

▪ Circulatory system of rat is pretty much identical to human circulatory system ▪ Double circulation  (pulmonary and systemic circulation)

▪ Pulmonary circulation: carries blood from heart to lungs (through pulmonary  artery) to oxygenate the blood and then back to the heart (through pulmonary vein) ▪ Systemic circulation

• Moves oxygenated blood from heart through rest of body  

o Circulation of Blood through the Heart and Pulmonary System

▪ A good way to remember the process of the heart circulation is the arteries  travel away from the heart and veins travel towards the heart

▪ Also anything with the word right refers to deoxygenated blood and anything  with left refers to oxygenated blood

▪ Superior and inferior vena cava:

• Inferior vena cava: blood from posterior of body towards the right atrium  (this occurs after systemic circulation when the oxygenated blood gets  

delivered to other parts of the body – this is why it is returning to the right

atrium)

• Posterior vena cava: blood from anterior of body towards right atrium  

▪ Rest of the process:

• Right atrium ???? tricuspid valve ???? right ventricle ???? pulmonary semilunar  valve ???? pulmonary trunk ???? pulmonary arteries (carry deoxygenated blood  – remember they are leaving the right side of the body) ???? lungs (blood  

gets oxygenated here) ???? blood returns through pulmonary veins (4 of  

these) towards left atrium (because it is not oxygenated) ???? bicuspid  

(mitral) valve ???? left ventricle  

o Circulation through the Heart and Systemic Arteries

▪ Oxygenated blood leaves left ventricle ???? aortic semilunar valve ???? aorta (ascending  aorta ???? aortic arch ???? descending aorta ???? abdominal aorta)  

▪ The aorta is what pumps the oxygenated blood to different parts of the body

o Branches of the Aortic Arch and Descending Aorta  

▪ Coronary arteries: not visible; branch from aorta in heart

▪ Brachiocephalic artery: first visible artery branching from aorta; must be able to  locate for test

▪ Right common carotid artery: supplies right side of neck; a branching from  brachiocephalic artery

▪ Right subclavian artery: supplied right shoulder and arm  

▪ Left common carotid artery: found at anterior part of arch; conducts blood up left  side of neck  

▪ Left Subclavian artery: left of left common carotid artery; supplied blood to left  shoulder and arm

o Branches of the Abdominal Aorta

▪ Celiac artery: first arterial branch from abdominal aorta; delivers blood toward  stomach, liver, spleen and pancreas

▪ Superior mesenteric artery: second artery; larger than celiac artery; delivers  blood directly to small intestine and intestinal mesenteries

▪ Renal arteries: short; lead to kidneys

▪ Genital arteries: posterior to renal arteries; lead to testes and ovaries ▪ Iliolumbar arteries: lead to dorsal muscles of back

▪ Inferior mesenteric artery:  lead to intestinal mesenteries  

▪ Caudal artery: passes into dorsal wall; sends blood to tail

▪ Iliac arteries: delivers blood to pelvic area and hind

o Secondary Branches of the Thoracic Arteries  

▪ Right subclavian artery:  branches from brachiocephalic artery; short; passes  under clavicle

▪ Right internal mammary artery: subclavian artery passes through this ▪ Right axillary artery: subclavian artery passes through this toward armpit ▪ Right common carotid: passes along neck and gives rise to ???? right external carotid ▪ Right external carotid artery: delivers blood to face  

▪ Right internal carotid artery:  delivers blood to internal head area ▪ Left external and internal carotid arteries: left common carotid artery gives rise  to this

o Secondary Branches of the Abdominal Arteries -

▪ Celiac artery gives rise to first 3

▪ Hepatic artery supplies blood to liver

▪ Gastric artery: supplies blood to stomach

▪ Splenic artery:  supplies blood to spleen and pancreas

▪ Iliac arteries:  continue towards inner thighs and the femoral arteries  ▪ Femoral arteries

o The Systemic Veins

▪ Left and right superior venae cavae: blood from upper body to right atrium ▪ Internal jugular vein:  produced by superior vena cava; small and continues into  subclavian vein  

▪ Subclavian vein: divides into external jugular and axillary vein

▪ External jugular vein; drains blood from head  

▪ Axillary vein: brings blood shoulder and arms  

▪ Inferior vena cava: carries blood from lower body to right atrium

▪ Hepatic vein: drains blood from liver; near diaphragm

▪ Renal veins: drains blood from kidneys

▪ Genital veins: from gonads to inferior vena cava or renal veins

▪ Iliac and femoral veins: drain legs

▪ Caudal vein: drains blood from tail

o The Hepatic Portal System

▪ Portal system: system of veins that carries blood from one bed of capillaries to  another bed of capillaries

▪ Hepatic portal system: carries flood from capillaries in mesenteries, small  intestine, spleen, stomach, and pancreas towards liver  

▪ Gastric, splenic, mesenteric veins: drain digestive system and form hepatic portal  vein

▪ Small intestine: digestive enzymes break down food and pass through intestinal  wall???? bloodstream

▪ Liver: located ideally to receive blood after absorption of nutrients; blood of  hepatic portal veins pass through capillary system ???? forms hepatic vein ???? inferior  vena cava

▪ Hepatic portal vein  

Pictures from Ex 41 as well as diagrams of rat found in class:

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